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Patients and Family Resources

all patients and families resources



Resources in Evidence Repository and Individual Compendia

Key Resources

Clinical Pathway: Urinary tract infection in under 16s overview  (2016)

Clinical Pathway: Urinary tract infection in under 16s overview

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This clinical pathway contains diagnosis and treatment information for persons under 16 with suspected urinary tract infection.

This clinical pathway contains diagnosis and treatment information for persons under 16 with suspected urinary tract infection.

Bottom Line Recommendations: Urinary Tract Infection  (2020)

Bottom Line Recommendations: Urinary Tract Infection

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Le Saux N, Neto G, TREKK Network

Le Saux N, Neto G, TREKK Network

Bottom Line Recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection. Version 1.1

Bottom Line Recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection. Version 1.1

Recommandations de Base: Infection Urinaire  (2020)

Recommandations de Base: Infection Urinaire

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Le Saux N, Neto, G TREKK Network

Le Saux N, Neto, G TREKK Network

Bottom Line Recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections - French. Version 1.1.

Bottom Line Recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections - French. Version 1.1.

Clinical management of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 - Interim guidance  (2020)

Clinical management of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 - Interim guidance

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Government of Canada

Government of Canada

Evidence Repository: Urinary Tract Infection (2022)

Evidence Repository: Urinary Tract Infection (2022)

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For a list of references that informed this Bottom Line Recommendation, see the Evidence Repository: Urinary Tract Infection (2022). 

For a list of references that informed this Bottom Line Recommendation, see the Evidence Repository: Urinary Tract Infection (2022). 

Summary: Urinary tract infections in children  (2017)

Summary: Urinary tract infections in children

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Goilav B

Goilav B

This summary presents key diagnostic risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. The summary also covers diagnostic investigations and treatment algorithms for uncomplicated and complicated UTIs.

This summary presents key diagnostic risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. The summary also covers diagnostic investigations and treatment algorithms for uncomplicated and complicated UTIs.

Clinical guidelines

Clinical Practice Guideline: Peripheral neurovascular checklist  (2019)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Peripheral neurovascular checklist

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SicKids Division of Orthopaedic Surgery

SicKids Division of Orthopaedic Surgery

Peripheral Neurovascular Checklist.

Peripheral Neurovascular Checklist.

Consensus statement: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts consensus statement.  (2020)

Consensus statement: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts consensus statement.

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Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, et al.

Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, et al.

This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.

This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and management of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media (Ear Infection)  (2019)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and management of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media (Ear Infection)

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Intermountain Healthcare

Intermountain Healthcare

Objective: This CPM provides best-practice recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (AOM), including guidance for appropriate use of antibiotics.

Objective: This CPM provides best-practice recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (AOM), including guidance for appropriate use of antibiotics.

Summaries of systematic reviews

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures  (2009)

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

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Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I & Gillespie, WJ

Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I & Gillespie, WJ

Objective: To review the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Objective: To review the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Cochrane Summary: Systemic corticosteroids for improving symptoms in children with acute middle ear infection  (2018)

Cochrane Summary: Systemic corticosteroids for improving symptoms in children with acute middle ear infection

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Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, Del Mar CB

Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, D...

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Cochrane Summary: Influenza vaccine for preventing acute otitis media (middle ear infection)  (2017)

Cochrane Summary: Influenza vaccine for preventing acute otitis media (middle ear infection)

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Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Cochrane Summary: Pain relievers for children with acute middle ear infection  (2016)

Cochrane Summary: Pain relievers for children with acute middle ear infection

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Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoiseaux RA

Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoise...

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Systematic reviews

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis to Determine Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Outpatient Neonates With RSV Infection  (2016)

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis to Determine Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Outpatient Neonates With RSV Infection

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Bonadio W, Huang F, Nateson S, Okpalaji C, Kodsi A, Sokolovsky S, Homel P

Bonadio W, Huang F, Nateson S, Okpalaji C, Kodsi A, Sokolovsky S, Homel P

This study aimed to analyze a large group of febrile neonates 28 days or younger who received outpatient sepsis evaluation and nasopharyngeal aspirate antigen testing (NPAT) for respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection to determine whether there is a clinically significant association between viral study results and risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI: bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis).

This study aimed to analyze a large group of febrile neonates 28 days or younger who received outpatient sepsis evaluation and nasopharyngeal aspirate antigen testing (NPAT) for respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection to determine whether there is a clinically significant association between viral study results and risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI: bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis).

Meta-analysis: Association of diagnostic criteria with urinary tract infection prevalence in bronchiolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis  (2019)

Meta-analysis: Association of diagnostic criteria with urinary tract infection prevalence in bronchiolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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McDaniel C, Ralston S, Lucas B, Schroeder AR

McDaniel C, Ralston S, Lucas B, Schroeder AR

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the prevalence of UTI in infants with bronchiolitis when positive UA results are incorporated into the UTI definition.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the prevalence of UTI in infants with bronchiolitis when positive UA results are incorporated into the UTI definition.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children

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Andabaka T, Nickerson JW, Rojas-Reyes MX, Rueda JD, Bacic Vrca V, Barsic B.

