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Resources in Evidence Repository and Individual Compendia

Key Resources

Measurement Tool: Faces Pain Scale - Revised for children 4 years of age and older  (2001)

Measurement Tool: Faces Pain Scale - Revised for children 4 years of age and older

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International Association for the Study of Pain

International Association for the Study of Pain

Scores are from the left to the right (for the child): 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 (0 for no pain at all and 10 for very, very much in pain).

Scores are from the left to the right (for the child): 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 (0 for no pain at all and 10 for very, very much in pain).

Acute Procedural Pain: Paediatric Recommendations and Implementation Toolkits  (2017)

Acute Procedural Pain: Paediatric Recommendations and Implementation Toolkits

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The Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres, Knowledge Exchange Network

The Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres, Knowledge Exchange Net...

Objective: This overview is intended to summarize the systematic reviews of interventions studied to decrease paediatric pain that are currently available in the Cochrane Library. Given their unique physiology, research relevant to the management of newbo

Objective: This overview is intended to summarize the systematic reviews of interventions studied to decrease paediatric pain that are currently available in the Cochrane Library. Given their unique physiology, research relevant to the management of newbo

Bottom Line Recommendations: Pain Treatment (2022)

Bottom Line Recommendations: Pain Treatment (2022)

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Evidence Repository: Pain Treatment (2022)  (2022)

Evidence Repository: Pain Treatment (2022)

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For a list of references that were used in the creation of this resource, see Evidence Repository: Pain Treatment (2022)

For a list of references that were used in the creation of this resource, see Evidence Repository: Pain Treatment (2022)

Chart: WHO pain wall chart for waiting rooms  (2012)

Chart: WHO pain wall chart for waiting rooms

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World Health Organization

World Health Organization

Is your child in pain? The doctor can help. As for pain treatment!

Is your child in pain? The doctor can help. As for pain treatment!

Bottom Line Recommenation: Optimal pain relief for pediatric MSK injury.  (2015)

Bottom Line Recommenation: Optimal pain relief for pediatric MSK injury.

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Korownyk C, Young J, Michael Allan G

Korownyk C, Young J, Michael Allan G

Evidence suggests that ibuprofen provides better single-agent relief than acetaminophen or codeine, and is at least equivalent to both acetaminophen with codeine and morphine for acute injury pain, with fewer adverse events.

Evidence suggests that ibuprofen provides better single-agent relief than acetaminophen or codeine, and is at least equivalent to both acetaminophen with codeine and morphine for acute injury pain, with fewer adverse events.

Bottom Line Recommendations: Procedural Pain (2022)

Bottom Line Recommendations: Procedural Pain (2022)

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Clinical Pathway: ED Pathway for Evaluation/Treatment of Febrile Young Infant (0-56 Days Old)  (2017)

Clinical Pathway: ED Pathway for Evaluation/Treatment of Febrile Young Infant (0-56 Days Old)

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Scarfone R, Gala R, Murray A, Funari MK, Lavelle J, Bell L

Scarfone R, Gala R, Murray A, Funari MK, Lavelle J, Bell L

The clinical pathway for treating and evaluating febrile infants is built upon publicly available medical evidence and/or a consensus of medical practitioners at The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia.

The clinical pathway for treating and evaluating febrile infants is built upon publicly available medical evidence and/or a consensus of medical practitioners at The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia.

Dosing Chart: Analgesic starting dosages for children  (2012)

Dosing Chart: Analgesic starting dosages for children

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World Health Organization

World Health Organization

Analgesic starting doses for children.

Analgesic starting doses for children.

Recommandations de Base: Prise en charge de la douleur  (2021)

Recommandations de Base: Prise en charge de la douleur

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Ali, S, Drendel A and TREKK Network

Ali, S, Drendel A and TREKK Network

Recommandations de base pour la prise en charge de la douleur aigüe chez l’enfant. Publiée en ligne juillet 2018, v2.0 mai 2021.

 

Recommandations de base pour la prise en charge de la douleur aigüe chez l’enfant. Publiée en ligne juillet 2018, v2.0 mai 2021.

 

Opioids- Information for Clinicians  (2021)

Opioids- Information for Clinicians

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Clinical guidelines

Clinical Practice Guideline: AboutKidsHealth: Tools for measuring pain  (2009)

Clinical Practice Guideline: AboutKidsHealth: Tools for measuring pain

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Stinson, J

Stinson, J

Objectives: To assess the level of pain felt by children through the use of pain scales and other measurement tools such as behavioural and composite measures.

Objectives: To assess the level of pain felt by children through the use of pain scales and other measurement tools such as behavioural and composite measures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pain-Less Practice: Techniques to Reduce Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Acute Care  (2017)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pain-Less Practice: Techniques to Reduce Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Acute Care

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Olsen, K, Weinberg, E

Olsen, K, Weinberg, E

Purpose: This article introduces the concept of a PainLESS Practicean evidence-based, tiered approach to procedural pain and anxiety management in acute care

Purpose: This article introduces the concept of a PainLESS Practicean evidence-based, tiered approach to procedural pain and anxiety management in acute care

Clinical Practice Guideline: Good practice in postoperative and procedural pain management  (2012)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Good practice in postoperative and procedural pain management

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Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland

Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland

This themed issue starts with an outstanding review of the history of Pediatric Regional Anesthesia (PRA), written by an equally outstanding second-wave pioneer and promoter of this particular facet of pediatric anesthesia, Professor Emeritus Kester Brown

This themed issue starts with an outstanding review of the history of Pediatric Regional Anesthesia (PRA), written by an equally outstanding second-wave pioneer and promoter of this particular facet of pediatric anesthesia, Professor Emeritus Kester Brown

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evidenced-based clinical practice guideline for management of newborn pain  (2010)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evidenced-based clinical practice guideline for management of newborn pain

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Spence K, Henderson-Smart D, New K, Evans C, Whitelaw J, Woolnough R

Spence K, Henderson-Smart D, New K, Evans C, Whitelaw J, Woolnough R

Aim: To facilitate the uptake of evidence and to reduce the evidence practice gap for management of newborn pain through the development of a clinical practice guideline.

Aim: To facilitate the uptake of evidence and to reduce the evidence practice gap for management of newborn pain through the development of a clinical practice guideline.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Reducing the pain of childhood vaccination: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline  (2010)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Reducing the pain of childhood vaccination: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline

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Taddio A, Appleton M, Bortolussi R, Chambers C, Dubey V, Halperin S, Hanrahan A, Ipp M, Lockett D, MacDonald N, Midmer D, Mousmanis P, Palda V, Pielak K, Rid...

Taddio A, Appleton M, Bortolussi R, Chambers C, Dubey V, Halperin S, Hanrahan...

Our objective was to develop a clinical practice guideline, based on systematic reviews of the literature, as interpreted by experts, to assist clinicians in managing procedure-related pain and distress among children undergoing vaccine injections.

Our objective was to develop a clinical practice guideline, based on systematic reviews of the literature, as interpreted by experts, to assist clinicians in managing procedure-related pain and distress among children undergoing vaccine injections.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children  (2009)

Clinical Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children

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Royal College of Nursing

Royal College of Nursing

The guideline is aimed at a range of professional groups, patients and carers who may be involved in the assessment and management of childrens pain. The primary aims of this guideline are to: identify reliable and valid measures of pain intensity appropr

The guideline is aimed at a range of professional groups, patients and carers who may be involved in the assessment and management of childrens pain. The primary aims of this guideline are to: identify reliable and valid measures of pain intensity appropr

Clincal Practice Guideline: Prevention and Management of Procedural Pain in the Neonate: An Update  (2016)

Clincal Practice Guideline: Prevention and Management of Procedural Pain in the Neonate: An Update

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Committee on Fetus and Newborn and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Committee on Fetus and Newborn and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Purpose: This statement updates previous recommendations with new evidence on the prevention, assessment, and treatment of neonatal procedural pain.

Purpose: This statement updates previous recommendations with new evidence on the prevention, assessment, and treatment of neonatal procedural pain.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Managing pain and distress in children undergoing brief diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.  (2019)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Managing pain and distress in children undergoing brief diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

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Trottier ED,Dor-Bergeron MJ,Chauvin-Kimoff L,Baerg K,Ali S.

Trottier ED,Dor-Bergeron MJ,Chauvin-Kimoff L,Baerg K,Ali S.

Purpose: This statement focuses on infants (excluding care provided in the NICU), children, and youth who are undergoing common, minor but painful medical procedures

Purpose: This statement focuses on infants (excluding care provided in the NICU), children, and youth who are undergoing common, minor but painful medical procedures

Managing acute pain in children presenting to the emergency department without opioids  (2022)

Managing acute pain in children presenting to the emergency department without opioids

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Corrie E Chumpitazi1,Cindy Chang2,Zaza Atanelov3,Ann M Dietrich4,Samuel Hiu-Fung Lam5,Emily Rose6,Tim Ruttan7,Sam Shahid8,Michael J Stoner9,Carmen Sulton10,M...

Corrie E Chumpitazi1,Cindy Chang2,Zaza Atanelov3,Ann M Dietrich4,Samuel Hiu-F...

Clinical Practice Guideline: Needle-Related or Minor Procedural Pain in Pediatric Patients  (2019)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Needle-Related or Minor Procedural Pain in Pediatric Patients

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ENA Clinical Practice Guideline Committee; ENA Board of Directors Liaisons:; Methodologist:; Staff Liaisons:; Administrative Staff:

ENA Clinical Practice Guideline Committee; ENA Board of Directors Liaisons:; ...

Clinical Practice Guideline: AAOS clinical practice guideline: the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures  (2009)

Clinical Practice Guideline: AAOS clinical practice guideline: the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures

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Kocher, MS, Sink, EL, Blasier, RD, Luhmann, SJ, Mehlman, CT, Scher, DM, Matheney, T & Sanders, JO

Kocher, MS, Sink, EL, Blasier, RD, Luhmann, SJ, Mehlman, CT, Scher, DM, Mathe...

This is a summary of the recommendations in the AAOS clinical practice guideline, The Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures.

This is a summary of the recommendations in the AAOS clinical practice guideline, The Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures.

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients  (2008)

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients

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Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Guidelines: Evaluation and Treatment of Functional Constipation in Infants and Children: Evidence-based Recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN  (2014)

Guidelines: Evaluation and Treatment of Functional Constipation in Infants and Children: Evidence-based Recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN

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Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, Faure C, Langendam MW, Nurko S, Staiano A, Vandenplas Y, Benninga MA; European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, He...

Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, Faure C, Langendam MW, Nurko S, Staiano A...

This evidence-based guideline provides recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of children withfunctionalconstipation to standardize and improve their quality of care. In addition, 2 algorithms were developed, one for the infants under 6 months of age and the other for older infants and children.

This evidence-based guideline provides recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of children withfunctionalconstipation to standardize and improve their quality of care. In addition, 2 algorithms were developed, one for the infants under 6 months of age and the other for older infants and children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures  (2015)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures

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Jevsevar DS & Shea K

Jevsevar DS & Shea K

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures (PDFF).

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures (PDFF).

Clinical Practice Guideline: Emergency department diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis: a practice parameter  (2014)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Emergency department diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis: a practice parameter

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Campbell RL, Li JT, Nicklas RA, Sadosty AT, Members of the Joint Task Force Practice Parameter Workgroup

Campbell RL, Li JT, Nicklas RA, Sadosty AT, Members of the Joint Task Force P...

The recommendations made in this document about the management of anaphylaxis apply to anaphylaxis that occurs in an ED setting. Some of these recommendations might be different if anaphylaxis occurs in an office setting.

The recommendations made in this document about the management of anaphylaxis apply to anaphylaxis that occurs in an ED setting. Some of these recommendations might be different if anaphylaxis occurs in an office setting.

Clinical Practice Guidelines: The treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures  (2012)

Clinical Practice Guidelines: The treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures

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Howard A, Mulpuri K, Abel MF, Braun S, Bueche M, Epps H, Hosalkar H, Mehlman CT, Scherl S, Goldberg M, Turkelson CM, Wies JL, Boyer K, American Academy of Or...

Howard A, Mulpuri K, Abel MF, Braun S, Bueche M, Epps H, Hosalkar H, Mehlman ...

Based on the best current evidence and a systematic review of published studies, 14 recommendations have been created to guide clinical practice and management of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

Based on the best current evidence and a systematic review of published studies, 14 recommendations have been created to guide clinical practice and management of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

Clinical Practice Guidelines: The treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures: Evidence-Based Guideline and Evidence Report  (2011)

Clinical Practice Guidelines: The treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures: Evidence-Based Guideline and Evidence Report

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Howard A, Mulpuri K, Abel MF, Braun S, Bueche M, Epps H, Hosalkar H, Mehlman CT, Scherl S, Goldberg M, Turkelson CM, Wies JL, Boyer K; American Academy of Or...

Howard A, Mulpuri K, Abel MF, Braun S, Bueche M, Epps H, Hosalkar H, Mehlman ...

This clinical practice guideline is based on a systematic review of published studies on the treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. In addition to providing practice recommendations, this guideline highlights gaps in the literature and areas that require future research.

This clinical practice guideline is based on a systematic review of published studies on the treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. In addition to providing practice recommendations, this guideline highlights gaps in the literature and areas that require future research.

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures: Guideline and Evidence Report  (2009)

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures: Guideline and Evidence Report

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Lichtman DM, Randipsingh RR, Boyer MI, Putnam MD, Ring D, Slutsky DJ, Taras JS

Lichtman DM, Randipsingh RR, Boyer MI, Putnam MD, Ring D, Slutsky DJ, Taras JS

This an an AAOS clinical guideline for pediatric distal radial fractures.

This an an AAOS clinical guideline for pediatric distal radial fractures.

Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology  (2007)

Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

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Halperin JJ, Shapiro ED, Logigian E, Belman AL, Dotevall L, Wormser GP, Krupp L, Gronseth G, Bever CT Jr; Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Acad...

Halperin JJ, Shapiro ED, Logigian E, Belman AL, Dotevall L, Wormser GP, Krupp...

Provides evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of nervous system Lyme disease and post-Lyme syndrome. Three questions were addressed: 1) Which antimicrobial agents are effective? 2) Are different regimens preferred for different manifestations of nervous system Lyme disease? 3) What duration of therapy is needed?

Provides evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of nervous system Lyme disease and post-Lyme syndrome. Three questions were addressed: 1) Which antimicrobial agents are effective? 2) Are different regimens preferred for different manifestations of nervous system Lyme disease? 3) What duration of therapy is needed?

The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America  (2006)

The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, Krause PJ, Bakken JS, Strle F, Stanek G, Bockenstedt L, Fish D, Dumler JS, Nadelma...

Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, Kr...

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis.

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis.

Consensus statement: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts consensus statement.  (2020)

Consensus statement: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts consensus statement.

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Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, et al.

Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, et al.

This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.

This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: CSACI position statement: Newer generation H1-antihistamines are safer than first-generation H1-antihistamines and should be the first-line antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.  (2019)

Clinical Practice Guideline: CSACI position statement: Newer generation H1-antihistamines are safer than first-generation H1-antihistamines and should be the first-line antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

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Fein MN, Fischer DA, OKeefe AW, Sussman GL

Fein MN, Fischer DA, OKeefe AW, Sussman GL

The objective of this was to overview the effects of new and old h1 antihistamines.

The objective of this was to overview the effects of new and old h1 antihistamines.

Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society  (2016)

Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

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Glauser T, Shinnar S, Gloss D, Alldredge B, Arya R, Bainbridge J, et al.

Glauser T, Shinnar S, Gloss D, Alldredge B, Arya R, Bainbridge J, et al.

To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm.

To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm.

The treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children  (2000)

The treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children

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Appleton R, Choonara I, Martland T, Phillips B, Scott R, Whitehouse W.

Appleton R, Choonara I, Martland T, Phillips B, Scott R, Whitehouse W.

There is currently little agreement between hospital protocols when treating convulsive status epilepticus in children, and a working party has been set up to produce a national evidence based guideline for treating this condition. This four step guideline is presented in this paper. Its effectiveness will be highlighted and its use audited in a number of centres.

There is currently little agreement between hospital protocols when treating convulsive status epilepticus in children, and a working party has been set up to produce a national evidence based guideline for treating this condition. This four step guideline is presented in this paper. Its effectiveness will be highlighted and its use audited in a number of centres.

The Expert Consensus Guideline Series. Treatment of behavioral emergencies  (2001)

The Expert Consensus Guideline Series. Treatment of behavioral emergencies

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Allen, M. H., G. W. Currier, D. H. Hughes, M. Reyes-Harde, J. P. Docherty and E. Expert Consensus Panel for Behavioral

Allen, M. H., G. W. Currier, D. H. Hughes, M. Reyes-Harde, J. P. Docherty and...

Summaries of systematic reviews

Cochrane Summary: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related pain in infants up to one year of age  (2013)

Cochrane Summary: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related pain in infants up to one year of age

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Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureu M, Fowle C

Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureu M, Fowle C

The use of needles that break the skin and cause pain is a common practice around the world with babies aged between one month and 12 months (Appendix 4). In thisreviewwe were interested in whether giving babies sugar-based solutions to taste when the nee

The use of needles that break the skin and cause pain is a common practice around the world with babies aged between one month and 12 months (Appendix 4). In thisreviewwe were interested in whether giving babies sugar-based solutions to taste when the nee

Cochrane Summary: Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents  (2018)

Cochrane Summary: Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents

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Birnie KA, Noel M, Chambers CT, Uman LS, Parker JA

Birnie KA, Noel M, Chambers CT, Uman LS, Parker JA

To assess the efficacy of psychological interventions for needlerelated procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

To assess the efficacy of psychological interventions for needlerelated procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Summary: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates  (2012)

Cochrane Summary: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates

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Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS

Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS

Breastfeeding provides pain relief for newborn babies undergoing painful procedures. Medicine for pain relief is commonly given for major painful procedures, but may not be given for minor painful procedures such as blood sampling (by heel prick orvenepun

Breastfeeding provides pain relief for newborn babies undergoing painful procedures. Medicine for pain relief is commonly given for major painful procedures, but may not be given for minor painful procedures such as blood sampling (by heel prick orvenepun

Cochrane Summary: Local anaesthesia (numbing medicine) that is directly applied to the skin can provide pain control for repair of skin lacerations  (2017)

Cochrane Summary: Local anaesthesia (numbing medicine) that is directly applied to the skin can provide pain control for repair of skin lacerations

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Tayeb BO, Eidelman A, Eidelman CL, McNicol ED, Carr DB

Tayeb BO, Eidelman A, Eidelman CL, McNicol ED, Carr DB

To assess whether benefits of noninvasive topical anaesthetic application occur at the expense of decreased analgesic efficacy. To compare the efficacy of various singlecomponent or multicomponent topical anaesthetic agents for repair of dermal laceration

To assess whether benefits of noninvasive topical anaesthetic application occur at the expense of decreased analgesic efficacy. To compare the efficacy of various singlecomponent or multicomponent topical anaesthetic agents for repair of dermal laceration

Cochrane Summary: Sweet taste to ease injection needle pain in children aged one to 16 years  (2015)

Cochrane Summary: Sweet taste to ease injection needle pain in children aged one to 16 years

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Harrison D, Yamada J, Adams-Webber T, Ohlsson A, Beyene J, Stevens B

Harrison D, Yamada J, Adams-Webber T, Ohlsson A, Beyene J, Stevens B

This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011: Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years. We re-ran the search in October 2014. Review question: Do swe

This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011: Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years. We re-ran the search in October 2014. Review question: Do swe

Cochrane Summary: Skin-to-skin care with newborns cuts down procedural pain  (2017)

Cochrane Summary: Skin-to-skin care with newborns cuts down procedural pain

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Johnston C, Campbell-Yeo M, Disher T, Benoit B, Fernandes A, Streiner D, Inglis D, Zee R

Johnston C, Campbell-Yeo M, Disher T, Benoit B, Fernandes A, Streiner D, Ingl...

