Most cases of childhood meningitis are caused by an enterovirus. Bacterial meningitis is less common, with 90% of cases occurring in children less than 5 years of age. Bacterial meningitis has a mortality rate of 20% in infants and 2% in children; neurologic sequalae occur in approximately one-third of children who survive their infection. Early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis is associated with better outcomes. Viral meningitis is a diagnosis of exclusion.