Andabaka T, Nickerson JW, Rojas-Reyes MX, Rueda JD, Bacic Vrca V, Barsic B.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of palivizumab prophylaxis compared with placebo, or another type of prophylaxis, in reducing the risk of complications (hospitalisation due to RSV infection) in high-risk infants and children. To assess the cost-effectiveness (or cost-utility) of palivizumab prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis in infants and children in different risk groups.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of palivizumab prophylaxis compared with placebo, or another type of prophylaxis, in reducing the risk of complications (hospitalisation due to RSV infection) in high-risk infants and children. To assess the cost-effectiveness (or cost-utility) of palivizumab prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis in infants and children in different risk groups.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

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Bello S, Meremikwu MM, Ejemot-Nwadiaro RI, Oduwole O.

Bello S, Meremikwu MM, Ejemot-Nwadiaro RI, Oduwole O.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

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Gosselin RA, Roberts I, Gillespie WJ

Gosselin RA, Roberts I, Gillespie WJ

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis

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Hurley MN, Forrester DL, Smyth AR

Hurley MN, Forrester DL, Smyth AR

OBJECTIVES: To determine if antibiotic adjuvants improve clinical and microbiological outcome of pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if antibiotic adjuvants improve clinical and microbiological outcome of pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis

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Jagannath VA, Asokan GV, Fedorowicz Z, Lee TW

Jagannath VA, Asokan GV, Fedorowicz Z, Lee TW

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment of influenza infection in people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Drugs for treating Schistosoma mansoni infection

Cochrane Systematic Review: Drugs for treating Schistosoma mansoni infection

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Danso-Appiah A, Olliaro PL, Donegan S, Sinclair D, Utzinger J

Danso-Appiah A, Olliaro PL, Donegan S, Sinclair D, Utzinger J

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antischistosomal drugs, used alone or in combination, for treating S. mansoni infection.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antischistosomal drugs, used alone or in combination, for treating S. mansoni infection.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antimicrobials for treating symptomatic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antimicrobials for treating symptomatic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection

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Onwuezobe IA, Oshun PO, Odigwe CC

Onwuezobe IA, Oshun PO, Odigwe CC

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of giving antibiotics to people with NTS diarrhoea.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of giving antibiotics to people with NTS diarrhoea.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for treating lower urinary tract infection in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for treating lower urinary tract infection in children

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Fitzgerald A, Mori R, Lakhanpaul M, Tullus K

Fitzgerald A, Mori R, Lakhanpaul M, Tullus K

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarise the benefits and harms of antibiotics for treating lower UTI in children.

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarise the benefits and harms of antibiotics for treating lower UTI in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short versus standard duration oral antibiotic therapy for acute urinary tract infection in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short versus standard duration oral antibiotic therapy for acute urinary tract infection in children

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Michael M, Hodson EM, Craig JC, Martin S, Moyer VA

Michael M, Hodson EM, Craig JC, Martin S, Moyer VA

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of short-course (2-4 days) compared to standard duration (7-14 days) oral antibiotic treatment for acute UTI in children.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of short-course (2-4 days) compared to standard duration (7-14 days) oral antibiotic treatment for acute UTI in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection

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Barajas-Nava LA, Lpez-Alcalde J, Roqu i Figuls M, Sol I, Bonfill Cosp X

Barajas-Nava LA, Lpez-Alcalde J, Roqu i Figuls M, Sol I, Bonfill Cosp X

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of burn wound infection.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of burn wound infection.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

Cochrane Systematic Review: Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

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Lipp A, Edwards P

Lipp A, Edwards P

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection

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Dumville JC, Walter CJ, Sharp CA, Page T

Dumville JC, Walter CJ, Sharp CA, Page T

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of wound dressings for preventing SSI in people with surgical wounds healing by primary intention.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of wound dressings for preventing SSI in people with surgical wounds healing by primary intention.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery for preventing surgical site infection

Cochrane Systematic Review: Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery for preventing surgical site infection

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Webster J, Alghamdi A

Webster J, Alghamdi A

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of adhesive drapes used during surgery on surgical site infection, cost, mortality and morbidity.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of adhesive drapes used during surgery on surgical site infection, cost, mortality and morbidity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures  (2004)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

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Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I, & Gillespie, WJ

Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I, & Gillespie, WJ

Objective: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Objective: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Review: Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  (2015)

Review: Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

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James SH, Kimberlin DW

James SH, Kimberlin DW

This review describes diagnostic and therapeutic advances for infants with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2).

This review describes diagnostic and therapeutic advances for infants with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2).

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever  (2008)

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever

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Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and children presenting with fever.

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and children presenting with fever.

Systematic Review: Comparative study of Silver Sulfadiazine with other materials for healing and infection prevention in burns: A systematic review and meta-analysis  (2018)

Systematic Review: Comparative study of Silver Sulfadiazine with other materials for healing and infection prevention in burns: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Nmia HH, Carvalho VF, Isaac C, Souza F, Gemperli R, Paggiaro AO

Nmia HH, Carvalho VF, Isaac C, Souza F, Gemperli R, Paggiaro AO

Objective: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the effect of Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) with other new dressings, with or without silver, on healing and infection prevention in burns.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the effect of Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) with other new dressings, with or without silver, on healing and infection prevention in burns.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection  (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection

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Barajas-Nava LA, Lpez-Alcalde J, Roqu i Figuls M, Sol I, Bonfill Cosp X

Barajas-Nava LA, Lpez-Alcalde J, Roqu i Figuls M, Sol I, Bonfill Cosp X

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of burn wound infection.