The primary objectives were to determine the effect of SSC alone on pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonates compared to no intervention, sucrose or other analgesics, or additions to simple SSC such as rocking; and to determine the effects of t

The primary objectives were to determine the effect of SSC alone on pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonates compared to no intervention, sucrose or other analgesics, or additions to simple SSC such as rocking; and to determine the effects of t

Cochrane Summary: Nonpharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain  (2015)

Cochrane Summary: Nonpharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

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Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Gennis HG, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Ahola Kohut S, Hillgrove Stuart J, Stevens B, Lisi DM

Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Gennis HG, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Ahol...

We examined 13 different types of commonly investigated non-pharmacological treatments (excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music) to determine theirefficacyfor pain reactions after an acutely painful procedure (right after the needle ('pain reactivity') a

We examined 13 different types of commonly investigated non-pharmacological treatments (excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music) to determine theirefficacyfor pain reactions after an acutely painful procedure (right after the needle ('pain reactivity') a

Cochrane Summary: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for delivery of beta-agonist relievers in the treatment of an asthma attack (2013)

Cochrane Summary: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for delivery of beta-agonist relievers in the treatment of an asthma attack (2013)

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Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Review question: When someone is having an asthma attack is it as safe and effective to use a spacer instead of a nebuliser? Background: During an asthma attack, the airways (tubes in the lungs) narrow making breathing difficult. The initial response to an asthma attack is to treat with a drug that can open up the airways and make breathing easier. These drugs are called bronchodilators and in this review we are looking specifically at a class of bronchodilators called beta-agonists (for example salbutamol). These drugs can be taken straight from an inhaler, but during an asthma attack they are easier to take using either a spacer or a nebuliser. A spacer is a hollow chamber. A puff of drug from an inhaler is added to the chamber and then the person breathes in and out normally (also described as tidal breathing), from a mouthpiece on the chamber. A nebuliser is a machine with a mask that goes over the person's mouth and nose and through which a constant stream of drug and air (or oxygen) is breathed in and out normally. What evidence did we find? We found 39 clinical trials involving 1897 children and 729 adults. Thirty-three of the trials were conducted in an emergency room (or emergency department) and community settings (such as a GP's surgery), and six trials were on inpatients (people in hospital) with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults). Overall we judged the quality of the evidence to be moderate. What do the studies tell us? Taking beta-agonists through either a spacer or a nebuliser in the emergency department did not make a difference to the number of adults being admitted to hospital, whilst in children we can be fairly confident that nebulisers are not better than spacers at preventing admissions. In children, the length of stay in the emergency department was significantly shorter when the spacer was used instead of a nebuliser. The average stay in the emergency department for children given nebulised treatment was 103 minutes. Children given treatment via spacers spent an average of 33 minutes less. In adults, the length of stay in the emergency department was similar for the two delivery methods. However the adult studies were conducted slightly differently which may have made it more difficult to show a difference in the length of stay in the emergency department. Because all the adult studies used a so-called "double-dummy" design, the adults received a spacer AND a nebuliser (either beta-agonist in a spacer and a dummy nebuliser or vice versa) which meant both groups of people were in the emergency department for as long as it took to take both treatments. Lung function tests were also similar for the two delivery methods in both adults and children. Pulse rate was lower in children taking beta-agonists through a spacer (mean difference 5% baseline), and there was a lower risk of developing tremor. Conclusion: Metered-dose inhalers with a spacer can perform at least as well as wet nebulisation in delivering beta-agonists in children with acute asthma, but we are less certain about the results in adults.

Review question: When someone is having an asthma attack is it as safe and effective to use a spacer instead of a nebuliser? Background: During an asthma attack, the airways (tubes in the lungs) narrow making breathing difficult. The initial response to an asthma attack is to treat with a drug that can open up the airways and make breathing easier. These drugs are called bronchodilators and in this review we are looking specifically at a class of bronchodilators called beta-agonists (for example salbutamol). These drugs can be taken straight from an inhaler, but during an asthma attack they are easier to take using either a spacer or a nebuliser. A spacer is a hollow chamber. A puff of drug from an inhaler is added to the chamber and then the person breathes in and out normally (also described as tidal breathing), from a mouthpiece on the chamber. A nebuliser is a machine with a mask that goes over the person's mouth and nose and through which a constant stream of drug and air (or oxygen) is breathed in and out normally. What evidence did we find? We found 39 clinical trials involving 1897 children and 729 adults. Thirty-three of the trials were conducted in an emergency room (or emergency department) and community settings (such as a GP's surgery), and six trials were on inpatients (people in hospital) with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults). Overall we judged the quality of the evidence to be moderate. What do the studies tell us? Taking beta-agonists through either a spacer or a nebuliser in the emergency department did not make a difference to the number of adults being admitted to hospital, whilst in children we can be fairly confident that nebulisers are not better than spacers at preventing admissions. In children, the length of stay in the emergency department was significantly shorter when the spacer was used instead of a nebuliser. The average stay in the emergency department for children given nebulised treatment was 103 minutes. Children given treatment via spacers spent an average of 33 minutes less. In adults, the length of stay in the emergency department was similar for the two delivery methods. However the adult studies were conducted slightly differently which may have made it more difficult to show a difference in the length of stay in the emergency department. Because all the adult studies used a so-called "double-dummy" design, the adults received a spacer AND a nebuliser (either beta-agonist in a spacer and a dummy nebuliser or vice versa) which meant both groups of people were in the emergency department for as long as it took to take both treatments. Lung function tests were also similar for the two delivery methods in both adults and children. Pulse rate was lower in children taking beta-agonists through a spacer (mean difference 5% baseline), and there was a lower risk of developing tremor. Conclusion: Metered-dose inhalers with a spacer can perform at least as well as wet nebulisation in delivering beta-agonists in children with acute asthma, but we are less certain about the results in adults.

Cochrane Summary: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

Cochrane Summary: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

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Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Background: In an asthma attack, the airways (small tubes in the lungs) narrow because of inflammation (swelling), muscle spasms and mucus secretions. Other symptoms include wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. This makes breathing difficult. Reliever inhalers typically contain short-acting beta2-agonists (SABAs) that relax the muscles in the airways, opening the airways so that breathing is easier. Anticholinergic drugs work by opening the airways and decreasing mucus secretions. Review question: We looked at randomised controlled trials to find out whether giving inhaled anticholinergics plus SABAs (instead of SABAs on their own) in the emergency department provides benefits or harms in children having an asthma attack. Key results: We found that children with a moderate or severe asthma attack who were given both drugs in the emergency department were less likely to be admitted to the hospital than those who only had SABAs. In the group receiving only SABAs, on average 23 out of 100 children with acute asthma were admitted to hospital compared with an average of 17 (95% CI 15 to 20) out of 100 children treated with SABAs plus anticholinergics. Taking both drugs was also better at improving lung function. Taking both drugs did not seem to reduce the possibility of another asthma attack. Fewer children treated with anticholinergics reported nausea and tremor, but no significant group difference was observed for vomiting. Quality of the evidence and further research: Most of the studies were in preschool- and school-aged children; three studies also included a small proportion of infants under 18 months of age, although there was no evidence that inclusion of these infants with wheezy episodes affected the results. Nine trials (45%) were at a low risk of bias and we regarded the evidence for hospitalisation as high quality. Physicians can administer the dose of anticholinergic and SABA in several different ways; as a single dose, or as a certain number of doses or more flexibly. Most of the trials gave the children two or three doses and we think that more research is needed to improve characterization of children that benefit from, and the most effective number and frequency of doses of, anticholinergic treatment.

Background: In an asthma attack, the airways (small tubes in the lungs) narrow because of inflammation (swelling), muscle spasms and mucus secretions. Other symptoms include wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. This makes breathing difficult. Reliever inhalers typically contain short-acting beta2-agonists (SABAs) that relax the muscles in the airways, opening the airways so that breathing is easier. Anticholinergic drugs work by opening the airways and decreasing mucus secretions. Review question: We looked at randomised controlled trials to find out whether giving inhaled anticholinergics plus SABAs (instead of SABAs on their own) in the emergency department provides benefits or harms in children having an asthma attack. Key results: We found that children with a moderate or severe asthma attack who were given both drugs in the emergency department were less likely to be admitted to the hospital than those who only had SABAs. In the group receiving only SABAs, on average 23 out of 100 children with acute asthma were admitted to hospital compared with an average of 17 (95% CI 15 to 20) out of 100 children treated with SABAs plus anticholinergics. Taking both drugs was also better at improving lung function. Taking both drugs did not seem to reduce the possibility of another asthma attack. Fewer children treated with anticholinergics reported nausea and tremor, but no significant group difference was observed for vomiting. Quality of the evidence and further research: Most of the studies were in preschool- and school-aged children; three studies also included a small proportion of infants under 18 months of age, although there was no evidence that inclusion of these infants with wheezy episodes affected the results. Nine trials (45%) were at a low risk of bias and we regarded the evidence for hospitalisation as high quality. Physicians can administer the dose of anticholinergic and SABA in several different ways; as a single dose, or as a certain number of doses or more flexibly. Most of the trials gave the children two or three doses and we think that more research is needed to improve characterization of children that benefit from, and the most effective number and frequency of doses of, anticholinergic treatment.

Cochrane Summary: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2008)

Cochrane Summary: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2008)

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Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, F, Bretzlaff, J, Bota, G,

Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, F, Bretzlaff, J, Bota, G,

In an asthma attack, the airways (passages to the lungs) narrow from muscle spasms and swelling (inflammation). Bronchodilators (reliever inhalers to open up the lungs and airways) can be used for the spasms, and corticosteroids for the swelling.Corticosteroidscan be inhaled, or taken by mouth (orally) or through a drip into the veins (intravenously). Thereviewof trials found thatsystemic(oralorintravenous) corticosteroids reduce the need for people with asthma attacks to stay in hospital, with fewadverse effects.

In an asthma attack, the airways (passages to the lungs) narrow from muscle spasms and swelling (inflammation). Bronchodilators (reliever inhalers to open up the lungs and airways) can be used for the spasms, and corticosteroids for the swelling.Corticosteroidscan be inhaled, or taken by mouth (orally) or through a drip into the veins (intravenously). Thereviewof trials found thatsystemic(oralorintravenous) corticosteroids reduce the need for people with asthma attacks to stay in hospital, with fewadverse effects.

Cochrane Summary: Helium-oxygen (heliox) treatment for children with croup  (2018)

Cochrane Summary: Helium-oxygen (heliox) treatment for children with croup

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Moraa I, Sturman N, McGuire TM, van Driel ML,

Moraa I, Sturman N, McGuire TM, van Driel ML,

Objective: To examine the effect of heliox compared to oxygen or other active interventions, placebo, or no treatment, on relieving signs and symptoms in children with croup as determined by a croup score and rates of admission and intubation.

Objective: To examine the effect of heliox compared to oxygen or other active interventions, placebo, or no treatment, on relieving signs and symptoms in children with croup as determined by a croup score and rates of admission and intubation.

Cochrane Summary: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis  (2012)

Cochrane Summary: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis

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Choo K, Simons FR, Sheikh A

Choo K, Simons FR, Sheikh A

To overview literature of emergency treatment of anaphylaxis

To overview literature of emergency treatment of anaphylaxis

Cochrane Summary: Pain relievers for children with acute middle ear infection  (2016)

Cochrane Summary: Pain relievers for children with acute middle ear infection

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Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoiseaux RA

Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoise...

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Cochrane Summary: Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures  (2016)

Cochrane Summary: Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures

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Stevens B, Yamada J, Ohlsson A, Haliburton S, Shorkey A

Stevens B, Yamada J, Ohlsson A, Haliburton S, Shorkey A

The secondary objectives were to determine the safety of SSC care for relieving procedural pain in infants; and to compare the SSC effect in different postmenstrual age subgroups of infants.

The secondary objectives were to determine the safety of SSC care for relieving procedural pain in infants; and to compare the SSC effect in different postmenstrual age subgroups of infants.

Cochrane Overview: The Cochrane Library and procedural pain in children: an overview of reviews  (2012)

Cochrane Overview: The Cochrane Library and procedural pain in children: an overview of reviews

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Curtis S, Wingert A, Ali S

Curtis S, Wingert A, Ali S

Objective: To summarize Cochrane reviews assessing the effects of various interventions used for pain in non-neonatal children undergoing painful medical procedures.

Objective: To summarize Cochrane reviews assessing the effects of various interventions used for pain in non-neonatal children undergoing painful medical procedures.

Cochrane Summary: Treatment for the neurological complications of Lyme disease  (2016)

Cochrane Summary: Treatment for the neurological complications of Lyme disease

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Cadavid D, Auwaerter PG, Rumbaugh J, Gelderblom H

Cadavid D, Auwaerter PG, Rumbaugh J, Gelderblom H

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB).

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB).

Summary: In children with bacterial meningitis, does the addition of dexamethasone to an antibiotic treatment regimen result in a better clinical outcome than the antibiotic regimen alone?: Part A: Evidence-based answer and summary  (2006)

Summary: In children with bacterial meningitis, does the addition of dexamethasone to an antibiotic treatment regimen result in a better clinical outcome than the antibiotic regimen alone?: Part A: Evidence-based answer and summary

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Fox JL

Fox JL

Objective: To determine the efficacy of adjuvant dexamethasone therapy in paediatric bacterial meningitis.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of adjuvant dexamethasone therapy in paediatric bacterial meningitis.

Overviews of systematic reviews

Cochrane Summary: Surgical treatment for forearm fractures in children (fractures involving the shafts of the radius and ulna)  (2011)

Cochrane Summary: Surgical treatment for forearm fractures in children (fractures involving the shafts of the radius and ulna)

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Abraham A, Kumar S, Chaudhry S, Ibrahim T

Abraham A, Kumar S, Chaudhry S, Ibrahim T

Fractures of the shafts of the forearm bones in children are common injuries and occur after a fall on an outstretched hand. There are two bones in the forearm: the radius and the ulna. After a fall either one or both bones may fracture. The shape of forearm bones are important for the twisting motion of the hand, such as in receiving change from a shop keeper with an open palm (supination) or turning a key in a door (turning the palm facing down - pronation). Treatment of the forearm fracture aims to restore the shape of the bones such that supination and pronation ability is restored. The first stage of treatment involves manipulating (setting) the bones to the correct shape. This is usually done under anaesthesia. The second stage involves stabilising the fractured bones either with a plaster cast (conservative treatment) or metal implants (surgical treatment). This review aimed to examine the evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing conservative versus surgical methods and trials comparing different surgical methods for treatment of these fractures. We hoped to find which are the best methods in terms of function and complications. In spite of a thorough search we found no evidence from properly conducted studies to help inform decisions on treatment of these fractures.

Fractures of the shafts of the forearm bones in children are common injuries and occur after a fall on an outstretched hand. There are two bones in the forearm: the radius and the ulna. After a fall either one or both bones may fracture. The shape of forearm bones are important for the twisting motion of the hand, such as in receiving change from a shop keeper with an open palm (supination) or turning a key in a door (turning the palm facing down - pronation). Treatment of the forearm fracture aims to restore the shape of the bones such that supination and pronation ability is restored. The first stage of treatment involves manipulating (setting) the bones to the correct shape. This is usually done under anaesthesia. The second stage involves stabilising the fractured bones either with a plaster cast (conservative treatment) or metal implants (surgical treatment). This review aimed to examine the evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing conservative versus surgical methods and trials comparing different surgical methods for treatment of these fractures. We hoped to find which are the best methods in terms of function and complications. In spite of a thorough search we found no evidence from properly conducted studies to help inform decisions on treatment of these fractures.

Cochrane Overview: The Cochrane Library and the treatment of croup in children: an overview of reviews  (2010)

Cochrane Overview: The Cochrane Library and the treatment of croup in children: an overview of reviews

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Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Foisy, M, Johnson, D,

Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Foisy, M, Johnson, D,

Objective: To synthesize the evidence currently in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) related to the clinical effectiveness and applicability of four treatments for croup - glucocorticoids, epinephrine, heliox and humidified air.

Objective: To synthesize the evidence currently in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) related to the clinical effectiveness and applicability of four treatments for croup - glucocorticoids, epinephrine, heliox and humidified air.

Overview of Systematic Reviews: The Cochrane Library and the treatment of bronchiolitis in children: An overview of reviews  (2011)

Overview of Systematic Reviews: The Cochrane Library and the treatment of bronchiolitis in children: An overview of reviews

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Bialy L, Foisy M, Smith M, Fernandes RM

Bialy L, Foisy M, Smith M, Fernandes RM

This updated overview of reviews aims to synthesize evidence from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the effectiveness and safety of 11 pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments to improve bronchiolitis symptoms in outpatient, inpatient and intensive care populations.

This updated overview of reviews aims to synthesize evidence from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the effectiveness and safety of 11 pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments to improve bronchiolitis symptoms in outpatient, inpatient and intensive care populations.

Treatment of severe blunt pancreatic lesions in children  (2014)

Treatment of severe blunt pancreatic lesions in children

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Haugaard MV, Wettergren A, Hillings JG, Gluud C, Penninga L,

Haugaard MV, Wettergren A, Hillings JG, Gluud C, Penninga L,

This review shows that strategies regarding non-operative versus operative treatment of severe blunt pancreatic trauma in children are not based on randomised clinical trials.

This review shows that strategies regarding non-operative versus operative treatment of severe blunt pancreatic trauma in children are not based on randomised clinical trials.

Synthesis of Systematic Reviews: Treatment of Childhood Constipation: a synthesis of systematic reviews and meta-analyses  (2020)

Synthesis of Systematic Reviews: Treatment of Childhood Constipation: a synthesis of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

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Southwell BR

Southwell BR

In 2016, treatment of childhood constipation was extensively reviewed by Rome IV. This review covers meta-analyses and evidence for treatment of paediatric constipation since 2016 and new emerging treatments.

In 2016, treatment of childhood constipation was extensively reviewed by Rome IV. This review covers meta-analyses and evidence for treatment of paediatric constipation since 2016 and new emerging treatments.

Systematic reviews

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antidepressants for the treatment of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antidepressants for the treatment of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents

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Kaminski A, Kamper A, Thaler K, Chapman A, Gartlehner G

Kaminski A, Kamper A, Thaler K, Chapman A, Gartlehner G

OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of abdominal pain-related FGIDs in children and adolescents.

OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of abdominal pain-related FGIDs in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Vapocoolant spray versus placebo spray/no treatment for reducing pain from intravenous cannulation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  (2018)

Systematic Review: Vapocoolant spray versus placebo spray/no treatment for reducing pain from intravenous cannulation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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Zhu Y,Peng X,Wang S,Chen W,Liu C,Guo B,Zhao L,Gao Y,Wang K,Lou F.

Zhu Y,Peng X,Wang S,Chen W,Liu C,Guo B,Zhao L,Gao Y,Wang K,Lou F.

Objectives:The objective of our meta-analysis is to compare the effectiveness of vapocoolant spray and placebo spray/no treatment for pain reduction during intravenous cannulation.