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of burn wound infection.

Hyperpyrexia and high fever as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children-a systematic review.  (2020)

Hyperpyrexia and high fever as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children-a systematic review.

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Rosenfeld-Yehoshua N, Barkan S, Abu-Kishk I, Booch M, Suhami R, Kozer E.

Rosenfeld-Yehoshua N, Barkan S, Abu-Kishk I, Booch M, Suhami R, Kozer E.

It is not clear if children with high fever are at increased risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI). Our aim was to systematically review if children suffering from high fever are at high risk for SBI.

It is not clear if children with high fever are at increased risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI). Our aim was to systematically review if children suffering from high fever are at high risk for SBI.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia

Cochrane Systematic Review: Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia

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Wang K, Gill P, Perera R, Thomson A, Mant D, Harnden A.

Wang K, Gill P, Perera R, Thomson A, Mant D, Harnden A.

Objectives: The objectives of this review are (i) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in the clinical recognition of M. pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia; and (ii) to assess the influence of potential sources of heterogeneity on the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in the clinical recognition of M. pneumoniae.

Objectives: The objectives of this review are (i) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in the clinical recognition of M. pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia; and (ii) to assess the influence of potential sources of heterogeneity on the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in the clinical recognition of M. pneumoniae.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections

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Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R, Farley R.

Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R, Farley R.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of delayed antibiotics compared to immediate or no antibiotics as a prescribing strategy for ARTIs. We evaluated clinical outcomes including duration and severity measures for pain, malaise, fever, cough and rhinorrhoea in sore throat, otitis media, bronchitis (cough) and the common cold. We also evaluated the outcomes of antibiotic use, patient satisfaction, antibiotic resistance and re-consultation rates and use of alternative therapies.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of delayed antibiotics compared to immediate or no antibiotics as a prescribing strategy for ARTIs. We evaluated clinical outcomes including duration and severity measures for pain, malaise, fever, cough and rhinorrhoea in sore throat, otitis media, bronchitis (cough) and the common cold. We also evaluated the outcomes of antibiotic use, patient satisfaction, antibiotic resistance and re-consultation rates and use of alternative therapies.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis

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van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Keber N, Habraken H, Christiaens T.

van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Keber N, Habraken H, Christiaens T.

Objectives: To assess the evidence on the comparative efficacy of different antibiotics in: (a) alleviating symptoms (pain, fever); (b) shortening the duration of the illness; (c) preventing relapse; and (d) preventing complications (suppurative complications, acute rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis). To assess the evidence on the comparative incidence of adverse effects and the risk-benefit of antibiotic treatment for streptococcal pharyngitis.

Objectives: To assess the evidence on the comparative efficacy of different antibiotics in: (a) alleviating symptoms (pain, fever); (b) shortening the duration of the illness; (c) preventing relapse; and (d) preventing complications (suppurative complications, acute rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis). To assess the evidence on the comparative incidence of adverse effects and the risk-benefit of antibiotic treatment for streptococcal pharyngitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heated, humidified air for the common cold

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heated, humidified air for the common cold

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Singh M, Singh M.

Singh M, Singh M.

Objectives: To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance.

Objectives: To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox inhalation therapy for bronchiolitis in infants

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox inhalation therapy for bronchiolitis in infants

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Liet JM, Ducruet T, Gupta V, Cambonie G.

Liet JM, Ducruet T, Gupta V, Cambonie G.

Objectives: To assess heliox in addition to standard medical care for acute bronchiolitis in infants.

Objectives: To assess heliox in addition to standard medical care for acute bronchiolitis in infants.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for bacterial meningitis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for bacterial meningitis

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Wall EC, Ajdukiewicz KM, Heyderman RS, Garner P.

Wall EC, Ajdukiewicz KM, Heyderman RS, Garner P.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects on mortality, deafness and neurological disability of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in children and adults.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects on mortality, deafness and neurological disability of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in children and adults.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oxygen therapy for lower respiratory tract infections in children between 3 months and 15 years of age

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oxygen therapy for lower respiratory tract infections in children between 3 months and 15 years of age

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Rojas MX, Granados Rugeles C, Charry-Anzola LP.

Rojas MX, Granados Rugeles C, Charry-Anzola LP.

Objectives: To determine in the treatment of LRTIs: the effectiveness of oxygen therapy and oxygen delivery methods; the safety of these methods; and indications for oxygen therapy.

Objectives: To determine in the treatment of LRTIs: the effectiveness of oxygen therapy and oxygen delivery methods; the safety of these methods; and indications for oxygen therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections

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Timmer A, Gnther J, Motschall E, Rcker G, Antes G, Kern WV.

Timmer A, Gnther J, Motschall E, Rcker G, Antes G, Kern WV.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of P. sidoides for the treatment of ARIs in children and adults.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of P. sidoides for the treatment of ARIs in children and adults.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease

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Sudarsanam TD, Rupali P, Tharyan P, Abraham OC, Thomas K.

Sudarsanam TD, Rupali P, Tharyan P, Abraham OC, Thomas K.