Objectives:The objective of our meta-analysis is to compare the effectiveness of vapocoolant spray and placebo spray/no treatment for pain reduction during intravenous cannulation.

Systematic Review: Use Of Fibers in Childhood Constipation Treatment: systematic review with meta-analysis  (2018)

Systematic Review: Use Of Fibers in Childhood Constipation Treatment: systematic review with meta-analysis

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Piccoli de Mello P,Eifer DA,Daniel de Mello E

Piccoli de Mello P,Eifer DA,Daniel de Mello E

To gather current evidence on the use of fiber for constipation treatment in pediatric patients.

To gather current evidence on the use of fiber for constipation treatment in pediatric patients.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adjusting the pH of lidocaine for reducing pain on injection

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adjusting the pH of lidocaine for reducing pain on injection

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Cepeda MS, Tzortzopoulou A, Thackrey M, Hudcova J, Arora Gandhi P, Schumann R

Cepeda MS, Tzortzopoulou A, Thackrey M, Hudcova J, Arora Gandhi P, Schumann R

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine if adjusting the pH of lidocaine had any effect on pain resulting from non-intravascular injections in adults and children. We tested the hypothesis that adjusting the pH of lidocaine solution to a level closer to the physiologic pH reduces this pain.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine if adjusting the pH of lidocaine had any effect on pain resulting from non-intravascular injections in adults and children. We tested the hypothesis that adjusting the pH of lidocaine solution to a level closer to the physiologic pH reduces this pain.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia for preventing chronic pain after surgery

Cochrane Systematic Review: Local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia for preventing chronic pain after surgery

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Andreae MH, Andreae DA

Andreae MH, Andreae DA

OBJECTIVES: To compare local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia versus conventional analgesia for the prevention of persistent pain six or 12 months after surgery.

OBJECTIVES: To compare local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia versus conventional analgesia for the prevention of persistent pain six or 12 months after surgery.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: Conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain

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Almeida MO, Silva BN, Andriolo RB, Atallah AN, Peccin MS

Almeida MO, Silva BN, Andriolo RB, Atallah AN, Peccin MS

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacotherapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacotherapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome

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Heintjes E, Berger MY, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Bernsen RM, Verhaar JA, Koes BW

Heintjes E, Berger MY, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Bernsen RM, Verhaar JA, Koes BW

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in reducing anterior knee pain and improving knee function in people with PFPS.

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in reducing anterior knee pain and improving knee function in people with PFPS.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacological interventions for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in childhood

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacological interventions for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in childhood

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Huertas-Ceballos AA, Logan S, Bennett C, Macarthur C, Martin AE

Huertas-Ceballos AA, Logan S, Bennett C, Macarthur C, Martin AE

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of medication for recurrent abdominal pain in school-age children.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of medication for recurrent abdominal pain in school-age children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain

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Zhou M, Chen N, He L, Yang M, Zhu C, Wu F

Zhou M, Chen N, He L, Yang M, Zhu C, Wu F

OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different forms of neuropathic pain.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different forms of neuropathic pain.

Cochrane Systematic Review: EMLA and Amethocaine for reduction of children's pain associated with needle insertion

Cochrane Systematic Review: EMLA and Amethocaine for reduction of children's pain associated with needle insertion

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Lander JA, Weltman BJ, So SS

Lander JA, Weltman BJ, So SS

OBJECTIVES: To compare the topical anaesthetics amethocaine and an eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) in terms of anaesthetic efficacy, ease of needle insertion and adverse events when used for intravenous cannulation and venipuncture in children.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the topical anaesthetics amethocaine and an eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) in terms of anaesthetic efficacy, ease of needle insertion and adverse events when used for intravenous cannulation and venipuncture in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Hydromorphone for acute and chronic pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: Hydromorphone for acute and chronic pain

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Quigley C

Quigley C

OBJECTIVES: This review explores and assesses the evidence for the efficacy of hydromorphone in the management of pain.

OBJECTIVES: This review explores and assesses the evidence for the efficacy of hydromorphone in the management of pain.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Local anaesthetic sympathetic blockade for complex regional pain syndrome

Cochrane Systematic Review: Local anaesthetic sympathetic blockade for complex regional pain syndrome

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Stanton TR, Wand BM, Carr DB, Birklein F, Wasner GL, O'Connell NE

Stanton TR, Wand BM, Carr DB, Birklein F, Wasner GL, O'Connell NE

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of LASB for the treatment of pain in CRPS and to evaluate the incidence of adverse effects of the procedure.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of LASB for the treatment of pain in CRPS and to evaluate the incidence of adverse effects of the procedure.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

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Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Din Osmun L, Ahola Kohut S, Hillgrove Stuart J, Stevens B, Gerwitz-Stern A

Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Din Osmun L, A...

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reactivity, pain-related regulation).

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reactivity, pain-related regulation).

Cochrane Systematic Review: NSAIDS or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: NSAIDS or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain

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McNicol E, Strassels SA, Goudas L, Lau J, Carr DB

McNicol E, Strassels SA, Goudas L, Lau J, Carr DB

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of NSAIDs, alone or combined with opioids, for the treatment of cancer pain.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of NSAIDs, alone or combined with opioids, for the treatment of cancer pain.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral morphine for cancer pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral morphine for cancer pain

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Wiffen PJ, Wee B, Moore RA

Wiffen PJ, Wee B, Moore RA

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of oral morphine in relieving cancer pain, and assess the incidence and severity of adverse effects.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of oral morphine in relieving cancer pain, and assess the incidence and severity of adverse effects.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacologic interventions for treating phantom limb pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacologic interventions for treating phantom limb pain

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Alviar MJ, Hale T, Dungca M

Alviar MJ, Hale T, Dungca M

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarize the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP.

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarize the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age

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Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureur M, Fowler C

Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureur M, Fowler C

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age compared with no treatment, placebo, other sweet-tasting solutions, or pharmacological or other non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age compared with no treatment, placebo, other sweet-tasting solutions, or pharmacological or other non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Diclofenac for acute pain in children  (2009)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Diclofenac for acute pain in children

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Standing JF, Savage I, Pritchard D, Waddington M

Standing JF, Savage I, Pritchard D, Waddington M

OBJECTIVES: 1) Assess the efficacy of diclofenac for acute pain in children. 2) Assess the safety of diclofenac for short-term use in children. 3) Identify gaps in the evidence to direct future research.

OBJECTIVES: 1) Assess the efficacy of diclofenac for acute pain in children. 2) Assess the safety of diclofenac for short-term use in children. 3) Identify gaps in the evidence to direct future research.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children  (2016)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children

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Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoiseaux RA

Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoise...

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Systematic Review: Effectiveness of Probiotics in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders and Functional Constipation: A Systematic Review  (2018)

Systematic Review: Effectiveness of Probiotics in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders and Functional Constipation: A Systematic Review

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Wegh CAM,Benninga MA,Tabbers MM

Wegh CAM,Benninga MA,Tabbers MM

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) and functional constipation (FC).

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) and functional constipation (FC).

Systematic Review: A systematic review of vapocoolants for reducing pain from venipuncture and venous cannulation in children and adults  (2014)

Systematic Review: A systematic review of vapocoolants for reducing pain from venipuncture and venous cannulation in children and adults

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Hogan ME, Smart S, Shah V, Taddio A

Hogan ME, Smart S, Shah V, Taddio A

Our aim was to systematically review the literature regarding the analgesic effectiveness of vapocoolants in children and adults.

Our aim was to systematically review the literature regarding the analgesic effectiveness of vapocoolants in children and adults.

Systematic Review: Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for acute procedural pain: a systematic review  (2014)

Systematic Review: Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for acute procedural pain: a systematic review

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Lee GY, Yamada J, Kyololo O, Shorkey A, Stevens B

Lee GY, Yamada J, Kyololo O, Shorkey A, Stevens B

Objective: To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendations for their use.

Objective: To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendations for their use.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Psychological interventions for needlerelated procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents  (2018)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Psychological interventions for needlerelated procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents

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BirnieKA, NoelM, ChambersCT, UmanLS, ParkerJA

BirnieKA, NoelM, ChambersCT, UmanLS, ParkerJA

Objectives: To provide an update to our 2006 review assessing the efficacy of psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

Objectives: To provide an update to our 2006 review assessing the efficacy of psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

Review: Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems  (2012)

Review: Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems

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Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine an...

Control of pain and stress for children is a vital component of emergency medical care. Timely administration of analgesia affects the entire emergency medical experience and can have a lasting effect on a child's and family's reaction to current and futu

Control of pain and stress for children is a vital component of emergency medical care. Timely administration of analgesia affects the entire emergency medical experience and can have a lasting effect on a child's and family's reaction to current and futu

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age  (2012)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age

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Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureur M, Fowler C

Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureur M, Fowler C

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age compared with no treatment, placebo, other sweet-tasting solutions, or pharmacological or other non-pharmacolo

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age compared with no treatment, placebo, other sweet-tasting solutions, or pharmacological or other non-pharmacolo

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates  (2012)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates

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Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS

Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS

Objectives: The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of breastfeeding or supplemental breast milk in reducing procedural pain in neonates. The secondary objective was to conduct subgroup analyses based on the type of control intervention, g

Objectives: The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of breastfeeding or supplemental breast milk in reducing procedural pain in neonates. The secondary objective was to conduct subgroup analyses based on the type of control intervention, g

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical anaesthetics for pain control during repair of dermal laceration  (2017)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical anaesthetics for pain control during repair of dermal laceration

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TayebBO, EidelmanA, EidelmanCL, McNicolED, CarrDB

TayebBO, EidelmanA, EidelmanCL, McNicolED, CarrDB

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of infiltrated local anaesthetics with those of topical local anaesthetics for repair of dermal lacerations and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various single or multi-component topical anaesthetics to

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of infiltrated local anaesthetics with those of topical local anaesthetics for repair of dermal lacerations and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various single or multi-component topical anaesthetics to

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years  (2011)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years

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Harrison D, Yamada J, Adams-Webber T, Ohlsson A, Beyene J, Stevens B

Harrison D, Yamada J, Adams-Webber T, Ohlsson A, Beyene J, Stevens B

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of sweet tasting solutions or substances for reducing needle-related procedural pain in children beyond one year of age.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of sweet tasting solutions or substances for reducing needle-related procedural pain in children beyond one year of age.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain  (2011)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

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Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Din Osmun L, Ahola Kohut S, Hillgrove Stuart J, Stevens B, Gerwitz-Stern A

Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Din Osmun L, Ah...

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reac

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reac

Systematic Review: Music for pain and anxiety in children undergoing medical procedures: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials  (2008)

Systematic Review: Music for pain and anxiety in children undergoing medical procedures: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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Klassen JA, Liang Y, Tjosvold L, Klassen TP, Hartling L

Klassen JA, Liang Y, Tjosvold L, Klassen TP, Hartling L

Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of music therapy (MT) on pain and anxiety in children undergoing clinical procedures.

Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of music therapy (MT) on pain and anxiety in children undergoing clinical procedures.

Review: Clinical implications of unmanaged needle-insertion pain and distress in children  (2008)

Review: Clinical implications of unmanaged needle-insertion pain and distress in children

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Kennedy RM, Luhmann J, Zempsky WT

Kennedy RM, Luhmann J, Zempsky WT

This review summarizes the evidence for the importance of managing pediatric procedural pain and methods for reducing venous access pain.

This review summarizes the evidence for the importance of managing pediatric procedural pain and methods for reducing venous access pain.

Review: Needle pain in children: contextual factors  (2008)

Review: Needle pain in children: contextual factors

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Walco GA

Walco GA

Pediatric pain experiences result from a complex interplay of genetic, experiential, and developmental factors. These elements, as they relate to needle-stick procedures and other relevant painful phenomena, are explored in this article so that the contex

Pediatric pain experiences result from a complex interplay of genetic, experiential, and developmental factors. These elements, as they relate to needle-stick procedures and other relevant painful phenomena, are explored in this article so that the contex

Review: Pharmacologic approaches for reducing venous access pain in children  (2008)

Review: Pharmacologic approaches for reducing venous access pain in children

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Zempsky WT

Zempsky WT

A variety of pharmacologic options are available to clinicians who want to provide effective and safe topical local anesthesia to children undergoing venous access procedures. These options can be distinguished on the basis of how they deliver active drug

A variety of pharmacologic options are available to clinicians who want to provide effective and safe topical local anesthesia to children undergoing venous access procedures. These options can be distinguished on the basis of how they deliver active drug

Systematic Review: Digital Technology Distraction for Acute Pain in Children: AMeta-analysis  (2020)

Systematic Review: Digital Technology Distraction for Acute Pain in Children: AMeta-analysis

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Michelle Gates,Lisa Hartling,Jocelyn Shulhan-Kilroy,Tara MacGregor,Samantha Guitard,Aireen Wingert,Robin Featherstone,Ben Vandermeer,Naveen Poonai,Janeva Kir...

Michelle Gates,Lisa Hartling,Jocelyn Shulhan-Kilroy,Tara MacGregor,Samantha G...

Objective:To determine the effect of digital technology distraction on pain and distress in children experiencing acutely painful conditions or procedures.

Objective:To determine the effect of digital technology distraction on pain and distress in children experiencing acutely painful conditions or procedures.

Systematic Review: Clinical efficacy of virtual reality for acute procedural pain management: A systematic review and meta-analysis  (2018)

Systematic Review: Clinical efficacy of virtual reality for acute procedural pain management: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Evelyn Chan, Samantha Foster , Ryan Sambell , Paul Leong

Evelyn Chan, Samantha Foster , Ryan Sambell , Paul Leong

There is no comprehensive, high-quality systematic review that specifically assesses the efficacy of virtual reality on acutely painful healthcare interventions, nor has there been any quantitative data synthesis on this topic. We therefore conducted a sy

There is no comprehensive, high-quality systematic review that specifically assesses the efficacy of virtual reality on acutely painful healthcare interventions, nor has there been any quantitative data synthesis on this topic. We therefore conducted a sy

Systematic Review: Sweet Solutions to Reduce Procedural Pain in Neonates: AMeta-analysis  (2017)

Systematic Review: Sweet Solutions to Reduce Procedural Pain in Neonates: AMeta-analysis

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Denise Harrison,Catherine Larocque,Mariana Bueno,Yehudis Stokes,Lucy Turner,Brian Hutton,Bonnie Stevens

Denise Harrison,Catherine Larocque,Mariana Bueno,Yehudis Stokes,Lucy Turner,B...

Objective: To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes.

Objective: To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period  (2016)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period

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Harrison D, Reszel J, Bueno M, et al.

Harrison D, Reszel J, Bueno M, et al.

Objectives:To determine the effect of breastfeeding on procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) up to one year of age compared to no intervention, placebo, parental holding, skin-to-skin contact, expressed breast milk,

Objectives:To determine the effect of breastfeeding on procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) up to one year of age compared to no intervention, placebo, parental holding, skin-to-skin contact, expressed breast milk,

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nonpharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain  (2015)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nonpharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

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Pillai RiddellRR, RacineNM, GennisHG, TurcotteK, UmanLS, HortonRE, Ahola KohutS, Hillgrove StuartJ, StevensB, LisiDM

Pillai RiddellRR, RacineNM, GennisHG, TurcotteK, UmanLS, HortonRE, Ahola Kohu...

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reac

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reac

Systematic Review: The effectiveness of virtual reality distraction for pain reduction:a systematic review  (2010)

Systematic Review: The effectiveness of virtual reality distraction for pain reduction:a systematic review

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Kevin M Malloy , Leonard S Milling

Kevin M Malloy , Leonard S Milling

This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled research on the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) distraction for reducing pain.

This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled research on the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) distraction for reducing pain.

Efficacy of the Buzzy Device for Pain Management During Needle-related Procedures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  (2019)

Efficacy of the Buzzy Device for Pain Management During Needle-related Procedures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Ballard A, Khadra C, Adler S, Trottier ED, Le May S.

Ballard A, Khadra C, Adler S, Trottier ED, Le May S.

Objective:This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of the Buzzy device combining cold and vibration for needle-related procedural pain in children.

Objective:This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of the Buzzy device combining cold and vibration for needle-related procedural pain in children.

The role of inhaled methoxyflurane in acute pain management  (2018)

The role of inhaled methoxyflurane in acute pain management

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Porter KM, Dayan AD, Dickerson S, Middleton PM.

Porter KM, Dayan AD, Dickerson S, Middleton PM.

Methoxyflurane is an inhaled analgesic administered via a disposable inhaler which has been used in Australia for over 40 years for the management of pain associated with trauma and for medical procedures in children and adults. Now available in 16 countr

Methoxyflurane is an inhaled analgesic administered via a disposable inhaler which has been used in Australia for over 40 years for the management of pain associated with trauma and for medical procedures in children and adults. Now available in 16 countr

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat

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Hayward G, Thompson MJ, Perera R, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Heneghan CJ.

Hayward G, Thompson MJ, Perera R, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Heneghan CJ.

Objectives: To assess the clinical benefit and safety of corticosteroids for symptoms of sore throat in adults and children.

Objectives: To assess the clinical benefit and safety of corticosteroids for symptoms of sore throat in adults and children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media

Cochrane Systematic Review: Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media

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Thanaviratananich S, Laopaiboon M, Vatanasapt P.

Thanaviratananich S, Laopaiboon M, Vatanasapt P.

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of one or two daily doses with three or four daily doses of amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, for the treatment of AOM in children; and to compare complication rates and adverse reactions.

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of one or two daily doses with three or four daily doses of amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, for the treatment of AOM in children; and to compare complication rates and adverse reactions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough

Cochrane Systematic Review: Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough

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Bettiol S, Wang K, Thompson MJ, Roberts NW, Perera R, Heneghan CJ, Harnden A.

Bettiol S, Wang K, Thompson MJ, Roberts NW, Perera R, Heneghan CJ, Harnden A.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions to reduce the severity of paroxysmal cough in whooping cough in children and adults.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions to reduce the severity of paroxysmal cough in whooping cough in children and adults.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Zinc supplementation as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in children 2 to 59 months of age

Cochrane Systematic Review: Zinc supplementation as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in children 2 to 59 months of age

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Haider BA, Lassi ZS, Ahmed A, Bhutta ZA.

Haider BA, Lassi ZS, Ahmed A, Bhutta ZA.

Objectives: To evaluate zinc supplementation, as an adjunct to antibiotics, in the treatment (clinical recovery) of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months.

Objectives: To evaluate zinc supplementation, as an adjunct to antibiotics, in the treatment (clinical recovery) of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children

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Griffiths B, Ducharme FM.

Griffiths B, Ducharme FM.

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids

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Rowe BH, Spooner C, Ducharme FM, Bretzlaff JA, Bota GW.

Rowe BH, Spooner C, Ducharme FM, Bretzlaff JA, Bota GW.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early use of inhaled corticosteroids in the emergency department treatment of acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early use of inhaled corticosteroids in the emergency department treatment of acute asthma

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Edmonds ML, Milan SJ, Camargo CA Jr, Pollack CV, Rowe BH.

Edmonds ML, Milan SJ, Camargo CA Jr, Pollack CV, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of ICS for the treatment of patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To determine the benefit of ICS for the treatment of patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department (ED).

Cochrane Systematic Review: gastroesophageal reflux treatment for asthma in adults and children

Cochrane Systematic Review: gastroesophageal reflux treatment for asthma in adults and children

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Gibson PG, Henry RL, Coughlan JL.

Gibson PG, Henry RL, Coughlan JL.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for gastroesophageal reflux in terms of their benefit on asthma.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for gastroesophageal reflux in terms of their benefit on asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: gastroesophageal reflux treatment for prolonged non-specific cough in children and adults

Cochrane Systematic Review: gastroesophageal reflux treatment for prolonged non-specific cough in children and adults

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Chang AB, Lasserson TJ, Gaffney J, Connor FL, Garske LA.

Chang AB, Lasserson TJ, Gaffney J, Connor FL, Garske LA.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of GORD treatment on chronic cough in children and adults with GORD and prolonged cough that is not related to an underlying respiratory disease, i.e. non-specific chronic cough.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of GORD treatment on chronic cough in children and adults with GORD and prolonged cough that is not related to an underlying respiratory disease, i.e. non-specific chronic cough.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma

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Cates CJ, Welsh EJ, Rowe BH.

Cates CJ, Welsh EJ, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma.

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma

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Powell C, Dwan K, Milan SJ, Beasley R, Hughes R, Knopp-Sihota JA, Rowe BH.

Powell C, Dwan K, Milan SJ, Beasley R, Hughes R, Knopp-Sihota JA, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of inhaled MgSO(4) administered in acute asthma on pulmonary functions and admission rates.Specific aims: To quantify the effects of inhaled MgSO(4) i) in addition to inhaled (2)-agonist, ii) in comparison to inhaled (2)-agonist alone or iii) in addition to combination treatment with inhaled (2) -agonist and ipratropium bromide.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of inhaled MgSO(4) administered in acute asthma on pulmonary functions and admission rates.Specific aims: To quantify the effects of inhaled MgSO(4) i) in addition to inhaled (2)-agonist, ii) in comparison to inhaled (2)-agonist alone or iii) in addition to combination treatment with inhaled (2) -agonist and ipratropium bromide.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline (epinephrine) for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline (epinephrine) for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock

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Sheikh A, Shehata YA, Brown SG, Simons FE

Sheikh A, Shehata YA, Brown SG, Simons FE

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of adrenaline (epinephrine) in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of adrenaline (epinephrine) in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community  (2012)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community

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Sheikh A, Simons FE, Barbour V, Worth A

Sheikh A, Simons FE, Barbour V, Worth A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community.

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis  (2012)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis

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Choo KJ, Simons FE, Sheikh A

Choo KJ, Simons FE, Sheikh A

We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis.

We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: H1-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock  (2007)

Cochrane Systematic Review: H1-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock

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Sheikh A, ten Broek VM, Brown SG, Simons FE

Sheikh A, ten Broek VM, Brown SG, Simons FE

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harm of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harm of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: High-frequency ventilation versus conventional ventilation for treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome

Cochrane Systematic Review: High-frequency ventilation versus conventional ventilation for treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome

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Sud S, Sud M, Friedrich JO, Wunsch H, Meade MO, Ferguson ND, Adhikari NK

Sud S, Sud M, Friedrich JO, Wunsch H, Meade MO, Ferguson ND, Adhikari NK

OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical and physiological effects of high frequency oscillation (HFO) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared to conventional ventilation.

OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical and physiological effects of high frequency oscillation (HFO) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared to conventional ventilation.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation

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Horsley A, Jones AM

Horsley A, Jones AM

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different antibiotic regimens in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing an exacerbation, who are chronically infected with organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different antibiotic regimens in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing an exacerbation, who are chronically infected with organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis

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Jagannath VA, Asokan GV, Fedorowicz Z, Lee TW

Jagannath VA, Asokan GV, Fedorowicz Z, Lee TW

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders

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Pringsheim T, Steeves T

Pringsheim T, Steeves T

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological treatments for ADHD on ADHD symptoms and tic severity in children with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological treatments for ADHD on ADHD symptoms and tic severity in children with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Identification of children in the first four years of life for early treatment for otitis media with effusion

Cochrane Systematic Review: Identification of children in the first four years of life for early treatment for otitis media with effusion

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Simpson SA, Thomas CL, van der Linden MK, Macmillan H, van der Wouden JC, Butler C

Simpson SA, Thomas CL, van der Linden MK, Macmillan H, van der Wouden JC, Bu...

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess evidence from randomised controlled trials about the effect, on language and behavioural outcomes, of screening and treating children with clinically important OME in the first four years of their life. The focus was on the first four years of life because this is the time of most rapid language development. The consequences of hearing loss are likely to be most serious during this time. In addition, children of this age are least likely to be able to report or seek help for impaired hearing, particularly if these problems have a slow onset and are subtle.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess evidence from randomised controlled trials about the effect, on language and behavioural outcomes, of screening and treating children with clinically important OME in the first four years of their life. The focus was on the first four years of life because this is the time of most rapid language development. The consequences of hearing loss are likely to be most serious during this time. In addition, children of this age are least likely to be able to report or seek help for impaired hearing, particularly if these problems have a slow onset and are subtle.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Propofol versus thiopental sodium for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus

Cochrane Systematic Review: Propofol versus thiopental sodium for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus

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Prabhakar H, Bindra A, Singh GP, Kalaivani M. Propofol versus thiopental sodium for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Cochrane Database Syst R...

Prabhakar H, Bindra A, Singh GP, Kalaivani M. Propofol versus thiopental sod...

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and short- and long-term outcomes of RSE treated with one of the two anaesthetic agents, thiopental sodium or propofol.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and short- and long-term outcomes of RSE treated with one of the two anaesthetic agents, thiopental sodium or propofol.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

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Hancock EC, Cross JH

Hancock EC, Cross JH

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of pharmaceutical therapies used to treat LGS in terms of control of seizures and adverse effects. Many people who suffer from this syndrome will already be receiving other antiepileptic medications at the time of their entry into a trial. However, for the purpose of this review we will only consider the effect of the single therapeutic agent being trialled (often as add-on therapy).

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of pharmaceutical therapies used to treat LGS in terms of control of seizures and adverse effects. Many people who suffer from this syndrome will already be receiving other antiepileptic medications at the time of their entry into a trial. However, for the purpose of this review we will only consider the effect of the single therapeutic agent being trialled (often as add-on therapy).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adenosine versus intravenous calcium channel antagonists for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in adults

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adenosine versus intravenous calcium channel antagonists for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in adults

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Holdgate A, Foo A

Holdgate A, Foo A

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative effects of adenosine and calcium channel antagonists and, if possible, to determine which is most appropriate for the management of supraventricular tachycardia.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative effects of adenosine and calcium channel antagonists and, if possible, to determine which is most appropriate for the management of supraventricular tachycardia.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever

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Cilliers A, Manyemba J, Adler AJ, Saloojee H

Cilliers A, Manyemba J, Adler AJ, Saloojee H

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and pentoxifylline for preventing or reducing further heart valve damage in patients with acute rheumatic fever.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and pentoxifylline for preventing or reducing further heart valve damage in patients with acute rheumatic fever.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoea

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoea

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De Bruyn G, Hahn S, Borwick A. Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(3):CD002242. Review. PubMed PMID: 10908534.

De Bruyn G, Hahn S, Borwick A. Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoe...

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to assess the effects of antibiotics on traveller's diarrhoea in relation to duration of illness, severity of illness, and adverse effects of medications.

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to assess the effects of antibiotics on traveller's diarrhoea in relation to duration of illness, severity of illness, and adverse effects of medications.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Physical methods versus drug placebo or no treatment for managing fever in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Physical methods versus drug placebo or no treatment for managing fever in children

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Meremikwu M, Oyo-Ita A

Meremikwu M, Oyo-Ita A

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of physical cooling methods used for managing fever in children.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of physical cooling methods used for managing fever in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment of infantile spasms

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment of infantile spasms

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Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW

Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of single pharmaceutical therapies used to treat infantile spasms in terms of control of the spasms, resolution of the EEG, relapse rates, psychomotor development, subsequent epilepsy, side effects, and mortality.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of single pharmaceutical therapies used to treat infantile spasms in terms of control of the spasms, resolution of the EEG, relapse rates, psychomotor development, subsequent epilepsy, side effects, and mortality.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury

Cochrane Systematic Review: Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury

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Sahuquillo J, Arikan F

Sahuquillo J, Arikan F

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC) on outcome and quality of life in patients with severe TBI in whom conventional medical therapeutic measures have failed to control raised ICP.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC) on outcome and quality of life in patients with severe TBI in whom conventional medical therapeutic measures have failed to control raised ICP.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Recombinant factor VIIa for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients without haemophilia

Cochrane Systematic Review: Recombinant factor VIIa for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients without haemophilia

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Simpson E, Lin Y, Stanworth S, Birchall J, Doree C, Hyde C

Simpson E, Lin Y, Stanworth S, Birchall J, Doree C, Hyde C

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of rFVIIa when used therapeutically to control active bleeding or prophylactically to prevent (excessive) bleeding in patients without haemophilia.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of rFVIIa when used therapeutically to control active bleeding or prophylactically to prevent (excessive) bleeding in patients without haemophilia.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment of seizures in multiple sclerosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment of seizures in multiple sclerosis

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Koch MW, Polman SK, Uyttenboogaart M, De Keyser J

Koch MW, Polman SK, Uyttenboogaart M, De Keyser J

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiepileptic treatments in patients with MS.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiepileptic treatments in patients with MS.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Medical treatment for botulism

Cochrane Systematic Review: Medical treatment for botulism

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Chalk CH, Benstead TJ, Keezer M

Chalk CH, Benstead TJ, Keezer M

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding and risk of adverse events in botulism.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Salicylate for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Salicylate for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children

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Baumer JH, Love SJ, Gupta A, Haines LC, Maconochie I, Dua JS

Baumer JH, Love SJ, Gupta A, Haines LC, Maconochie I, Dua JS

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of salicylate in treating and preventing cardiac consequences of Kawasaki disease in children.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of salicylate in treating and preventing cardiac consequences of Kawasaki disease in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-corticosteroid treatment for nephrotic syndrome in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-corticosteroid treatment for nephrotic syndrome in children

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Pravitsitthikul N, Willis NS, Hodson EM, Craig JC

Pravitsitthikul N, Willis NS, Hodson EM, Craig JC

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications in relapsing SSNS in children.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications in relapsing SSNS in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment for lupus nephritis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Treatment for lupus nephritis

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Henderson L, Masson P, Craig JC, Flanc RS, Roberts MA, Strippoli GF, Webster AC

Henderson L, Masson P, Craig JC, Flanc RS, Roberts MA, Strippoli GF, Webster AC

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of different immunosuppressive treatments in biopsy-proven proliferative lupus nephritis.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of different immunosuppressive treatments in biopsy-proven proliferative lupus nephritis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Cisapride treatment for gastroesophageal reflux in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Cisapride treatment for gastroesophageal reflux in children

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Maclennan S, Augood C, Cash-Gibson L, Logan S, Gilbert RE. Cisapride treatment for gastroesophageal reflux in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Apr...

Maclennan S, Augood C, Cash-Gibson L, Logan S, Gilbert RE. Cisapride treatme...

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of cisapride versus placebo or non-surgical treatments for symptoms of GOR.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of cisapride versus placebo or non-surgical treatments for symptoms of GOR.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Honey as a topical treatment for wounds  (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Honey as a topical treatment for wounds

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Jull AB, Walker N, Deshpande S

Jull AB, Walker N, Deshpande S

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether honey increases the rate of healing in acute wounds (e.g. burns, lacerations) and chronic wounds (e.g. skin ulcers, infected surgical wounds).

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether honey increases the rate of healing in acute wounds (e.g. burns, lacerations) and chronic wounds (e.g. skin ulcers, infected surgical wounds).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical treatment for facial burns

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical treatment for facial burns

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Hoogewerf CJ, Van Baar ME, Hop MJ, Nieuwenhuis MK, Oen IM, Middelkoop E

Hoogewerf CJ, Van Baar ME, Hop MJ, Nieuwenhuis MK, Oen IM, Middelkoop E

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of topical interventions on wound healing in people with facial burns of any depth.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of topical interventions on wound healing in people with facial burns of any depth.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacological treatment other than corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange for Guillain-Barr syndrome  (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pharmacological treatment other than corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange for Guillain-Barr syndrome

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Hughes RA, Pritchard J, Hadden RD

Hughes RA, Pritchard J, Hadden RD

OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for pharmacological agents other than plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids.

OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for pharmacological agents other than plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

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Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

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Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Systematic Review: Is There A Role for Pre-, Pro- and Synbiotics in the Treatment of Functional Constipation in Children?  (2016)

Systematic Review: Is There A Role for Pre-, Pro- and Synbiotics in the Treatment of Functional Constipation in Children?

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Koppen IJ, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

Koppen IJ, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation.

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation.

Review: Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Evidence-Based Treatment  (2014)

Review: Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Evidence-Based Treatment

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Sandhu BK, Paul SP

Sandhu BK, Paul SP

This review covers the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

This review covers the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

Systematic Review: Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures  (2009)

Systematic Review: Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures

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Pijpers MA, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA, Berger MY

Pijpers MA, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA, Berger MY

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate and summarise the quantity and quality of the current evidence for the effect of laxatives and dietary measures on functional childhood constipation.

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate and summarise the quantity and quality of the current evidence for the effect of laxatives and dietary measures on functional childhood constipation.

Systematic Review: Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review  (2017)

Systematic Review: Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review

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Schneider KJ, Leddy JJ, Guskiewicz KM, Seifert T, McCrea M, Silverberg ND, Feddermann-Demont N, Iverson GL, Hayden A, Makdissi M

Schneider KJ, Leddy JJ, Guskiewicz KM, Seifert T, McCrea M, Silverberg ND, Fe...

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC).

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC).

Systematic Review: H2-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock: a systematic review  (2014)

Systematic Review: H2-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock: a systematic review

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Nurmatov UB, Rhatigan E, Simons FE, Sheikh A

Nurmatov UB, Rhatigan E, Simons FE, Sheikh A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of H2-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of H2-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Systematic Review: Age- and severity-adjusted treatment of proximal humerus fractures in children and adolescents-A systematical review and meta-analysis  (2017)

Systematic Review: Age- and severity-adjusted treatment of proximal humerus fractures in children and adolescents-A systematical review and meta-analysis

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Hohloch L, Eberbach H, Wagner FC, Strohm PC, Reising K, Sdkamp NP, Zwingmann J

Hohloch L, Eberbach H, Wagner FC, Strohm PC, Reising K, Sdkamp NP, Zwingmann J

The aim of this systematic review was to gather the best evidence of different treatment methods and their associated functional outcome, complication rates, rates of limb length discrepancies and radiological outcome for proximal humerus fractures in children and adolescents.

The aim of this systematic review was to gather the best evidence of different treatment methods and their associated functional outcome, complication rates, rates of limb length discrepancies and radiological outcome for proximal humerus fractures in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Plate Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  (2017)

Systematic Review: Plate Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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Woltz S, Krijnen P, Schipper IB

Woltz S, Krijnen P, Schipper IB

The aim was to analyze whether patients with a displaced midshaft clavicular fracture are best managed with plate fization or nonoperative treatment with respect to nonunion, secondary operations, and functional outcome, by evaluating all available randomized controlled trials on this subject.

The aim was to analyze whether patients with a displaced midshaft clavicular fracture are best managed with plate fization or nonoperative treatment with respect to nonunion, secondary operations, and functional outcome, by evaluating all available randomized controlled trials on this subject.

Systematic Review: Outcomes of Nonoperative Treatment of Salter-Harris II Distal Radius Fractures: A Systematic Review  (2016)

Systematic Review: Outcomes of Nonoperative Treatment of Salter-Harris II Distal Radius Fractures: A Systematic Review

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Larsen MC, Bohm KC, Rizkala AR, Ward CM

Larsen MC, Bohm KC, Rizkala AR, Ward CM

This systematic review was conducted of studies examining the radiographic and clinical outcomes of nonoperatively managed SH II distal radius fractures.

This systematic review was conducted of studies examining the radiographic and clinical outcomes of nonoperatively managed SH II distal radius fractures.

Review: Pediatric and Adolescent Forearm Fractures: Current Controversies and Treatment Recommendations  (2016)

Review: Pediatric and Adolescent Forearm Fractures: Current Controversies and Treatment Recommendations

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Pace JL

Pace JL

Pediatric and adolescent forearm fractures continue to present treatment challenges. Despite high-level evidence to the contrary, traditional guidelines for nonsurgical treatment have been challenged in favor of surgical intervention, but it is unclear if this results in improved outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that certain open fractures in children may be successfully treated nonsurgically. Good results have been achieved with closed reduction and appropriate casting and clinical follow-up. Further research investigating functional outcomes into adulthood is needed

Pediatric and adolescent forearm fractures continue to present treatment challenges. Despite high-level evidence to the contrary, traditional guidelines for nonsurgical treatment have been challenged in favor of surgical intervention, but it is unclear if this results in improved outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that certain open fractures in children may be successfully treated nonsurgically. Good results have been achieved with closed reduction and appropriate casting and clinical follow-up. Further research investigating functional outcomes into adulthood is needed

Systematic Review: The treatment of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures: evidence-based guideline  (2012)

Systematic Review: The treatment of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures: evidence-based guideline

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Mulpuri K, Wilkins K

Mulpuri K, Wilkins K

The purpose of this paper is to summarize and highlight the major findings from the systematic review that developed a clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons regarding treatment for type III supracondylar fractures.

The purpose of this paper is to summarize and highlight the major findings from the systematic review that developed a clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons regarding treatment for type III supracondylar fractures.

Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness of Imaging Modalities for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intussusception: A Critically Appraised Topic  (2017)

Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness of Imaging Modalities for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intussusception: A Critically Appraised Topic

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Carroll AG, Kavanagh RG, Ni Leidhin C, Cullinan NM, Lavelle LP, Malone DE

Carroll AG, Kavanagh RG, Ni Leidhin C, Cullinan NM, Lavelle LP, Malone DE

The purpose of this study was to critically appraise and compare the diagnostic performance of imaging modalities that are used for the diagnosis of intussusception and methods used in the treatment of ileocolic intussusception.

The purpose of this study was to critically appraise and compare the diagnostic performance of imaging modalities that are used for the diagnosis of intussusception and methods used in the treatment of ileocolic intussusception.

Review: Lyme disease: clinical diagnosis and treatment  (2014)

Review: Lyme disease: clinical diagnosis and treatment

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Hatchette TF, Davis I, Johnston BL

Hatchette TF, Davis I, Johnston BL

Objective: To review the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease for front-line clinicians.

Objective: To review the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease for front-line clinicians.

Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections in the Emergency Department  (2016)

Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections in the Emergency Department

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Dorsett M, Liang SY

Dorsett M, Liang SY

Objective: This review discusses the clinical signs and symptoms that should lead emergency physicians to consider CNS infection, paying particular attention to the sensitivity and specificity of different clinical findings at the bedside. Subsequently, the diagnostic workup and management of patients for whom there is high clinical suspicion for CNS infection is discussed.

Objective: This review discusses the clinical signs and symptoms that should lead emergency physicians to consider CNS infection, paying particular attention to the sensitivity and specificity of different clinical findings at the bedside. Subsequently, the diagnostic workup and management of patients for whom there is high clinical suspicion for CNS infection is discussed.