Objectives: To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens in decreasing mortality, clinical failure and morbidity in people suspected of meningococcal disease.

Objectives: To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens in decreasing mortality, clinical failure and morbidity in people suspected of meningococcal disease.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections

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Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR, Huang CQ, Wu T.

Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR, Huang CQ, Wu T.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing acute URTIs.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing acute URTIs.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

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Schuetz P, Mller B, Christ-Crain M, Stolz D, Tamm M, Bouadma L, Luyt CE, Wolff M, Chastre J, Tubach F, Kristoffersen KB, Burkhardt O, Welte T, Schroeder S, N...

Schuetz P, Mller B, Christ-Crain M, Stolz D, Tamm M, Bouadma L, Luyt CE, Wolf...

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review based on individual patient data was to assess the safety and efficacy of using procalcitonin for starting or stopping antibiotics over a large range of patients with varying severity of ARIs and from different clinical settings.

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review based on individual patient data was to assess the safety and efficacy of using procalcitonin for starting or stopping antibiotics over a large range of patients with varying severity of ARIs and from different clinical settings.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Rapid viral diagnosis for acute febrile respiratory illness in children in the Emergency Department

Cochrane Systematic Review: Rapid viral diagnosis for acute febrile respiratory illness in children in the Emergency Department

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Doan Q, Enarson P, Kissoon N, Klassen TP, Johnson DW.

Doan Q, Enarson P, Kissoon N, Klassen TP, Johnson DW.

Objectives: To determine the effect of rapid viral testing in the ED on the rate of precautionary testing, antibiotic use, and length of ED visit.

Objectives: To determine the effect of rapid viral testing in the ED on the rate of precautionary testing, antibiotic use, and length of ED visit.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus infections of the lower respiratory tract in infants and young children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus infections of the lower respiratory tract in infants and young children

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Ventre K, Randolph A.

Ventre K, Randolph A.

Objectives: The objective of this review is to assess the efficacy of aerosolized ribavirin for infants and children with lower respiratory tract infections due to RSV.

Objectives: The objective of this review is to assess the efficacy of aerosolized ribavirin for infants and children with lower respiratory tract infections due to RSV.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections

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Kassel JC, King D, Spurling GK.

Kassel JC, King D, Spurling GK.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of saline nasal irrigation in treating the symptoms of acute URTIs.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of saline nasal irrigation in treating the symptoms of acute URTIs.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-course versus long-course antibiotic therapy for non-severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-course versus long-course antibiotic therapy for non-severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months

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Kozyrskyj A, Klassen TP, Moffatt M, Harvey K.

Kozyrskyj A, Klassen TP, Moffatt M, Harvey K.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics (less than seven days) in comparison to a long course of antibiotics (seven days or greater) for the treatment of AOM in children.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics (less than seven days) in comparison to a long course of antibiotics (seven days or greater) for the treatment of AOM in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children

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Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, Milner RA, Pusic MV, Al Othman MA.

Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, Milner RA, Pusic MV, Al Othman MA.

Objectives: To summarize the evidence regarding the efficacy of two to six days of newer oral antibiotics (short duration) compared to 10 days of oral penicillin (standard duration) in treating children with acute GABHS pharyngitis.

Objectives: To summarize the evidence regarding the efficacy of two to six days of newer oral antibiotics (short duration) compared to 10 days of oral penicillin (standard duration) in treating children with acute GABHS pharyngitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia

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Hemil H, Louhiala P.

Hemil H, Louhiala P.

Objectives: To assess the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of vitamin C on pneumonia.

Objectives: To assess the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of vitamin C on pneumonia.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children

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McCallum GB, Morris PS, Chang AB.

McCallum GB, Morris PS, Chang AB.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of antibiotics compared to a control (no treatment or placebo) for persistent respiratory symptoms (within six months), following acute bronchiolitis.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of antibiotics compared to a control (no treatment or placebo) for persistent respiratory symptoms (within six months), following acute bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for episodic viral wheeze of childhood

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for episodic viral wheeze of childhood

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McKean M, Ducharme F.

McKean M, Ducharme F.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to identify whether corticosteroid treatment, given episodically or daily, is beneficial to children with viral episodic wheeze.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to identify whether corticosteroid treatment, given episodically or daily, is beneficial to children with viral episodic wheeze.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation

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Horsley A, Jones AM

Horsley A, Jones AM

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different antibiotic regimens in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing an exacerbation, who are chronically infected with organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different antibiotic regimens in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing an exacerbation, who are chronically infected with organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for treating community acquired pneumonia in people with sickle cell disease

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for treating community acquired pneumonia in people with sickle cell disease

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Mart-Carvajal AJ, Conterno LO

Mart-Carvajal AJ, Conterno LO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of the antibiotic treatment approaches (monotherapy or combined) for people with sickle cell disease suffering from community-acquired pneumonia.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of the antibiotic treatment approaches (monotherapy or combined) for people with sickle cell disease suffering from community-acquired pneumonia.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Home versus hospital intravenous antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Home versus hospital intravenous antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis

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Balaguer A, Gonzlez de Dios J

Balaguer A, Gonzlez de Dios J

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether home intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis is as effective as inpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy and if it is preferred by individuals or families or both.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether home intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis is as effective as inpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy and if it is preferred by individuals or families or both.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis

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Ryan G, Jahnke N, Remmington T

Ryan G, Jahnke N, Remmington T

OBJECTIVES: To determine if treatment of pulmonary exacerbations with inhaled antibiotics in people with cystic fibrosis improves their quality of life, reduces time off school or work and improves their long-term survival.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if treatment of pulmonary exacerbations with inhaled antibiotics in people with cystic fibrosis improves their quality of life, reduces time off school or work and improves their long-term survival.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in people with cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in people with cystic fibrosis

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Lo DK, Hurley MN, Muhlebach MS, Smyth AR

Lo DK, Hurley MN, Muhlebach MS, Smyth AR

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment regimens designed to eradicate MRSA and to determine whether the eradication of MRSA confers better clinical and microbiological outcomes for people with cystic fibrosis.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment regimens designed to eradicate MRSA and to determine whether the eradication of MRSA confers better clinical and microbiological outcomes for people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Macrolide antibiotics for cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Macrolide antibiotics for cystic fibrosis

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Southern KW, Barker PM, Solis-Moya A, Patel L

Southern KW, Barker PM, Solis-Moya A, Patel L

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypotheses that, in people with cystic fibrosis, macrolide antibiotics: 1. improve clinical status compared to placebo or another antibiotic; 2. do not have unacceptable adverse effects. If benefit was demonstrated, we aimed to assess the optimal type, dose and duration of macrolide therapy.

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypotheses that, in people with cystic fibrosis, macrolide antibiotics: 1. improve clinical status compared to placebo or another antibiotic; 2. do not have unacceptable adverse effects. If benefit was demonstrated, we aimed to assess the optimal type, dose and duration of macrolide therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing with intravenous aminoglycosides for cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing with intravenous aminoglycosides for cystic fibrosis

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Smyth AR, Bhatt J

Smyth AR, Bhatt J

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing of intravenous aminoglycoside antibiotics for the management of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing of intravenous aminoglycoside antibiotics for the management of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis

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Remmington T, Jahnke N, Harkensee C

Remmington T, Jahnke N, Harkensee C

OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefit or harm of oral anti-pseudomonal antibiotic therapy for people with CF, colonised with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in the:1. treatment of a pulmonary exacerbation; and 2. long-term treatment of chronic infection.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefit or harm of oral anti-pseudomonal antibiotic therapy for people with CF, colonised with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in the:1. treatment of a pulmonary exacerbation; and 2. long-term treatment of chronic infection.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children

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van Zon A, van der Heijden GJ, van Dongen TM, Burton MJ, Schilder AG

van Zon A, van der Heijden GJ, van Dongen TM, Burton MJ, Schilder AG

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Medical interventions for fungal keratitis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Medical interventions for fungal keratitis

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FlorCruz NV, Peczon IV, Evans JR

FlorCruz NV, Peczon IV, Evans JR

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of different antifungal drugs in the management of fungal keratitis.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of different antifungal drugs in the management of fungal keratitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes

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van den Broek N, Dou L, Othman M, Neilson JP, Gates S, Glmezoglu AM

van den Broek N, Dou L, Othman M, Neilson JP, Gates S, Glmezoglu AM

OBJECTIVES: To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes.

OBJECTIVES: To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections

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Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J

Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberries for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cranberries for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for primary vesicoureteric reflux

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for primary vesicoureteric reflux

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Nagler EV, Williams G, Hodson EM, Craig JC

Nagler EV, Williams G, Hodson EM, Craig JC

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of different treatment options for primary VUR.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of different treatment options for primary VUR.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Modes of administration of antibiotics for symptomatic severe urinary tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Modes of administration of antibiotics for symptomatic severe urinary tract infections

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Pohl A

Pohl A

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the mode of administration of antibiotic therapy for severe UTI has an effect on cure rate, reinfection rate and kidney scarring.

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the mode of administration of antibiotic therapy for severe UTI has an effect on cure rate, reinfection rate and kidney scarring.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions to reduce Staphylococcus aureus in the management of atopic eczema

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions to reduce Staphylococcus aureus in the management of atopic eczema

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Birnie AJ, Bath-Hextall FJ, Ravenscroft JC, Williams HC

Birnie AJ, Bath-Hextall FJ, Ravenscroft JC, Williams HC

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions to reduce Staphylococcus aureus for treating infected or uninfected atopic eczema.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions to reduce Staphylococcus aureus for treating infected or uninfected atopic eczema.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for mammalian bites

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for mammalian bites

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Medeiros I, Saconato H

Medeiros I, Saconato H

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the use of prophylactic antibiotics in mammalian bites is effective in preventing bite wound infection.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the use of prophylactic antibiotics in mammalian bites is effective in preventing bite wound infection.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Honey as a topical treatment for wounds  (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Honey as a topical treatment for wounds

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Jull AB, Walker N, Deshpande S

Jull AB, Walker N, Deshpande S

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether honey increases the rate of healing in acute wounds (e.g. burns, lacerations) and chronic wounds (e.g. skin ulcers, infected surgical wounds).