Review: Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections in pediatric patients: current status and future needs  (2010)

Review: Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections in pediatric patients: current status and future needs

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James SH, Whitley RJ

James SH, Whitley RJ

Objective: To present an overview of the major clinical manifestations of HSV infections in the pediatric population.

Objective: To present an overview of the major clinical manifestations of HSV infections in the pediatric population.

Systematic Review: Suicide in the pediatric population: screening, risk assessment and treatment  (2020)

Systematic Review: Suicide in the pediatric population: screening, risk assessment and treatment

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Cwik MF, O'Keefe VM, Haroz EE

Cwik MF, O'Keefe VM, Haroz EE

Objective: to synthesise the literature on paediatric suicide screening, risk assessment and treatment to inform clinical practice and suicide prevention efforts.

Objective: to synthesise the literature on paediatric suicide screening, risk assessment and treatment to inform clinical practice and suicide prevention efforts.

Meta-analysis: Efficacy of salbutamol in the treatment of infants with bronchiolitis: a meta-analysis of 13 studies  (2020)

Meta-analysis: Efficacy of salbutamol in the treatment of infants with bronchiolitis: a meta-analysis of 13 studies

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Cai Z, Lin Y, Liang J

Cai Z, Lin Y, Liang J

Objective: To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of salbutamol treatment in infants with bronchiolitis.

Objective: To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of salbutamol treatment in infants with bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: When Poorly Conducted Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses can Mislead: a critical appraisal and update of systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining the effects of probiotics in the treatment of functional constipation in children  (2019)

Systematic Review: When Poorly Conducted Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses can Mislead: a critical appraisal and update of systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining the effects of probiotics in the treatment of functional constipation in children

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Harris RG,Neale EP,Ferreira I

Harris RG,Neale EP,Ferreira I

The aim of this study was to critically review and update the evidence in this field by mapping all the steps involved against those reported in previous reviews, in an attempt to understand the nature of their conflicting results.

The aim of this study was to critically review and update the evidence in this field by mapping all the steps involved against those reported in previous reviews, in an attempt to understand the nature of their conflicting results.

Systematic Review: The Role of Fiber in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children  (2018)

Systematic Review: The Role of Fiber in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children

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Cara Hannah Axelrod,Miguel Saps

Cara Hannah Axelrod,Miguel Saps

We reviewed the available evidence on the role of fiber in the treatment of Functional Constipation (FC) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in children.

We reviewed the available evidence on the role of fiber in the treatment of Functional Constipation (FC) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in children.

Fluid treatment for children with diabetic ketoacidosis: How do the results of the pediatric emergency care applied research network Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (FLUID) Trial change our perspective?  (2019)

Fluid treatment for children with diabetic ketoacidosis: How do the results of the pediatric emergency care applied research network Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (FLUID) Trial change our perspective?

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Glaser N, Kuppermann N.

Glaser N, Kuppermann N.

The optimal fluid treatment protocol for children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has long been a subject of controversy. Until recently, there was no high-quality evidence from randomized clinical trials to support an optimal guideline, and recommendations were mainly based on theoretical considerations. As a consequence, fluid treatment protocols for children with DKA vary between institutions (and countries). In June 2018, the results from the Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in DKA Trial conducted in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network were published. This large, factorial-designed randomized controlled trial assessed neurological outcomes of 1387 children with DKA who were treated with one of four fluid protocols that varied in infusion rate and sodium content. In this commentary, we review and discuss the results of this new study and the implications for clinical care of DKA in children.

The optimal fluid treatment protocol for children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has long been a subject of controversy. Until recently, there was no high-quality evidence from randomized clinical trials to support an optimal guideline, and recommendations were mainly based on theoretical considerations. As a consequence, fluid treatment protocols for children with DKA vary between institutions (and countries). In June 2018, the results from the Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in DKA Trial conducted in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network were published. This large, factorial-designed randomized controlled trial assessed neurological outcomes of 1387 children with DKA who were treated with one of four fluid protocols that varied in infusion rate and sodium content. In this commentary, we review and discuss the results of this new study and the implications for clinical care of DKA in children.

Key studies

Key Study: Extremity fracture pain after emergency department reduction and casting: predictors of pain after discharge  (2012)

Key Study: Extremity fracture pain after emergency department reduction and casting: predictors of pain after discharge

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Thompson, RW, Krauss, B, Kim, YJ, Monuteaux, MC, Zerriny, S, & Lee, LK

Thompson, RW, Krauss, B, Kim, YJ, Monuteaux, MC, Zerriny, S, & Lee, LK

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of pediatric extremity fracture pain after emergency department (ED) discharge, compare pain severity between fractures requiring simple casting versus sedated reduction and casting, and explore predictors of postdischarge pain.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of pediatric extremity fracture pain after emergency department (ED) discharge, compare pain severity between fractures requiring simple casting versus sedated reduction and casting, and explore predictors of postdischarge pain.

Key Study: Polyethylene Glycol Maintenance Treatment for Childhood Functional Constipation: A Randomized,Placebo-controlled Trial  (2018)

Key Study: Polyethylene Glycol Maintenance Treatment for Childhood Functional Constipation: A Randomized,Placebo-controlled Trial

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Modin L,Walsted AM,Dalby K,Jakobsen MS

Modin L,Walsted AM,Dalby K,Jakobsen MS

The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term efficacy of polyethylene glycol (PEG) during maintenance treatment of childhood functional constipation (FC) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term efficacy of polyethylene glycol (PEG) during maintenance treatment of childhood functional constipation (FC) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

Key Study: Pretreatment with intravenous ketamine reduces propofol injection pain  (2003)

Key Study: Pretreatment with intravenous ketamine reduces propofol injection pain

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Barbi E, Marchetti F, Gerarduzzi T, Neri E, Gagliardo A, Sarti A, Ventura A

Barbi E, Marchetti F, Gerarduzzi T, Neri E, Gagliardo A, Sarti A, Ventura A

The aim of the study was to investigate whether pretreatment with ketamine would reduce infusion line pain in propofol sedation in children.

The aim of the study was to investigate whether pretreatment with ketamine would reduce infusion line pain in propofol sedation in children.

Key study: Optimising pain management in children with acute otitis media through a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial  (2018)

Key study: Optimising pain management in children with acute otitis media through a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

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van Uum RT, Venekamp RP, Sjoukes A, van de Pol AC, de Wit GA, Schilder AGM, Damoiseaux RAMJ,

van Uum RT, Venekamp RP, Sjoukes A, van de Pol AC, de Wit GA, Schilder AGM, D...

Objective: We have developed a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention to optimise pain management in children with AOM, and we trial its clinical and cost effectiveness.

Objective: We have developed a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention to optimise pain management in children with AOM, and we trial its clinical and cost effectiveness.

Key Study: Reducing Time to Pain Medication Administration for Pediatric Patients with Long Bone Fractures in the Emergency Department  (2018)

Key Study: Reducing Time to Pain Medication Administration for Pediatric Patients with Long Bone Fractures in the Emergency Department

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Schuman, S S, Regen, R B, Stuart, L H, Harrell, C, Jones, T L, Stewart, B M, Berg, A M, Longjohn, M and Kink, R J

Schuman, S S, Regen, R B, Stuart, L H, Harrell, C, Jones, T L, Stewart, B M, ...

The purpose of this quality improvement project was to develop a protocol with the goal to administer pain medication to children presenting with suspected long bone fractures 47 minutes of emergency department arrival.

The purpose of this quality improvement project was to develop a protocol with the goal to administer pain medication to children presenting with suspected long bone fractures 47 minutes of emergency department arrival.

Key Study: Expedited Delivery of Pain Medication for Long-Bone Fractures Using an Intranasal Fentanyl Clinical Pathway  (2015)

Key Study: Expedited Delivery of Pain Medication for Long-Bone Fractures Using an Intranasal Fentanyl Clinical Pathway

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Schacherer, N M, Erikson Ramirez, D, Frazier, S B and Perkins, A M

Schacherer, N M, Erikson Ramirez, D, Frazier, S B and Perkins, A M

This study aims to determine whether a pathway designed to facilitate the use of intranasal (IN) fentanyl for long-bone fractures will expedite the delivery of pain medication, decrease the total length of emergency department (ED) stay, and provide faster analgesia compared with intravenous (IV) morphine.

This study aims to determine whether a pathway designed to facilitate the use of intranasal (IN) fentanyl for long-bone fractures will expedite the delivery of pain medication, decrease the total length of emergency department (ED) stay, and provide faster analgesia compared with intravenous (IV) morphine.

Key Study: A RCT of a Combination of Analgesics for Pain Management in Children With a Suspected Fracture  (2016)

Key Study: A RCT of a Combination of Analgesics for Pain Management in Children With a Suspected Fracture

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Alam Khan, T, Jamil Khattak, Y, Awais, M, Alam Khan, A, Husen, Y, Nadeem, N and Rehman, A

Alam Khan, T, Jamil Khattak, Y, Awais, M, Alam Khan, A, Husen, Y, Nadeem, N a...

To assess the utility of trauma series radiographs in the management of alert pediatric patients with traumatic injury and to ascertain whether it is necessary to acquire the entire trauma series in these children.

To assess the utility of trauma series radiographs in the management of alert pediatric patients with traumatic injury and to ascertain whether it is necessary to acquire the entire trauma series in these children.

Key Study: A randomized, controlled trial of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and codeine for acute pain relief in children with musculoskeletal trauma  (2007)

Key Study: A randomized, controlled trial of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and codeine for acute pain relief in children with musculoskeletal trauma

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Clark, E, Plint, AC, Correll, R, et al

Clark, E, Plint, AC, Correll, R, et al

To determine which of 3 analgesics, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or codeine, given as a single dose, provides the most efficacious analgesia for children presenting to the emergency department with pain from acute musculoskeletal injuries.

To determine which of 3 analgesics, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or codeine, given as a single dose, provides the most efficacious analgesia for children presenting to the emergency department with pain from acute musculoskeletal injuries.

Key Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Jet-Injected Lidocaine to Reduce Venipuncture Pain for Young Children  (2015)

Key Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Jet-Injected Lidocaine to Reduce Venipuncture Pain for Young Children

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Lunoe MM, Drendel AL, Levas MN, Weisman SJ, Dasgupta M, Hoffmann RG, Brousseau DC

Lunoe MM, Drendel AL, Levas MN, Weisman SJ, Dasgupta M, Hoffmann RG, Broussea...

Study Objective: The J-Tip (National Medical Products Inc, Irvine, CA) uses air instead of a needle to push lidocaine into the skin. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated its use for venipuncture in young children. We determine whether the J-Tip

Study Objective: The J-Tip (National Medical Products Inc, Irvine, CA) uses air instead of a needle to push lidocaine into the skin. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated its use for venipuncture in young children. We determine whether the J-Tip

Key Study: Music to reduce pain and distress in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial  (2013)

Key Study: Music to reduce pain and distress in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial

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Hartling L, Newton AS, Liang Y, Jou H, Hewson K, Klassen TP, Curtis S

Hartling L, Newton AS, Liang Y, Jou H, Hewson K, Klassen TP, Curtis S

Objective: To compare music with standard care to manage pain and distress.

Objective: To compare music with standard care to manage pain and distress.

Key Study: Outpatient treatment of moderate croup with dexamethasone: intramuscular versus oral dosing  (2000)

Key Study: Outpatient treatment of moderate croup with dexamethasone: intramuscular versus oral dosing

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Rittichier, KK, Ledwith, CA,

Rittichier, KK, Ledwith, CA,

Objective: Steroid use for the treatment of croup has been supported by several studies, although few have addressed the use of oral dexamethasone for outpatient management. The efficacy of oral (PO) versus intramuscular (IM) dosing of dexamethasone in the outpatient treatment of moderate croup are compared in this study.

Objective: Steroid use for the treatment of croup has been supported by several studies, although few have addressed the use of oral dexamethasone for outpatient management. The efficacy of oral (PO) versus intramuscular (IM) dosing of dexamethasone in the outpatient treatment of moderate croup are compared in this study.

Key Study: Nebulized budesonide and oral dexamethasone for treatment of croup: a randomized controlled trial  (1998)

Key Study: Nebulized budesonide and oral dexamethasone for treatment of croup: a randomized controlled trial

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Klassen, TP, Craig, WR, Moher, D, Osmond, MH, Pasterkamp, H, Sutcliffe, T, Watters, LK, Rowe, PC,

Klassen, TP, Craig, WR, Moher, D, Osmond, MH, Pasterkamp, H, Sutcliffe, T, Wa...

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of 3 glucocorticoid regimens in patients with croup.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of 3 glucocorticoid regimens in patients with croup.

Key Study: Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock (2001)

Key Study: Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock (2001)

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Rivers EN, B.; Havstad, S.; Ressler, J.; Muzzin, A.; Knoblich, B.; Peterson, E.; Tomlanovich, M.

Rivers EN, B.; Havstad, S.; Ressler, J.; Muzzin, A.; Knoblich, B.; Peterson, ...

Background: Goal-directed therapy has been used for severe sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit. This approach involves adjustments of cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility to balance oxygen delivery with oxygen demand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of early goal-directed therapy before admission to the intensive care unit. Published: 2001.

Background: Goal-directed therapy has been used for severe sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit. This approach involves adjustments of cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility to balance oxygen delivery with oxygen demand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of early goal-directed therapy before admission to the intensive care unit. Published: 2001.

Key Study: Evaluation of low dose prostaglandin E1 treatment for ductus dependent congenital heart disease  (1995)

Key Study: Evaluation of low dose prostaglandin E1 treatment for ductus dependent congenital heart disease

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Kramer HH, Sommer M, Rammos S, Krogmann O

Kramer HH, Sommer M, Rammos S, Krogmann O

This study reports experience with low-dose prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) treatment of 91 newborns with ductus dependent congenital heart disease (CHD).

This study reports experience with low-dose prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) treatment of 91 newborns with ductus dependent congenital heart disease (CHD).

Key study: Treatment of acute otitis media in children under 2 years of age  (2011)

Key study: Treatment of acute otitis media in children under 2 years of age

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Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Shaikh N, Wald ER, Kearney DH, Colborn DK, Kurs-Lasky M, Bhatnagar S, Haralam MA, Zoffel LM, Jenkins C, Pope MA, Balent...

Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Shaikh N, Wald ER, Kearney DH, Colborn ...

Objective: We undertook this clinical trial to determine the extent to which antimicrobial treatment affects the course of both symptoms and signs of acute otitis media, irrespective of the apparent severity of the disease, among children 6 to 23 months of age in whom the diagnosis of acute otitis media is quite certain.

Objective: We undertook this clinical trial to determine the extent to which antimicrobial treatment affects the course of both symptoms and signs of acute otitis media, irrespective of the apparent severity of the disease, among children 6 to 23 months of age in whom the diagnosis of acute otitis media is quite certain.

Key study: A placebo-controlled trial of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media  (2011)

Key study: A placebo-controlled trial of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media

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Thtinen PA, Laine MK, Huovinen P, Jalava J, Ruuskanen O, Ruohola A

Thtinen PA, Laine MK, Huovinen P, Jalava J, Ruuskanen O, Ruohola A

Objective: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in the age group with the highest incidence of acute otitis media. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media when strict diagnostic criteria are used and the antimicrobial coverage and dosage of the active treatment are adequate.

Objective: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in the age group with the highest incidence of acute otitis media. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media when strict diagnostic criteria are used and the antimicrobial coverage and dosage of the active treatment are adequate.

Key Study: Injury treatment among children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder  (2008)

Key Study: Injury treatment among children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder

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McDermott S, Zhou L, Mann J

McDermott S, Zhou L, Mann J

This study examined the difference in the frequency and type of injury for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder compared with typically developing peers.

This study examined the difference in the frequency and type of injury for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder compared with typically developing peers.

Key Study: Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution vs Polyethylene Glycol-3350 for the Treatment of Fecal Impaction in Pediatric Patients  (2015)

Key Study: Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution vs Polyethylene Glycol-3350 for the Treatment of Fecal Impaction in Pediatric Patients

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Boles EE, Gaines CL, Tillman EM

Boles EE, Gaines CL, Tillman EM

The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution vs polyethylene glycol-3350 for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution vs polyethylene glycol-3350 for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients.

Key Study: Polyethylene glycol 4000 for treatment of functional constipation in children  (2015)

Key Study: Polyethylene glycol 4000 for treatment of functional constipation in children

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Dziechciarz P, Horvath A, Szajewska H

Dziechciarz P, Horvath A, Szajewska H

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 2 different polyethylene glycol (PEG) doses for the maintenance treatment of functional constipation in children.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 2 different polyethylene glycol (PEG) doses for the maintenance treatment of functional constipation in children.

Key Study: Pediatric constipation in the emergency department: evaluation, treatment, and outcomes  (2014)

Key Study: Pediatric constipation in the emergency department: evaluation, treatment, and outcomes

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Freedman SB, Thull-Freedman J, Rumantir M, Eltorki M, Schuh S

Freedman SB, Thull-Freedman J, Rumantir M, Eltorki M, Schuh S

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether enema administration is associated with 7-day emergency department (ED) revisits for persistent symptoms of pediatric constipation. Secondary objectives focused on assessing other predictors of ED revisits.

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether enema administration is associated with 7-day emergency department (ED) revisits for persistent symptoms of pediatric constipation. Secondary objectives focused on assessing other predictors of ED revisits.

Key Study: Safety and efficacy of milk and molasses enemas compared with sodium phosphate enemas for the treatment of constipation in a pediatric emergency department  (2011)

Key Study: Safety and efficacy of milk and molasses enemas compared with sodium phosphate enemas for the treatment of constipation in a pediatric emergency department

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Hansen SE, Whitehill JL, Goto CS, Quintero CA, Darling BE, Davis J

Hansen SE, Whitehill JL, Goto CS, Quintero CA, Darling BE, Davis J

The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of routine milk and molasses enemas (MME) compared with sodium phosphate enemas for the treatment of constipation in the pediatric emergency department (ED). A secondary objective included the identification of factors associated with enema selection in the pediatric ED.

The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of routine milk and molasses enemas (MME) compared with sodium phosphate enemas for the treatment of constipation in the pediatric emergency department (ED). A secondary objective included the identification of factors associated with enema selection in the pediatric ED.

Key Study: Rectal fecal impaction treatment in childhood constipation: enemas versus high doses oral PEG  (2009)

Key Study: Rectal fecal impaction treatment in childhood constipation: enemas versus high doses oral PEG

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Bekkali NL, van den Berg MM, Dijkgraaf MG, van Wijk MP, Bongers ME, Liem O, Benninga MA

Bekkali NL, van den Berg MM, Dijkgraaf MG, van Wijk MP, Bongers ME, Liem O, B...

This study tested the hypothesis that enemas and polyethylene glycol (PEG) would be equally effective in treating rectal fecal impaction (RFI) but enemas would be less well tolerated and colonic transit time (CTT) would improve during disimpaction.

This study tested the hypothesis that enemas and polyethylene glycol (PEG) would be equally effective in treating rectal fecal impaction (RFI) but enemas would be less well tolerated and colonic transit time (CTT) would improve during disimpaction.

Key Study: PEG3350 in the treatment of childhood constipation: a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial  (2008)

Key Study: PEG3350 in the treatment of childhood constipation: a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

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Nurko S, Youssef NN, Sabri M, Langseder A, McGowan J, Cleveland M, Di Lorenzo C

Nurko S, Youssef NN, Sabri M, Langseder A, McGowan J, Cleveland M, Di Lorenzo C

This study aimed to establish the efficacy and best starting dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG)3350 in the short-term treatment of children with functional constipation.

This study aimed to establish the efficacy and best starting dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG)3350 in the short-term treatment of children with functional constipation.

Key Study: Early treatment of food-induced anaphylaxis with epinephrine is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization  (2015)

Key Study: Early treatment of food-induced anaphylaxis with epinephrine is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization

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Fleming JT, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr, Rudders SA

Fleming JT, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr, Rudders SA

The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with early epinephrine treatment for FIA and to specifically examine the association between early epinephrine treatment and hospitalization.

The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with early epinephrine treatment for FIA and to specifically examine the association between early epinephrine treatment and hospitalization.

Key Study: Reducing resource utilization during non-operative treatment of pediatric proximal humerus fractures  (2017)

Key Study: Reducing resource utilization during non-operative treatment of pediatric proximal humerus fractures

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Gladstein AZ, Schade AT, Howard AW, Camp MW

Gladstein AZ, Schade AT, Howard AW, Camp MW

The primary outcome of the study was the proportion of proximal humerus fractures, initially treated non-operatively, for which displacement or angulation on follow-up radiographs led to a change to operative treatment.

The primary outcome of the study was the proportion of proximal humerus fractures, initially treated non-operatively, for which displacement or angulation on follow-up radiographs led to a change to operative treatment.

Key Study: Functional outcomes following non-operative versus operative treatment of clavicle fractures in adolescents  (2017)

Key Study: Functional outcomes following non-operative versus operative treatment of clavicle fractures in adolescents

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Herzog MM, Whitesell RC, Mac LM, Jackson ML, Culotta BA, Axelrod JR, Busch MT, Willimon SC

Herzog MM, Whitesell RC, Mac LM, Jackson ML, Culotta BA, Axelrod JR, Busch MT...

This study aimed to assess shoulder function in adolescents following shortened clavicle fracture and compare operative versus non-operative treatment.

This study aimed to assess shoulder function in adolescents following shortened clavicle fracture and compare operative versus non-operative treatment.

Key Study: Emerging U.S. National Trends in the Treatment of Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures  (2017)

Key Study: Emerging U.S. National Trends in the Treatment of Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures

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Holt JB, Glass NA, Bedard NA, Weinstein SL, Shah AS

Holt JB, Glass NA, Bedard NA, Weinstein SL, Shah AS

Understanding national treatment trends will provide important insight into variations in regional treatment standards and help identify areas for improvement in value in care delivery.

Understanding national treatment trends will provide important insight into variations in regional treatment standards and help identify areas for improvement in value in care delivery.

Key Study: Capitellar Fractures in Children and Adolescents: Classification and Early Results of Treatment  (2017)

Key Study: Capitellar Fractures in Children and Adolescents: Classification and Early Results of Treatment

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Murthy PG, Vuillermin C, Naqvi MN, Waters PM, Bae DS

Murthy PG, Vuillermin C, Naqvi MN, Waters PM, Bae DS

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize capitellar fracture patterns in children and adolescents and to assess early clinical and radiographic treatment outcomes.

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize capitellar fracture patterns in children and adolescents and to assess early clinical and radiographic treatment outcomes.

Key Study: Childhood Obesity Increases the Risk of Failure in the Treatment of Distal Forearm Fractures  (2016)

Key Study: Childhood Obesity Increases the Risk of Failure in the Treatment of Distal Forearm Fractures

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Auer RT, Mazzone P, Robinson L, Nyland J, Chan G

Auer RT, Mazzone P, Robinson L, Nyland J, Chan G

A retrospective case-controlled study was conducted to determine whether obesity is an independent risk factor for the failure of closed reduction and casting.

A retrospective case-controlled study was conducted to determine whether obesity is an independent risk factor for the failure of closed reduction and casting.

Key Study: Functional Outcomes After Treatment of Scaphoid Fractures in Children and Adolescents  (2016)

Key Study: Functional Outcomes After Treatment of Scaphoid Fractures in Children and Adolescents

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Bae DS, Gholson JJ, Zurakowski D, Waters PM

Bae DS, Gholson JJ, Zurakowski D, Waters PM

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the functional outcomes of children and adolescents treated for scaphoid fractures.

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the functional outcomes of children and adolescents treated for scaphoid fractures.

Key Study: Radiographic Evaluation During Treatment of Pediatric Forearm Fractures: Implications on Clinical Care and Cost  (2016)

Key Study: Radiographic Evaluation During Treatment of Pediatric Forearm Fractures: Implications on Clinical Care and Cost

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Luther G, Miller P, Waters PM, Bae DS

Luther G, Miller P, Waters PM, Bae DS

The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical utility and cost of the week 4 radiograph following closed treatment of pediatric forearm fractures.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical utility and cost of the week 4 radiograph following closed treatment of pediatric forearm fractures.

Key Study: Reducing Cost and Radiation Exposure During the Treatment of Pediatric Greenstick Fractures of the Forearm  (2016)

Key Study: Reducing Cost and Radiation Exposure During the Treatment of Pediatric Greenstick Fractures of the Forearm

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Ting BL, Kalish LA, Waters PM, Bae DS

Ting BL, Kalish LA, Waters PM, Bae DS

The purpose of this investigtion was to evaluate the LOR rate requiring intervention - including either repeat closed reduction or surgical reduction and fixation- following closed reduction and cast immobilization of pediatric greenstick forearm fractures.

The purpose of this investigtion was to evaluate the LOR rate requiring intervention - including either repeat closed reduction or surgical reduction and fixation- following closed reduction and cast immobilization of pediatric greenstick forearm fractures.

Key Study: Synthetic versus plaster of Paris casts in the treatment of fractures of the forearm in children: a randomised trial of clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction  (2013)

Key Study: Synthetic versus plaster of Paris casts in the treatment of fractures of the forearm in children: a randomised trial of clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction

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Inglis M, McClelland B, Sutherland LM, Cundy PJ

Inglis M, McClelland B, Sutherland LM, Cundy PJ

The aim of this study was to investigate which cast material is superior for the management of fractures of the forearm.

The aim of this study was to investigate which cast material is superior for the management of fractures of the forearm.

Key Study: Simple treatment for torus fractures of the distal radius  (2001)

Key Study: Simple treatment for torus fractures of the distal radius

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Davidson JS, Brown DJ, Barnes SN, Bruce CE

Davidson JS, Brown DJ, Barnes SN, Bruce CE

Based on the results of a postal questionnaire and a prospective randomised trial, this study descibes a simple treatement for a torus fracture of the distal radius, which saves both time and money.

Based on the results of a postal questionnaire and a prospective randomised trial, this study descibes a simple treatement for a torus fracture of the distal radius, which saves both time and money.

Key Study: Examining Emergency Department Treatment Processes in Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury  (2017)

Key Study: Examining Emergency Department Treatment Processes in Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

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Ajdari A, Boyle LN, Kannan N, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Wang J, Mink R, Ries B, Wainwright M, Groner JI, Bell MJ, Giza C, Zatzick DF, Ellenbogen RG, Mitchell PH, Riv...

Ajdari A, Boyle LN, Kannan N, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Wang J, Mink R, Ries B, Wainw...

Our objectives were to examine the treatment process of acute pediatric TBI and the impact of non-value-added time (NVAT) on patient outcomes.

Our objectives were to examine the treatment process of acute pediatric TBI and the impact of non-value-added time (NVAT) on patient outcomes.

Key Study: Prevalence and Impact of Admission Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on Treatment Intensity, Resource Use, and Mortality: An Evaluation of 956 Severely Injured Children and Adolescents  (2017)

Key Study: Prevalence and Impact of Admission Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on Treatment Intensity, Resource Use, and Mortality: An Evaluation of 956 Severely Injured Children and Adolescents

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Liras IN, Caplan HW, Stensballe J, Wade CE, Cox CS, Cotton BA

Liras IN, Caplan HW, Stensballe J, Wade CE, Cox CS, Cotton BA

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and impact of arrival coagulopathy, determined by viscoelastic hemostatic testing, in severely injured children.

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and impact of arrival coagulopathy, determined by viscoelastic hemostatic testing, in severely injured children.

Key study: Efficacy of nebulized L-epinephrine for treatment of croup: a randomized, double-blind study  (2016)

Key study: Efficacy of nebulized L-epinephrine for treatment of croup: a randomized, double-blind study

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Eghbali A, Sabbagh A, Bagheri B, Taherahmadi H, Kahbazi M

Eghbali A, Sabbagh A, Bagheri B, Taherahmadi H, Kahbazi M

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of L-epinephrine plus dexamethasone vs. dexamethasone for treatment of croup in children.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of L-epinephrine plus dexamethasone vs. dexamethasone for treatment of croup in children.

Key study: The comparison of oral and IM dexamethasone efficacy in croup treatment  (2013)

Key study: The comparison of oral and IM dexamethasone efficacy in croup treatment

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Soleimani G, Daryadel A, Ansari Moghadam A, Sharif MR

Soleimani G, Daryadel A, Ansari Moghadam A, Sharif MR

Objective: In this study, the efficacies of intramuscular and oral dexamethasone administration are compared for treatment of croup.

Objective: In this study, the efficacies of intramuscular and oral dexamethasone administration are compared for treatment of croup.

Key study: A randomized comparison of dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg versus 0.6 mg/kg for the treatment of moderate to severe croup  (2007)

Key study: A randomized comparison of dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg versus 0.6 mg/kg for the treatment of moderate to severe croup

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Chub-Uppakarn S, Sangsupawanich P

Chub-Uppakarn S, Sangsupawanich P

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg single dose compared with the recommended dose of 0.6 mg/kg for treatment of hospitalized children with moderate to severe croup.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg single dose compared with the recommended dose of 0.6 mg/kg for treatment of hospitalized children with moderate to severe croup.

Key study: Adult bacterial meningitis: earlier treatment and improved outcome following guideline revision promoting prompt lumbar puncture  (2015)

Key study: Adult bacterial meningitis: earlier treatment and improved outcome following guideline revision promoting prompt lumbar puncture

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Glimker M, Johansson B, Grindborg , Bottai M, Lindquist L, Sjlin J

Glimker M, Johansson B, Grindborg , Bottai M, Lindquist L, Sjlin J

Objective: Despite guideline emphasis on early treatment, performing CT prior to LP implies a risk of delayed treatment and unfavorable outcome. Therefore, Swedish guidelines were revised in 2009, deleting impaired mental status as a contraindication for LP without prior CT scan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the guideline revision.

Objective: Despite guideline emphasis on early treatment, performing CT prior to LP implies a risk of delayed treatment and unfavorable outcome. Therefore, Swedish guidelines were revised in 2009, deleting impaired mental status as a contraindication for LP without prior CT scan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the guideline revision.

Key study: A comparison of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children  (1990)

Key study: A comparison of ceftriaxone and cefuroxime for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children

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Schaad UB, Suter S, Gianella-Borradori A, Pfenninger J, Auckenthaler R, Bernath O, Cheseaux JJ, Wedgwood J

Schaad UB, Suter S, Gianella-Borradori A, Pfenninger J, Auckenthaler R, Berna...

Objective: To compare ceftriaxone with cefuroxime for the treatment of meningitis, we conducted a study in which 106 children with acute bacterial meningitis were randomly assigned to receive either ceftriaxone (100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, administered intravenously once daily; n = 53) or cefuroxime (240 mg per kilogram per day, administered intravenously in four equal doses; n = 53).

Objective: To compare ceftriaxone with cefuroxime for the treatment of meningitis, we conducted a study in which 106 children with acute bacterial meningitis were randomly assigned to receive either ceftriaxone (100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, administered intravenously once daily; n = 53) or cefuroxime (240 mg per kilogram per day, administered intravenously in four equal doses; n = 53).

Key study: Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children  (2016)

Key study: Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children

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Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Kearney DH, Bhatnagar S, Shope TR, Martin JM, Kurs-Lasky M, Copelli SJ, Colborn DK, Block SL, Labella JJ, Lynch TG, Coh...

Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Kearney DH, Bhatnagar S, Shope TR, Mart...

Objective: Given methodologic limitations in available publications, we undertook the current trial involving children 6 to 23 months of age to determine whether limiting antimicrobial treatment to 5 days rather than using the standard 10-day regimen would afford equivalent outcomes and whether doing so also for subsequent episodes would lead to a reduction in the overall use of antimicrobial treatment, with a resulting reduction in the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Objective: Given methodologic limitations in available publications, we undertook the current trial involving children 6 to 23 months of age to determine whether limiting antimicrobial treatment to 5 days rather than using the standard 10-day regimen would afford equivalent outcomes and whether doing so also for subsequent episodes would lead to a reduction in the overall use of antimicrobial treatment, with a resulting reduction in the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Key Study: Effect of potassium infusion on serum levels in children during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis  (2019)

Key Study: Effect of potassium infusion on serum levels in children during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis

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Musaitif R and Basnet S

Musaitif R and Basnet S

Objectives: to determine the effect of 40 mEq/L and 60 mEq/L infusions on potassium levels in children during treatment of DKA.

Objectives: to determine the effect of 40 mEq/L and 60 mEq/L infusions on potassium levels in children during treatment of DKA.

Key Study: Emergency room closed reduction versus in situ splinting in the treatment of paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures  (2019)

Key Study: Emergency room closed reduction versus in situ splinting in the treatment of paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures

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Sylvia, SM, Maguire, KJ, Molho, DA, Levens, BJ, Stone, MEJ, Hanstein, R, Schulz, JF and Fornari, ED

Sylvia, SM, Maguire, KJ, Molho, DA, Levens, BJ, Stone, MEJ, Hanstein, R, Schu...

The purpose of this study was to investigate if outcomes or complications differ between two management methods.

The purpose of this study was to investigate if outcomes or complications differ between two management methods.

Key Study: A comparison of intervention and conservative treatment for angulated fractures of the distal forearm in children (AFIC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  (2015)

Key Study: A comparison of intervention and conservative treatment for angulated fractures of the distal forearm in children (AFIC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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Adrian, M, Wachtlin, D, Kronfeld, K, Sommerfeldt, D and Wessel, LM

Adrian, M, Wachtlin, D, Kronfeld, K, Sommerfeldt, D and Wessel, LM

The primary objective of this trial is to assess whether or not the long-term functional outcome in remodeling patients is inferior to patients receiving closed reduction and K-wire pinning.

The primary objective of this trial is to assess whether or not the long-term functional outcome in remodeling patients is inferior to patients receiving closed reduction and K-wire pinning.

Key Study: Multiple interventions improve analgesic treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in a pediatric emergency department  (2015)

Key Study: Multiple interventions improve analgesic treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in a pediatric emergency department

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Porter, RN, Chafe, RE, Newhook, LA and Murnaghan, KD

Porter, RN, Chafe, RE, Newhook, LA and Murnaghan, KD

To measure the effectiveness of a set of interventions in improving the rate and timeliness of analgesic medication administration, as well as appropriate backslab immobilization (application of a moldable plaster or fiberglass splint), in a pediatric ED.

To measure the effectiveness of a set of interventions in improving the rate and timeliness of analgesic medication administration, as well as appropriate backslab immobilization (application of a moldable plaster or fiberglass splint), in a pediatric ED.

Key Study: Comparison of two analgesia protocols for the treatment of pediatric orthopedic emergencies  (2015)

Key Study: Comparison of two analgesia protocols for the treatment of pediatric orthopedic emergencies

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Barcelos, A, Garcia, P C, Portela, J L, Piva, J P, Garcia, J P and Santana, J C

Barcelos, A, Garcia, P C, Portela, J L, Piva, J P, Garcia, J P and Santana, J C

To compare the efficacy of two analgesia protocols (ketamine versus morphine) associated with midazolam for the reduction of dislocations or closed fractures in children.

To compare the efficacy of two analgesia protocols (ketamine versus morphine) associated with midazolam for the reduction of dislocations or closed fractures in children.

Key Study: Effect of nebulized hypertonic saline treatment in emergenc departments on hospitalization rate for acute bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial  (2017)

Key Study: Effect of nebulized hypertonic saline treatment in emergenc departments on hospitalization rate for acute bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial

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Angoulvant F, Belletre X, Milcent K, et al

Angoulvant F, Belletre X, Milcent K, et al

Objective: To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis.

Objective: To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis.

Key Study: Lubiprostone for the treatment of functional constipation in children.  (2018)

Key Study: Lubiprostone for the treatment of functional constipation in children.

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Hyman PE,Di Lorenzo C,Prestridge LL,Youssef NN,Ueno R.

Hyman PE,Di Lorenzo C,Prestridge LL,Youssef NN,Ueno R.

We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of lubiprostone in children and adolescents with functional constipation.

We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of lubiprostone in children and adolescents with functional constipation.

Key study: No association between metoclopramide treatment in ED and reduced risk of post-concussion headache  (2018)

Key study: No association between metoclopramide treatment in ED and reduced risk of post-concussion headache

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Bresee N, Aglipay M, Dubrovsky AS, et al.

Bresee N, Aglipay M, Dubrovsky AS, et al.

There is a lack of definitive pediatric literature on effective pharmacotherapy for persistent post-concussion headache symptoms. This study assessed whether acute metoclopramide treatment in the Emergency Department (ED) was associated with a reduction in persistent headache in children at 1- and 4-weeks post-concussion.

There is a lack of definitive pediatric literature on effective pharmacotherapy for persistent post-concussion headache symptoms. This study assessed whether acute metoclopramide treatment in the Emergency Department (ED) was associated with a reduction in persistent headache in children at 1- and 4-weeks post-concussion.

High flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure therapy in treatment of viral bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial.  (2020)

High flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure therapy in treatment of viral bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial.

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Vahlkvist S, Jrgensen L, la Cour A, Markoew S, Petersen TH, Kofoed PE.

Vahlkvist S, Jrgensen L, la Cour A, Markoew S, Petersen TH, Kofoed PE.

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in infants with bronchiolitis for decades. Recently, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was introduced. We conducted a trial of 50 children with bronchiolitis who were randomized to treatment with CPAP or HFNC. Objectives were to compare the development in respiratory rate, pCO2, and Modified Woods Clinical Asthma Score (M-WCAS) in young children with bronchiolitis, treated with CPAP or HFNC. Secondarily, to compare Neonatal Infant Pain Score (NIPS), treatment duration, treatment failure, and hospitalization length.

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in infants with bronchiolitis for decades. Recently, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was introduced. We conducted a trial of 50 children with bronchiolitis who were randomized to treatment with CPAP or HFNC. Objectives were to compare the development in respiratory rate, pCO2, and Modified Woods Clinical Asthma Score (M-WCAS) in young children with bronchiolitis, treated with CPAP or HFNC. Secondarily, to compare Neonatal Infant Pain Score (NIPS), treatment duration, treatment failure, and hospitalization length.

High-Flow Nasal Cannula vs. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy for the Treatment of Children <2 Years With Mild to Moderate Respiratory Failure Due to Pneumonia.  (2020)

High-Flow Nasal Cannula vs. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy for the Treatment of Children <2 Years With Mild to Moderate Respiratory Failure Due to Pneumonia.

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Liu C, Cheng WY, Li JS, Tang T, Tan PL, Yang L.

Liu C, Cheng WY, Li JS, Tang T, Tan PL, Yang L.