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether honey increases the rate of healing in acute wounds (e.g. burns, lacerations) and chronic wounds (e.g. skin ulcers, infected surgical wounds).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury

Cochrane Systematic Review: Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury

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Eliya-Masamba MC, Banda GW

Eliya-Masamba MC, Banda GW

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Tissue adhesives for closure of surgical incisions

Cochrane Systematic Review: Tissue adhesives for closure of surgical incisions

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Coulthard P, Esposito M, Worthington HV, van der Elst M, van Waes OJ, Darcey J

Coulthard P, Esposito M, Worthington HV, van der Elst M, van Waes OJ, Darcey J

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative effects of various tissue adhesives and conventional skin closure techniques on the healing of surgical wounds.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative effects of various tissue adhesives and conventional skin closure techniques on the healing of surgical wounds.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Water for wound cleansing

Cochrane Systematic Review: Water for wound cleansing

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Fernandez R, Griffiths R

Fernandez R, Griffiths R

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of water compared with other solutions for wound cleansing.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of water compared with other solutions for wound cleansing.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Acetylcysteine and carbocysteine for acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease

Cochrane Systematic Review: Acetylcysteine and carbocysteine for acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease

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Chalumeau M, Duijvestijn YC

Chalumeau M, Duijvestijn YC

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety and to establish a benefit-risk ratio of acetylcysteine and carbocysteine as symptomatic treatments for acute upper and lower RTIs in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease.

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety and to establish a benefit-risk ratio of acetylcysteine and carbocysteine as symptomatic treatments for acute upper and lower RTIs in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children

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Mulholland S, Gavranich JB, Gillies MB, Chang AB

Mulholland S, Gavranich JB, Gillies MB, Chang AB

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotics are effective in the treatment of childhood LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae infections acquired in the community.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antibiotics are effective in the treatment of childhood LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae infections acquired in the community.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children

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Lodha R, Kabra SK, Pandey RM

Lodha R, Kabra SK, Pandey RM

OBJECTIVES: To identify effective antibiotic drug therapies for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) of varying severity in children by comparing various antibiotics.

OBJECTIVES: To identify effective antibiotic drug therapies for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) of varying severity in children by comparing various antibiotics.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for bacterial meningitis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for bacterial meningitis

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Bjerre LM, Verheij TJ, Kochen MM. Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD002109. do...

Bjerre LM, Verheij TJ, Kochen MM. Antibiotics for community acquired pneumon...

OBJECTIVES: To summarize current evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the efficacy of different antibiotic treatments for CAP in participants older than 12.

OBJECTIVES: To summarize current evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the efficacy of different antibiotic treatments for CAP in participants older than 12.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Azithromycin for respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Azithromycin for respiratory tract infections

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Panpanich R, Lerttrakarnnon P, Laopaiboon M

Panpanich R, Lerttrakarnnon P, Laopaiboon M

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of azithromycin to amoxycillin or amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (amoxyclav) in the treatment of LRTI, in terms of clinical failure, incidence of adverse events and microbial eradication.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of azithromycin to amoxycillin or amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (amoxyclav) in the treatment of LRTI, in terms of clinical failure, incidence of adverse events and microbial eradication.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Chest radiograph for acute lower respiratory infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Chest radiograph for acute lower respiratory infections

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Swingler GH, Zwarenstein M

Swingler GH, Zwarenstein M

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chest radiography on clinical outcome in acute lower respiratory infections.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chest radiography on clinical outcome in acute lower respiratory infections.

Key studies

Key Study: Serum lactate as a screening tool and predictor of outcome in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected infection (2013)

Key Study: Serum lactate as a screening tool and predictor of outcome in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected infection (2013)

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Reed LC, J.; Cummings, A.; Markwell, S.; Wall, J.; Duong, M.

Reed LC, J.; Cummings, A.; Markwell, S.; Wall, J.; Duong, M.

Objective: No single reliable sepsis biomarker exists for risk stratification and prognostication in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Serum lactate (LA) predicts mortality in septic adults. We sought to determine if serum LA correlated with the diagnosis of sepsis, admission rates, and outcomes in pediatric patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection. Published: 2013.

Objective: No single reliable sepsis biomarker exists for risk stratification and prognostication in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Serum lactate (LA) predicts mortality in septic adults. We sought to determine if serum LA correlated with the diagnosis of sepsis, admission rates, and outcomes in pediatric patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection. Published: 2013.

Key Study: Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in patients with infection (2007)

Key Study: Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in patients with infection (2007)

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Trzeciak SD, R. P.; Chansky, M. E.; Arnold, R. C.; Schorr, C.; Milcarek, B.; Hollenberg, S. M.; Parrillo, J. E.

Trzeciak SD, R. P.; Chansky, M. E.; Arnold, R. C.; Schorr, C.; Milcarek, B.; ...

Objective: To determine the utility of an initial serum lactate measurement for identifying high risk of death in patients with infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Post-hoc analysis of a prospectively compiled registry in an urban academic hospital. Published: 2007.

Objective: To determine the utility of an initial serum lactate measurement for identifying high risk of death in patients with infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Post-hoc analysis of a prospectively compiled registry in an urban academic hospital. Published: 2007.

Key Study: Differentiation of systemic infection and congenital obstructive left heart disease in the very young infant  (1998)

Key Study: Differentiation of systemic infection and congenital obstructive left heart disease in the very young infant

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Pickert CB, Moss MM, Fiser DH

Pickert CB, Moss MM, Fiser DH

This retrospective review of critically ill infants 0 to 28 days of age presenting with either bacterial sepsis or meningitis or a congenital obstructive left heart syndrome (COLHS), identifies historical, physical, or laboratory findings which might differentiate the two groups at presentation.

This retrospective review of critically ill infants 0 to 28 days of age presenting with either bacterial sepsis or meningitis or a congenital obstructive left heart syndrome (COLHS), identifies historical, physical, or laboratory findings which might differentiate the two groups at presentation.

Key Study: Point-of-care C reactive protein to identify serious infection in acutely ill children presenting to hospital: prospective cohort study  (2018)

Key Study: Point-of-care C reactive protein to identify serious infection in acutely ill children presenting to hospital: prospective cohort study

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Verbakel JY, Lemiengre MB, De Burghgraeve T, De Sutter A, Aertgeerts B, Bullens DMA, Shinkins B, Van den Bruel A, Buntinx F

Verbakel JY, Lemiengre MB, De Burghgraeve T, De Sutter A, Aertgeerts B, Bulle...

This prospective study aimed to develop improved tools to assess children attending ambulatory hospital care, integrating clinical features with point-of-care C reactive protein (CRP).

This prospective study aimed to develop improved tools to assess children attending ambulatory hospital care, integrating clinical features with point-of-care C reactive protein (CRP).

Key Study: Prevalence of Concomitant Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Neonates with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study  (2017)

Key Study: Prevalence of Concomitant Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Neonates with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

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Wallace SS, Brown DN, Cruz AT

Wallace SS, Brown DN, Cruz AT

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of concomitant acute bacterial meningitis in neonates with febrile urinary tract infection.

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of concomitant acute bacterial meningitis in neonates with febrile urinary tract infection.

Key Study: Initial Presentation of Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  (2016)

Key Study: Initial Presentation of Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

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Curfman AL, Glissmeyer EW, Ahmad FA, Korgenski EK, Blaschke AJ, Byington CL, Miller AS

Curfman AL, Glissmeyer EW, Ahmad FA, Korgenski EK, Blaschke AJ, Byington CL, ...

The objective of this study was to inform the decision to test and empirically treat for herpes simplex virus (HSV) by describing the initial clinical presentation and laboratory findings of infants with a confirmed diagnosis of neonatal HSV.

The objective of this study was to inform the decision to test and empirically treat for herpes simplex virus (HSV) by describing the initial clinical presentation and laboratory findings of infants with a confirmed diagnosis of neonatal HSV.

Key Study: Lack of Accuracy of Biomarkers and Physical Examination to Detect Bacterial Infection in Febrile Infants  (2016)

Key Study: Lack of Accuracy of Biomarkers and Physical Examination to Detect Bacterial Infection in Febrile Infants

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Daz MG, Garca RP, Gamero DB, Gonzlez-Tom MI, Romero PC, Ferrer MM, Contreras JR

Daz MG, Garca RP, Gamero DB, Gonzlez-Tom MI, Romero PC, Ferrer MM, Contreras JR

The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of physical examination, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, white blood cell count, and absolute neutrophils counts for the diagnosis of invasive bacterial infections and potentially serious bacterial infections in infants younger than the age of 3 months presenting with fever without source to the emergency department.

The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of physical examination, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, white blood cell count, and absolute neutrophils counts for the diagnosis of invasive bacterial infections and potentially serious bacterial infections in infants younger than the age of 3 months presenting with fever without source to the emergency department.

Key Study: Use of Procalcitonin Assays to Predict Serious Bacterial Infection in Young Febrile Infants  (2016)

Key Study: Use of Procalcitonin Assays to Predict Serious Bacterial Infection in Young Febrile Infants

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Milcent K, Faesch S, Gras-Le Guen C, Dubos F, Poulalhon C, Badier I, Marc E, Laguille C, de Pontual L, Mosca A, Nissack G, Biscardi S, Le Hors H, Louillet F,...

Milcent K, Faesch S, Gras-Le Guen C, Dubos F, Poulalhon C, Badier I, Marc E, ...

The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic characteristics of the procalcitonin assay for detecting serious bacterial infection and invasive bacterial infection in febrile infants aged 7 to 91 days.

The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic characteristics of the procalcitonin assay for detecting serious bacterial infection and invasive bacterial infection in febrile infants aged 7 to 91 days.

Key Study: Value of white cell count in predicting serious bacterial infection in febrile children under 5 years of age  (2014)

Key Study: Value of white cell count in predicting serious bacterial infection in febrile children under 5 years of age

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De S, Williams GJ, Hayen A, Macaskill P, McCaskill M, Isaacs D, Craig JC

De S, Williams GJ, Hayen A, Macaskill P, McCaskill M, Isaacs D, Craig JC

The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of leukocyte count for the detection of serious bacterial infections in febrile children.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of leukocyte count for the detection of serious bacterial infections in febrile children.

Key Study: Clinical and laboratory features of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: a case-control study  (2008)

Key Study: Clinical and laboratory features of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: a case-control study

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Caviness AC, Demmler GJ, Selwyn BJ

Caviness AC, Demmler GJ, Selwyn BJ

The objective of this study was to determine the unique clinical and laboratory features of neonates with and without herpes simplex virus infection admitted to Texas Children's Hospital during a 14-year period.