The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to further compare the clinical benefits and adverse reactions of HFNC with CPAP in the treatment of mild to moderate respiratory failure due to pneumonia in children below 2 years old. HFNC is an effective and safe initial respiratory support treatment in children <2 years with mild to moderate respiratory failure due to pneumonia, and the incidence of intubation and death is very low; concurrently, the comfort and tolerance of HFNC are better. To some extent, HFNC is a well-tolerated alternative to CPAP.

The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to further compare the clinical benefits and adverse reactions of HFNC with CPAP in the treatment of mild to moderate respiratory failure due to pneumonia in children below 2 years old. HFNC is an effective and safe initial respiratory support treatment in children <2 years with mild to moderate respiratory failure due to pneumonia, and the incidence of intubation and death is very low; concurrently, the comfort and tolerance of HFNC are better. To some extent, HFNC is a well-tolerated alternative to CPAP.

Key Study: Brief Report: Knowledge and Confidence of Emergency Medical Service Personnel Involving Treatment of an Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder.  (2017)

Key Study: Brief Report: Knowledge and Confidence of Emergency Medical Service Personnel Involving Treatment of an Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

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Wachob D, Pesci LJ.

Wachob D, Pesci LJ.

In order to best respond to an emergency situation, professionals need to have an understanding about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and techniques that will ensure proper care. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and confidence of EMS personnel on interacting and treating an individual with ASD. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), and Paramedics were surveyed on their knowledge of ASD; familiarity or experience with ASD, and level of comfort responding to emergencies involving an individual with ASD. The results found that autism-specific training and resources were associated with higher comfort levels, but not knowledge. It was also determined that newer and younger professionals had higher knowledge and comfort when compared to the more experienced and older professionals.

In order to best respond to an emergency situation, professionals need to have an understanding about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and techniques that will ensure proper care. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and confidence of EMS personnel on interacting and treating an individual with ASD. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), and Paramedics were surveyed on their knowledge of ASD; familiarity or experience with ASD, and level of comfort responding to emergencies involving an individual with ASD. The results found that autism-specific training and resources were associated with higher comfort levels, but not knowledge. It was also determined that newer and younger professionals had higher knowledge and comfort when compared to the more experienced and older professionals.

Antipyretic treatment in young children with fever: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or both alternating in a randomized, double-blind study  (2006)

Antipyretic treatment in young children with fever: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or both alternating in a randomized, double-blind study

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Sarrell EM, Wielunsky E, Cohen HA.

Sarrell EM, Wielunsky E, Cohen HA.

To compare the antipyretic benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen monotherapy with an alternating regimen of both drugs in young children aged 6 to 36 months.

To compare the antipyretic benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen monotherapy with an alternating regimen of both drugs in young children aged 6 to 36 months.

Levetiracetam as an alternative to phenytoin for second-line emergency treatment of children with convulsive status epilepticus: the EcLiPSE RCT  (2020)

Levetiracetam as an alternative to phenytoin for second-line emergency treatment of children with convulsive status epilepticus: the EcLiPSE RCT

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Appleton RE, Rainford NE, Gamble C, Messahel S, Humphreys A, Hickey H, et al.

Appleton RE, Rainford NE, Gamble C, Messahel S, Humphreys A, Hickey H, et al.

To determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam (Keppra, UCB Pharma, Brussels, Belgium) is the more clinically effective intravenous second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus and to help better inform its management.

To determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam (Keppra, UCB Pharma, Brussels, Belgium) is the more clinically effective intravenous second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus and to help better inform its management.

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial  (2019)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus (EcLiPSE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial

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Lyttle MD, Rainford NEA, Gamble C, Messahel S, Humphreys A, Hickey H, et al.

Lyttle MD, Rainford NEA, Gamble C, Messahel S, Humphreys A, Hickey H, et al.

Phenytoin is the recommended second-line intravenous anticonvulsant for treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus in the UK; however, some evidence suggests that levetiracetam could be an effective and safer alternative. This trial compared the efficacy and safety of phenytoin and levetiracetam for second-line management of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.

Phenytoin is the recommended second-line intravenous anticonvulsant for treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus in the UK; however, some evidence suggests that levetiracetam could be an effective and safer alternative. This trial compared the efficacy and safety of phenytoin and levetiracetam for second-line management of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial  (2019)

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial

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Dalziel SR, Borland ML, Furyk J, Bonisch M, Neutze J, Donath S, et al.

Dalziel SR, Borland ML, Furyk J, Bonisch M, Neutze J, Donath S, et al.

Phenytoin is the current standard of care for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines, but is only effective in 60% of cases and is associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, can be given more quickly, is potentially more efficacious, and has a more tolerable adverse effect profile. We aimed to determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is the superior second-line treatment for paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.

Phenytoin is the current standard of care for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines, but is only effective in 60% of cases and is associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, can be given more quickly, is potentially more efficacious, and has a more tolerable adverse effect profile. We aimed to determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is the superior second-line treatment for paediatric convulsive status epilepticus.

Management of generalised convulsive status epilepticus (SE): A prospective randomised controlled study of combined treatment with intravenous lorazepam with either phenytoin, sodium valproate or levetiracetam--Pilot study  (2015)

Management of generalised convulsive status epilepticus (SE): A prospective randomised controlled study of combined treatment with intravenous lorazepam with either phenytoin, sodium valproate or levetiracetam--Pilot study

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Mundlamuri RC, Sinha S, Subbakrishna DK, Prathyusha PV, Nagappa M, Bindu PS, et al.

Mundlamuri RC, Sinha S, Subbakrishna DK, Prathyusha PV, Nagappa M, Bindu PS, ...

This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of phenytoin, valproate and levetiracetam in patients with GCSE.

This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of phenytoin, valproate and levetiracetam in patients with GCSE.

Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous lorazepam for the prehospital treatment of status epilepticus in the pediatric population  (2015)

Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous lorazepam for the prehospital treatment of status epilepticus in the pediatric population

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Welch RD, Nicholas K, Durkalski-Mauldin VL, Lowenstein DH, Conwit R, Mahajan PV, et al.

Welch RD, Nicholas K, Durkalski-Mauldin VL, Lowenstein DH, Conwit R, Mahajan ...

To examine the effectiveness of intramuscular (IM) midazolam versus intravenous (IV) lorazepam for the treatment of pediatric patients with status epilepticus (SE) in the prehospital care setting.

To examine the effectiveness of intramuscular (IM) midazolam versus intravenous (IV) lorazepam for the treatment of pediatric patients with status epilepticus (SE) in the prehospital care setting.

RAMPART (Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial): a double-blind randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous lorazepam in the prehospital treatment of status epilepticus by paramedics  (2011)

RAMPART (Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial): a double-blind randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous lorazepam in the prehospital treatment of status epilepticus by paramedics

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Silbergleit R, Lowenstein D, Durkalski V, Conwit R.

Silbergleit R, Lowenstein D, Durkalski V, Conwit R.

Early treatment of prolonged seizures with benzodiazepines given intravenously by paramedics in the prehospital setting has been shown to be associated with improved outcomes. However, an increasing number of Emergency Medical System (EMS) protocols use an intramuscular (IM) route because it is faster and consistently achievable. RAMPART (Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial) is a double-blind randomized clinical trial to determine if the efficacy of IM midazolam is noninferior by a margin of 10% to that of intravenous (IV) lorazepam in patients treated by paramedics for status epilepticus (SE). Children and adults with >5 min of convulsions who are still seizing after paramedic arrival are administered study medication by IM autoinjector or IV infusion. The primary efficacy outcome is absence of seizures at emergency department (ED) arrival, without EMS rescue therapy. Safety outcomes include acute endotracheal intubation and recurrent seizures. Secondary outcomes include timing of treatment and initial seizure cessation. At the time of writing this communication, enrollment of all subjects is near completion and the study data will soon be analyzed.

Early treatment of prolonged seizures with benzodiazepines given intravenously by paramedics in the prehospital setting has been shown to be associated with improved outcomes. However, an increasing number of Emergency Medical System (EMS) protocols use an intramuscular (IM) route because it is faster and consistently achievable. RAMPART (Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial) is a double-blind randomized clinical trial to determine if the efficacy of IM midazolam is noninferior by a margin of 10% to that of intravenous (IV) lorazepam in patients treated by paramedics for status epilepticus (SE). Children and adults with >5 min of convulsions who are still seizing after paramedic arrival are administered study medication by IM autoinjector or IV infusion. The primary efficacy outcome is absence of seizures at emergency department (ED) arrival, without EMS rescue therapy. Safety outcomes include acute endotracheal intubation and recurrent seizures. Secondary outcomes include timing of treatment and initial seizure cessation. At the time of writing this communication, enrollment of all subjects is near completion and the study data will soon be analyzed.

Lorazepam versus diazepam-phenytoin combination in the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children: a randomized controlled trial  (2010)

Lorazepam versus diazepam-phenytoin combination in the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children: a randomized controlled trial

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Sreenath TG, Gupta P, Sharma KK, Krishnamurthy S.

Sreenath TG, Gupta P, Sharma KK, Krishnamurthy S.

To determine whether intravenous lorazepam is as efficacious as diazepam-phenytoin combination in the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children.

To determine whether intravenous lorazepam is as efficacious as diazepam-phenytoin combination in the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children.

Comparison of buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in Ugandan children: a randomized clinical trial  (2008)

Comparison of buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in Ugandan children: a randomized clinical trial

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Mpimbaza A, Ndeezi G, Staedke S, Rosenthal PJ, Byarugaba J.

Mpimbaza A, Ndeezi G, Staedke S, Rosenthal PJ, Byarugaba J.

Our goal was to compare the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in Ugandan children.

Our goal was to compare the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in Ugandan children.

Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial  (2005)

Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial

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McIntyre J, Robertson S, Norris E, Appleton R, Whitehouse WP, Phillips B, et al.

McIntyre J, Robertson S, Norris E, Appleton R, Whitehouse WP, Phillips B, et al.

Rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam are used for emergency treatment of acute febrile and afebrile (epileptic) seizures in children. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of these drugs.

Rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam are used for emergency treatment of acute febrile and afebrile (epileptic) seizures in children. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of these drugs.

Buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for treatment of prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence: a randomised trial  (1999)

Buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for treatment of prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence: a randomised trial

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Scott RC, Besag FM, Neville BG.

Scott RC, Besag FM, Neville BG.

Convulsive status epilepticus is the most common neurological medical emergency and has high morbidity and mortality. Early treatment before admission to hospital is best with an effective medication that can be administered safely. We aimed to find out whether there are differences in efficacy and adverse events between buccal administration of liquid midazolam and rectal administration of liquid diazepam in the acute treatment of seizures.

Convulsive status epilepticus is the most common neurological medical emergency and has high morbidity and mortality. Early treatment before admission to hospital is best with an effective medication that can be administered safely. We aimed to find out whether there are differences in efficacy and adverse events between buccal administration of liquid midazolam and rectal administration of liquid diazepam in the acute treatment of seizures.

A prospective, randomized study comparing intramuscular midazolam with intravenous diazepam for the treatment of seizures in children  (1997)

A prospective, randomized study comparing intramuscular midazolam with intravenous diazepam for the treatment of seizures in children

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Chamberlain JM, Altieri MA, Futterman C, Young GM, Ochsenschlager DW, Waisman Y.

Chamberlain JM, Altieri MA, Futterman C, Young GM, Ochsenschlager DW, Waisman Y.

To compare treatment of ongoing seizures using intramuscular (IM) midazolam versus intravenous (IV) diazepam.

To compare treatment of ongoing seizures using intramuscular (IM) midazolam versus intravenous (IV) diazepam.

Association of Time to Treatment With Short-term Outcomes for Pediatric Patients With Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus  (2018)

Association of Time to Treatment With Short-term Outcomes for Pediatric Patients With Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus

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Ganza-Lein M, Snchez Fernndez I, Jackson M, Abend NS, Arya R, Brenton JN, et al.

Ganza-Lein M, Snchez Fernndez I, Jackson M, Abend NS, Arya R, Brenton JN, et...

To evaluate whether untimely first-line benzodiazepine treatment is associated with unfavorable short-term outcomes.

To evaluate whether untimely first-line benzodiazepine treatment is associated with unfavorable short-term outcomes.

Treatment of community-onset, childhood convulsive status epilepticus: a prospective, population-based study  (2008)

Treatment of community-onset, childhood convulsive status epilepticus: a prospective, population-based study

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Chin RF, Neville BG, Peckham C, Wade A, Bedford H, Scott RC.

Chin RF, Neville BG, Peckham C, Wade A, Bedford H, Scott RC.

Episodes of childhood convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) commonly start in the community. Treatment of CSE aims to minimise the length of seizures, treat the causes, and reduce adverse outcomes; however, there is a paucity of data on the treatment of childhood CSE. We report the findings from a systematic, population-based study on the treatment of community-onset childhood CSE.

Episodes of childhood convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) commonly start in the community. Treatment of CSE aims to minimise the length of seizures, treat the causes, and reduce adverse outcomes; however, there is a paucity of data on the treatment of childhood CSE. We report the findings from a systematic, population-based study on the treatment of community-onset childhood CSE.

Lorazepam versus diazepam in the acute treatment of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus.  (1995)

Lorazepam versus diazepam in the acute treatment of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus.

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Appleton R, Sweeney A, Choonara I, Robson J, Molyneux E.

Appleton R, Sweeney A, Choonara I, Robson J, Molyneux E.

Lorazepam was compared with diazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions and status epilepticus in 102 children in a prospective, open, 'odd and even dates' trial. Convulsions were controlled in 76 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of lorazepam and 51 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of diazepam. Significantly fewer patients treated with lorazepam required additional anticonvulsants to terminate the seizure. Respiratory depression occurred in 3 per cent of lorazepam-treated patients and 15 per cent of diazepam-treated patients. No patient who received lorazepam required admission to the intensive care unit for either respiratory depression or persisting status epilepticus. Rectally administered lorazepam appeared to be particularly valuable (100 per cent efficacy) when venous access was not possible.

Lorazepam was compared with diazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions and status epilepticus in 102 children in a prospective, open, 'odd and even dates' trial. Convulsions were controlled in 76 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of lorazepam and 51 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of diazepam. Significantly fewer patients treated with lorazepam required additional anticonvulsants to terminate the seizure. Respiratory depression occurred in 3 per cent of lorazepam-treated patients and 15 per cent of diazepam-treated patients. No patient who received lorazepam required admission to the intensive care unit for either respiratory depression or persisting status epilepticus. Rectally administered lorazepam appeared to be particularly valuable (100 per cent efficacy) when venous access was not possible.

A Comparison of Intravenous Levetiracetam and Valproate for the Treatment of Refractory Status Epilepticus in Children  (2016)

A Comparison of Intravenous Levetiracetam and Valproate for the Treatment of Refractory Status Epilepticus in Children

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gder R, Gzel O, Ceylan G, Ylmaz , An H.

gder R, Gzel O, Ceylan G, Ylmaz , An H.

Because of the lack of studies comparing the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam and valproate before the induction of general anesthesia in the treatment of convulsive refractory status epilepticus in children, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of these antiepileptic drugs in patients with convulsive status epilepticus admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between 2011 and 2014. Forty-six (59%) of the 78 patients received levetiracetam, and 32 (41%) received valproate for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. The response rate was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Although no adverse event was noted in patients who received levetiracetam, 4 (12.5%) patients in the valproate group experienced liver dysfunction (P = .025). According to our results, levetiracetam and valproate may be used in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus before the induction of general anesthesia. Levetiracetam appears as effective as valproate, and also safer.

Because of the lack of studies comparing the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam and valproate before the induction of general anesthesia in the treatment of convulsive refractory status epilepticus in children, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of these antiepileptic drugs in patients with convulsive status epilepticus admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between 2011 and 2014. Forty-six (59%) of the 78 patients received levetiracetam, and 32 (41%) received valproate for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. The response rate was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Although no adverse event was noted in patients who received levetiracetam, 4 (12.5%) patients in the valproate group experienced liver dysfunction (P = .025). According to our results, levetiracetam and valproate may be used in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus before the induction of general anesthesia. Levetiracetam appears as effective as valproate, and also safer.

Effectiveness of intravenous levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment in pediatric refractory status epilepticus  (2014)

Effectiveness of intravenous levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment in pediatric refractory status epilepticus

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Kim JS, Lee JH, Ryu HW, Lim BC, Hwang H, Chae JH, et al.

Kim JS, Lee JH, Ryu HW, Lim BC, Hwang H, Chae JH, et al.

Intravenous levetiracetam (LEV) has been shown to be effective and safe in treating adults with refractory status epilepticus (SE). We sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous LEV for pediatric patients with refractory SE.

Intravenous levetiracetam (LEV) has been shown to be effective and safe in treating adults with refractory status epilepticus (SE). We sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous LEV for pediatric patients with refractory SE.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Status Epilepticus  (2020)

Diagnosis and Treatment of Status Epilepticus

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Lee SK.

Lee SK.

Currently, the most acceptable duration of continuous seizure activity is 5 minutes. In 2015, the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force, which was convened to develop a definition and classification of SE, presented a new classification based on four axes: 1) semiology, 2) etiology, 3) electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates, and 4) age. The essential element of nonconvulsive SE (NCSE) is the presence of neurological abnormalities induced by a prolonged epileptic process. The definition of refractory SE involves either clinical or electrographic seizures that persist after adequate doses of an initial benzodiazepine and acceptable second-line antiseizure drugs. The use of EEG is critical in the diagnosis and treatment of NCSE.

Currently, the most acceptable duration of continuous seizure activity is 5 minutes. In 2015, the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force, which was convened to develop a definition and classification of SE, presented a new classification based on four axes: 1) semiology, 2) etiology, 3) electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates, and 4) age. The essential element of nonconvulsive SE (NCSE) is the presence of neurological abnormalities induced by a prolonged epileptic process. The definition of refractory SE involves either clinical or electrographic seizures that persist after adequate doses of an initial benzodiazepine and acceptable second-line antiseizure drugs. The use of EEG is critical in the diagnosis and treatment of NCSE.

A Theoretical Paradigm for Evaluating Risk-Benefit of Status Epilepticus Treatment  (2020)

A Theoretical Paradigm for Evaluating Risk-Benefit of Status Epilepticus Treatment

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Amorim E, McGraw CM, Westover MB.

Amorim E, McGraw CM, Westover MB.

Aggressive treatment of status epilepticus with anesthetic drugs can provide rapid seizure control, but it might lead to serious medical complications and worse outcomes. Using a decision analysis approach, this concise review provides a framework for individualized decision making about aggressive and nonaggressive treatment in status epilepticus. The authors propose and review the most relevant parameters guiding the risk-benefit analysis of treatment aggressiveness in status epilepticus and present real-world-based case examples to illustrate how these tools could be used at the bedside and serve to guide future research in refractory status epilepticus treatment.

Aggressive treatment of status epilepticus with anesthetic drugs can provide rapid seizure control, but it might lead to serious medical complications and worse outcomes. Using a decision analysis approach, this concise review provides a framework for individualized decision making about aggressive and nonaggressive treatment in status epilepticus. The authors propose and review the most relevant parameters guiding the risk-benefit analysis of treatment aggressiveness in status epilepticus and present real-world-based case examples to illustrate how these tools could be used at the bedside and serve to guide future research in refractory status epilepticus treatment.

Treatment of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients  (2015)

Treatment of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients

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Alford EL, Wheless JW, Phelps SJ.

Alford EL, Wheless JW, Phelps SJ.

Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients.

Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients.

Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols  (2011)

Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols

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Shearer P, Riviello J.

Shearer P, Riviello J.

Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) has a high morbidity and mortality, such that the rapid delivery of anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated within minutes of seizure onset to prevent permanent neuronal damage. GCSE is not a specific disease but is a manifestation of either a primary central nervous system (CNS) insult or a systemic disorder with secondary CNS effects. It is mandatory to look for an underlying cause. First-line therapies for seizures and status epilepticus include the use of a benzodiazepine, followed by an infusion of a phenytoin with a possible role for intravenous valproate or phenobarbital. If these first-line medications fail to terminate the GCSE, treatment includes the continuous infusion of midazolam, pentobarbital, or propofol.

Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) has a high morbidity and mortality, such that the rapid delivery of anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated within minutes of seizure onset to prevent permanent neuronal damage. GCSE is not a specific disease but is a manifestation of either a primary central nervous system (CNS) insult or a systemic disorder with secondary CNS effects. It is mandatory to look for an underlying cause. First-line therapies for seizures and status epilepticus include the use of a benzodiazepine, followed by an infusion of a phenytoin with a possible role for intravenous valproate or phenobarbital. If these first-line medications fail to terminate the GCSE, treatment includes the continuous infusion of midazolam, pentobarbital, or propofol.

Other

Resource - Acute Procedural Pain Toolkits  (2016)

Resource - Acute Procedural Pain Toolkits

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Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres Pain Community of Practice

Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres Pain Community of Practice

These Toolkits are a resource for clinicians who work with children that may experience acute procedural pain and support moving best practice recommendations into practice. Based on the best research evidence and clinical practice, these Toolkits

These Toolkits are a resource for clinicians who work with children that may experience acute procedural pain and support moving best practice recommendations into practice. Based on the best research evidence and clinical practice, these Toolkits

Emergency Medicine Cases Podcast: Pediatric abdominal pain & appendicitis  (2010)

Emergency Medicine Cases Podcast: Pediatric abdominal pain & appendicitis

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Dr. Anna Jarvis & Dr. Stephen Freedman

Dr. Anna Jarvis & Dr. Stephen Freedman

Episode 19 Part 1:In Part 1 of this Episode on Pediatric Abdominal Pain, Dr. Anna Jarvis & Dr. Stephen Freedman discuss the nuances of the history, physical and work up of Pediatric Abdominal Pain & Appendicitis and key pearls on how to distinguish serious surgical causes from the very common diagnosis of gastroenteritis. An in-depth discussion on the pearls of the history, physical exam, lab tests, imaging including serial ultrasounds vs CT abdomen, clinical decision rules such as the Alvarado Score, best analgesics and antibiotics in pediatric appendicitis follows. Published online: December 2011.  

Episode 19 Part 1:In Part 1 of this Episode on Pediatric Abdominal Pain, Dr. Anna Jarvis & Dr. Stephen Freedman discuss the nuances of the history, physical and work up of Pediatric Abdominal Pain & Appendicitis and key pearls on how to distinguish serious surgical causes from the very common diagnosis of gastroenteritis. An in-depth discussion on the pearls of the history, physical exam, lab tests, imaging including serial ultrasounds vs CT abdomen, clinical decision rules such as the Alvarado Score, best analgesics and antibiotics in pediatric appendicitis follows. Published online: December 2011.  

Emergency Medicine Cases Podcast: Pediatric Pain Management  (2015)

Emergency Medicine Cases Podcast: Pediatric Pain Management

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Dr. Samina Ali & Dr. Anthony Crocco

Dr. Samina Ali & Dr. Anthony Crocco

Episode 67: Pain is the most common reason for seeking health care. It accounts for 80% of ED visits. The WHO has declared that “optimal pain treatment is a human right”. As has been shown in multiple ED-based Pediatric pain management studies, Pediatric pain is all too often under-estimated and under-treated. Why does this matter? Under-estimating and under-treating pediatric pain may have not only short term detrimental effects but life-long detrimental effects as well; not to mention, screaming miserable children disturbing other patients in your ED and complaints to the hospital from parents. Whether it’s venipuncture, laceration repair, belly pain or reduction of a fracture we need to have the skills and knowledge to optimize efficient and effective pain management in all the kids we see in the ED. What are the indications for intranasal fentanyl? intranasal ketamine? Why should codeine be contra-indicated in children? How do triage-initaited pain protocols improve pediatric pain management? Which are most effective skin analgesics for venipuncture? To help you make these important pediatric pain management decisions, in this podcast we have one of the most prominent North American researchers and experts in Emergency Pediatric pain management, Dr. Samina Ali and not only the chief of McMaster Children’s ED but also the head of the division of Pediatric EM at McMaster University, Dr. Anthony Crocco.

Episode 67: Pain is the most common reason for seeking health care. It accounts for 80% of ED visits. The WHO has declared that “optimal pain treatment is a human right”. As has been shown in multiple ED-based Pediatric pain management studies, Pediatric pain is all too often under-estimated and under-treated. Why does this matter? Under-estimating and under-treating pediatric pain may have not only short term detrimental effects but life-long detrimental effects as well; not to mention, screaming miserable children disturbing other patients in your ED and complaints to the hospital from parents. Whether it’s venipuncture, laceration repair, belly pain or reduction of a fracture we need to have the skills and knowledge to optimize efficient and effective pain management in all the kids we see in the ED. What are the indications for intranasal fentanyl? intranasal ketamine? Why should codeine be contra-indicated in children? How do triage-initaited pain protocols improve pediatric pain management? Which are most effective skin analgesics for venipuncture? To help you make these important pediatric pain management decisions, in this podcast we have one of the most prominent North American researchers and experts in Emergency Pediatric pain management, Dr. Samina Ali and not only the chief of McMaster Children’s ED but also the head of the division of Pediatric EM at McMaster University, Dr. Anthony Crocco.

Pain Ease(R): Topical anesthetic skin refrigerant (for children 4 years and older)  (2011)

Pain Ease(R): Topical anesthetic skin refrigerant (for children 4 years and older)

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BC Children's Hospital

BC Children's Hospital

Purpose: Pain Ease spray is a vapocoolant (skin refrigerant) intended for topical application to skin and minor open wounds. It controls pain associated with injections (venipunctures, IV start) and minor surgical procedures (eg. irrigating laceration/

Purpose: Pain Ease spray is a vapocoolant (skin refrigerant) intended for topical application to skin and minor open wounds. It controls pain associated with injections (venipunctures, IV start) and minor surgical procedures (eg. irrigating laceration/

An Evidence-Based Approach to Minimizing Acute Procedural Pain in the Emergency Department and Beyond. Pediatr Emerg Care 2016;32(1):36-42.  (2016)

An Evidence-Based Approach to Minimizing Acute Procedural Pain in the Emergency Department and Beyond. Pediatr Emerg Care 2016;32(1):36-42.

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Ali S, McGrath T, Drendel AL

Ali S, McGrath T, Drendel AL

Objective: This review article aims to provide a summary of several strategies, which are supported by definitive and systematically reviewed evidence, that can be implemented alone or in combination to reduce procedural pain and anxiety for children in t

Objective: This review article aims to provide a summary of several strategies, which are supported by definitive and systematically reviewed evidence, that can be implemented alone or in combination to reduce procedural pain and anxiety for children in t

Psychological Interventions  (2011)

Psychological Interventions

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BC Children's Hospital

BC Children's Hospital

Even with sedation, the success of a procedure is equally reliant upon careful consideration of psychosocial aspects as it is reliant on physical aspects. A sense of mastery and control experienced by parents and children is crucial to their confidence

Even with sedation, the success of a procedure is equally reliant upon careful consideration of psychosocial aspects as it is reliant on physical aspects. A sense of mastery and control experienced by parents and children is crucial to their confidence

Sucrose as a procedural analgesic for infants up to 12 months of age  (2011)

Sucrose as a procedural analgesic for infants up to 12 months of age

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BC Children's Hospital

BC Children's Hospital

Purpose: Oral sucrose and other sweet tasting solutions have been used for management of pain in infants for centuries. Studies done since the early 1990's have demonstrated that the administration of sucrose and non-nutritive sucking are effective non

Purpose: Oral sucrose and other sweet tasting solutions have been used for management of pain in infants for centuries. Studies done since the early 1990's have demonstrated that the administration of sucrose and non-nutritive sucking are effective non

Clincal Practice Guideline: Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Suicidal Behaviors  (2003)

Clincal Practice Guideline: Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Suicidal Behaviors

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American Psychology Association

American Psychology Association

Non peds specific practise guidline for assessment treatment suicidal behavors

Non peds specific practise guidline for assessment treatment suicidal behavors

Clincal Practice Guideline: Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Suicidal Behavior. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry  (2001)

Clincal Practice Guideline: Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Suicidal Behavior. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

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American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

These guidelines review what is known about the epidemiology, causes, management, and prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in young people. Detailed guidelines are provided concerning the assessment and emergency management of the children and adolescents who present with suicidal behavior.

These guidelines review what is known about the epidemiology, causes, management, and prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in young people. Detailed guidelines are provided concerning the assessment and emergency management of the children and adolescents who present with suicidal behavior.

Hospital Emergency Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus: Comparison of Pathways From Ten Pediatric Research Centers  (2018)

Hospital Emergency Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus: Comparison of Pathways From Ten Pediatric Research Centers

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aa

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We aimed to evaluate and compare the status epilepticus treatment pathways used by pediatric status epilepticus research group (pSERG) hospitals in the United States and the American Epilepsy Society (AES) status epilepticus guideline.

We aimed to evaluate and compare the status epilepticus treatment pathways used by pediatric status epilepticus research group (pSERG) hospitals in the United States and the American Epilepsy Society (AES) status epilepticus guideline.

Status epilepticus treatment guidelines  (2007)

Status epilepticus treatment guidelines

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Klviinen R

Klviinen R

Treatment of Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus: A Comprehensive Review by the American Epilepsy Society Treatments Committee  (2020)

Treatment of Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus: A Comprehensive Review by the American Epilepsy Society Treatments Committee

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Vossler DG, Bainbridge JL, Boggs JG, Novotny EJ, Loddenkemper T, Faught E, et al.

Vossler DG, Bainbridge JL, Boggs JG, Novotny EJ, Loddenkemper T, Faught E, et...

Established tonic-clonic status epilepticus (SE) does not stop in one-third of patients when treated with an intravenous (IV) benzodiazepine bolus followed by a loading dose of a second antiseizure medication (ASM). These patients have refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and a high risk of morbidity and death. For patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus (CRSE), we sought to determine the strength of evidence for 8 parenteral ASMs used as third-line treatment in stopping clinical CRSE.

Established tonic-clonic status epilepticus (SE) does not stop in one-third of patients when treated with an intravenous (IV) benzodiazepine bolus followed by a loading dose of a second antiseizure medication (ASM). These patients have refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and a high risk of morbidity and death. For patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus (CRSE), we sought to determine the strength of evidence for 8 parenteral ASMs used as third-line treatment in stopping clinical CRSE.

Manitoba Adolescent Treatment Centre- Centre de traitement des adolescents du Manitoba  (2021)

Manitoba Adolescent Treatment Centre- Centre de traitement des adolescents du Manitoba

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MATC provides a range of mental health services to children and adolescents who experience psychiatric and/or emotional disorders.

Le MATC offre une gamme de services de santé mentale aux enfants et aux adolescents qui souffrent de troubles psychiatriques ou émotionnels.

MATC provides a range of mental health services to children and adolescents who experience psychiatric and/or emotional disorders.

Le MATC offre une gamme de services de santé mentale aux enfants et aux adolescents qui souffrent de troubles psychiatriques ou émotionnels.

Agitation treatment for pediatric emergency patients  (2008)

Agitation treatment for pediatric emergency patients

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Hilt, R. J. and T. A. Woodward

Hilt, R. J. and T. A. Woodward

Intranasal Lorazepam for Treatment of Severe Agitation in a Pediatric Behavioral Health Patient in the Emergency Department  (2020)

Intranasal Lorazepam for Treatment of Severe Agitation in a Pediatric Behavioral Health Patient in the Emergency Department

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Bregstein, J. S., A. M. Wagh and D. S. Tsze

Bregstein, J. S., A. M. Wagh and D. S. Tsze

A non-randomized, Open study with aripiprazole and ziprasidone for the treatment of aggressive behavior in youth in a community clinic  (2009)

A non-randomized, Open study with aripiprazole and ziprasidone for the treatment of aggressive behavior in youth in a community clinic

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Bastiaens, L.

Bastiaens, L.

A pilot, open-label safety study of quetiapine for treatment of moderate psychotic agitation in the emergency setting  (2006)

A pilot, open-label safety study of quetiapine for treatment of moderate psychotic agitation in the emergency setting

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Currier, G. W., A. J. Trenton, P. G. Walsh and E. van Wijngaarden

Currier, G. W., A. J. Trenton, P. G. Walsh and E. van Wijngaarden

Prehospital Ketamine is a Safe and Effective Treatment for Excited Delirium in a Community Hospital Based EMS System  (2016)

Prehospital Ketamine is a Safe and Effective Treatment for Excited Delirium in a Community Hospital Based EMS System

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Scaggs, T. R., D. M. Glass, M. G. Hutchcraft and W. B. Weir

Scaggs, T. R., D. M. Glass, M. G. Hutchcraft and W. B. Weir

The psychopharmacologic treatment of violent youth  (2004)

The psychopharmacologic treatment of violent youth

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Gilligan, J. and B. Lee

Gilligan, J. and B. Lee

Pharmacogenetics of acute treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents  (2009)

Pharmacogenetics of acute treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents

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Kronenberg, S., A. Apter, M. Carmel, A. Frisch and A. Weizman

Kronenberg, S., A. Apter, M. Carmel, A. Frisch and A. Weizman

Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder  (2016)

Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

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Loebel, A., M. Brams, R. S. Goldman, R. Silva, D. Hernandez, L. Deng, R. Mankoski and R. L. Findling

Loebel, A., M. Brams, R. S. Goldman, R. Silva, D. Hernandez, L. Deng, R. Mank...

Comparison of risperidone orodispersible tablet and intramuscular haloperidol in the treatment of acute psychotic agitation: a randomized open, prospective study  (2010)

Comparison of risperidone orodispersible tablet and intramuscular haloperidol in the treatment of acute psychotic agitation: a randomized open, prospective study

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Lim, H. K., J. J. Kim, C. U. Pae, C. U. Lee, C. Lee and I. H. Paik

Lim, H. K., J. J. Kim, C. U. Pae, C. U. Lee, C. Lee and I. H. Paik

Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial  (2004)

Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial

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March, J. S.

March, J. S.

Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial  (2016)

Comparison of risperidone and aripiprazole in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behavior disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

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Safavi, P., A. Hasanpour-Dehkordi and M. Amirahmadi

Safavi, P., A. Hasanpour-Dehkordi and M. Amirahmadi

Treatment of aggression with risperidone in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a case series  (2006)

Treatment of aggression with risperidone in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a case series

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Saxena, K., K. Chang and H. Steiner

Saxena, K., K. Chang and H. Steiner

A randomized, double-blind study of paliperidone extended-release in treatment of acute schizophrenia in adolescents  (2011)

A randomized, double-blind study of paliperidone extended-release in treatment of acute schizophrenia in adolescents

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Singh, J., A. Robb, U. Vijapurkar, I. Nuamah and D. Hough

Singh, J., A. Robb, U. Vijapurkar, I. Nuamah and D. Hough

Risperidone versus haloperidol, in combination with lorazepam, in the treatment of acute agitation and psychosis: a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  (2006)

Risperidone versus haloperidol, in combination with lorazepam, in the treatment of acute agitation and psychosis: a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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Veser, F. H., B. D. Veser, J. T. McMullan, J. Zealberg and G. W. Currier

Veser, F. H., B. D. Veser, J. T. McMullan, J. Zealberg and G. W. Currier

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TREKK.ca Info Pages

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Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement: Pain Management

Posted: Nov 05, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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New Bottom Line Recommendation: Pain Treatment

Posted: Jul 16, 2018  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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New Parent Resource from ECHO

Posted: May 13, 2022  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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News Story: Guidelines for managing child pain in the ED

Posted: Jul 15, 2016  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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New Bottom Line Recommendation: Procedural Pain

Posted: Nov 07, 2016  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Learning to Live With Chronic Pain

Posted: Apr 11, 2017  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Podcast: Pediatric Procedural Sedation

Posted: Feb 09, 2016  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 
Tags: Procedural Sedation, Procedural Pain


view 48 more matching info pages

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Pediatric Pain Letter

Posted: Nov 21, 2017  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Profiling pediatric pain expert: Dr. Samina Ali

Posted: Mar 18, 2016  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Constipation Resources in French

Posted: Oct 03, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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DKA Podcast on Emergency Medicine Cases

Posted: May 01, 2015  | Resource  | Team: News and Events 
Tags: Diabetic ketoacidosis


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NEW Parent Tools!

Posted: May 30, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Updated fact sheet on COVID-19 and kids

Posted: Mar 29, 2021  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Manitoba Pediatric Health Conference 2017

Posted: Mar 30, 2017  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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TREKK croup story book

Posted: Feb 09, 2016  | Resource  | Team: News and Events 


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Parent tools - UTI and Bronchiolitis

Posted: Jan 09, 2020  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Treating Gastroenteritis: Evidence for Clinicians

Posted: Apr 10, 2015  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 
Tags: Gastroenteritis


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Parent tools - CTV Winnipeg

Posted: Jun 18, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Pediatric Anaphylaxis Pediatric Pack Now Available!

Posted: Oct 16, 2018  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Status Epilepticus Pediatric Pack Now Available!

Posted: Oct 02, 2018  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Brain Awareness Week

Posted: Mar 11, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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New Bottom Line Recommendation: Anaphylaxis

Posted: Sep 10, 2018  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Brain Injury Awareness Month 2019

Posted: Jun 13, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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New Bottom Line Recommendations: Urinary Tract Information

Posted: Aug 20, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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New resources available on trekk.ca!

Posted: Jul 10, 2015  | Resource  | Team: News and Events 


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Sick All Night - A storybook on gastroenteritis

Posted: Oct 17, 2017  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Does a child's cough sound like a barking seal? Could be croup

Posted: May 01, 2015  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 
Tags: Croup, Infection


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Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) App

Posted: Dec 08, 2015  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Congratulations Dr. Samina Ali!

Posted: Nov 19, 2018  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Updated Resources for Bronchiolitis

Posted: Feb 09, 2021  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Croup in children - a Canadian Medical Association Review

Posted: Oct 21, 2013  | Journal Club  | Team: News and Events 


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Updated resource - Croup Bottom Line Recommendations

Posted: Mar 21, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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I Love to Read Month

Posted: Feb 18, 2020  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Canadian Anaphylaxis Action Plan for Kids

Posted: Feb 25, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Updated resource - Gastroenteritis Bottom Line Recommendations

Posted: Apr 09, 2019  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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New Resources on trekk.ca!

Posted: Nov 13, 2015  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Asthma Pathway

Posted: Oct 21, 2013  | Module  | Team: ED Clinical Pathways Implementation  > Pathways


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Information on COVID-19

Posted: Jun 26, 2020  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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Gastroenteritis Pathway

Posted: Oct 21, 2013  | Module  | Team: ED Clinical Pathways Implementation  > Pathways


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New Chair for the Pediatric Emergency Research Networks

Posted: Jun 02, 2014  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 


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TREKK at CAEP 2018

Posted: Feb 06, 2018  | Announcement  | Team: News and Events 



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