The objective of this study was to determine the unique clinical and laboratory features of neonates with and without herpes simplex virus infection admitted to Texas Children's Hospital during a 14-year period.

Key study: Asymptomatic cases in a family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection  (2020)

Key study: Asymptomatic cases in a family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection

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Wu X, Li T, Ou X, et al

Wu X, Li T, Ou X, et al

Objective: To report the findings from different types of clinical specimens collected from 82 infected individuals

Objective: To report the findings from different types of clinical specimens collected from 82 infected individuals

Key study: SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children.  (2020)

Key study: SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children.

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Lu X, Zhang L, Du H, et al

Lu X, Zhang L, Du H, et al

Objective: In order to determine the spectrum of disease in children, we evaluated children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated at the Wuhan Childrens Hospital, the only center assigned by the central government for treating infected children under 16 years of age in Wuhan.

Objective: In order to determine the spectrum of disease in children, we evaluated children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated at the Wuhan Childrens Hospital, the only center assigned by the central government for treating infected children under 16 years of age in Wuhan.

Key study: A Case Series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features  (2020)

Key study: A Case Series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features

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Jiehao C, Jing X, Daojiong L, et al

Jiehao C, Jing X, Daojiong L, et al

Objective: To report the clinical and epidemiological features in children with coronavirus diseases (COVID) in China.

Objective: To report the clinical and epidemiological features in children with coronavirus diseases (COVID) in China.

Key study: Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China  (2020)

Key study: Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China

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Wei M, Yuan J, Liu Y, et al.,

Wei M, Yuan J, Liu Y, et al.,

Objective: For this retrospective study, authors identified all hospitalized infants diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between December 8, 2019, and February 6, 2020, in China and described demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical features.

Objective: For this retrospective study, authors identified all hospitalized infants diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between December 8, 2019, and February 6, 2020, in China and described demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical features.

Key Study: Risk of serious bacterial infection in young febrile infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections  (2004)

Key Study: Risk of serious bacterial infection in young febrile infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections

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Levine DA, Platt SL, Dayan PS, Macias CG, Zorc JJ, Krief W, Schor J, Bank D, Fefferman N, Shaw KN, Kuppermann N

Levine DA, Platt SL, Dayan PS, Macias CG, Zorc JJ, Krief W, Schor J, Bank D, ...

Objective: to determine the risk of SBI in young febrile infants who are infected with RSV compared with those without RSV infections.

Objective: to determine the risk of SBI in young febrile infants who are infected with RSV compared with those without RSV infections.

Key study: Anosmia and ageusia: not an uncommon presentation of COVID-19 infection in children and adolescents.  (2020)

Key study: Anosmia and ageusia: not an uncommon presentation of COVID-19 infection in children and adolescents.

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Mak PQ, Chung KS, Wong JS, Shek CC, Kwan MY.

Mak PQ, Chung KS, Wong JS, Shek CC, Kwan MY.

Objective: We report three cases of pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection who presented with anosmia and/or ageusia.

Objective: We report three cases of pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection who presented with anosmia and/or ageusia.

Key study: Characteristics and outcomes of children with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection admitted to US and Canadian pediatric intensive care units.  (2020)

Key study: Characteristics and outcomes of children with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection admitted to US and Canadian pediatric intensive care units.

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Shekerdemian L, Mahmood N, Wolfe K, et al.

Shekerdemian L, Mahmood N, Wolfe K, et al.

Objective To provide an early description and characterization of COVID-19 infection in North American PICUs, focusing on mode of presentation, presence of comorbidities, severity of disease, therapeutic interventions, clinical trajectory, and early outcomes.

Objective To provide an early description and characterization of COVID-19 infection in North American PICUs, focusing on mode of presentation, presence of comorbidities, severity of disease, therapeutic interventions, clinical trajectory, and early outcomes.

Key study: Characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and potential evidence for persistent fecal viral shedding  (2020)

Key study: Characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and potential evidence for persistent fecal viral shedding

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Xu Y, Li X, Zhu B, et al.

Xu Y, Li X, Zhu B, et al.

Objective: We report epidemiological and clinical investigations on ten pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection cases confirmed by real-time reverse transcription PCR assay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

Objective: We report epidemiological and clinical investigations on ten pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection cases confirmed by real-time reverse transcription PCR assay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

Prospective evaluation of the risk of serious bacterial infection in children who present to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia (temperature of 106 degrees F or higher).  (2006)

Prospective evaluation of the risk of serious bacterial infection in children who present to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia (temperature of 106 degrees F or higher).

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Trautner BW, Caviness AC, Gerlacher GR, Demmler G, Macias CG.

Trautner BW, Caviness AC, Gerlacher GR, Demmler G, Macias CG.

The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the risk of serious bacterial infection in children with hyperpyrexia and (2) whether clinical presentation can identify hyperpyrexic patients at risk for serious bacterial infection.

The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the risk of serious bacterial infection in children with hyperpyrexia and (2) whether clinical presentation can identify hyperpyrexic patients at risk for serious bacterial infection.

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