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Patients and Family Resources

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Resources in Evidence Repository and Individual Compendia

Key Resources

Flow diagram for the management of children with suspected and confirmed acute otitis media  (2016)

Flow diagram for the management of children with suspected and confirmed acute otitis media

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Le Saux N, Robinson JL, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee

Le Saux N, Robinson JL, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ...

Flow chart of criteria for management of children with suspected and confirmed acute otitis media based on symptoms of children over 6 months of age.

Flow chart of criteria for management of children with suspected and confirmed acute otitis media based on symptoms of children over 6 months of age.

Acute Otitis Media- Emergency Management in Children - Flowchart  (2018)

Acute Otitis Media- Emergency Management in Children - Flowchart

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Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

Flowchart of emergency management in children for acute otitis media.

Flowchart of emergency management in children for acute otitis media.

Bottom Line Recommendations: Acute Otitis Media (2022)

Bottom Line Recommendations: Acute Otitis Media (2022)

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Dr. Nicole Le Saux

Dr. Nicole Le Saux

Bottom line recommendations for the treatment of acute otitis media. Published online November (2022).

Bottom line recommendations for the treatment of acute otitis media. Published online November (2022).

Videos in clinical medicine. Diagnosing otitis media--otoscopy and cerumen removal  (2010)

Videos in clinical medicine. Diagnosing otitis media--otoscopy and cerumen removal

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Shaikh N, Hoberman A, Kaleida PH, Ploof DL, Paradise JL

Shaikh N, Hoberman A, Kaleida PH, Ploof DL, Paradise JL

Video instructing how to diagnose otitis media with otoscopy and cerum removal.

Video instructing how to diagnose otitis media with otoscopy and cerum removal.

Bottom Line: Management of Acute Symptoms Algorithm  (2021)

Bottom Line: Management of Acute Symptoms Algorithm

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Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation

Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation

This document is intended to guide health care professionals in diagnosing and managing pediatric concussion. See Page 48 of this document for the Management of Acute Symptoms Algorithm (Tool 2.1).

This document is intended to guide health care professionals in diagnosing and managing pediatric concussion. See Page 48 of this document for the Management of Acute Symptoms Algorithm (Tool 2.1).

Bottom Line: Acute Concussion Evaluation (ACE): Physician/Clinician Office Version  (2006)

Bottom Line: Acute Concussion Evaluation (ACE): Physician/Clinician Office Version

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Goia G, Collins M

Goia G, Collins M

The ACE is intended to provide an evidence-based clinical protocol to conduct an initial evaluation and diagnosis of patients (both children and adults) with known or suspected mild traumatic brain injury.

The ACE is intended to provide an evidence-based clinical protocol to conduct an initial evaluation and diagnosis of patients (both children and adults) with known or suspected mild traumatic brain injury.

Executive Summary: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies  (2016)

Executive Summary: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Emerg...

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

This executive summary is an overview of the common clinical challenges pediatric caregivers face when a child or adolescent presents with a psychiatric chief complaint or emergency.

This executive summary is an overview of the common clinical challenges pediatric caregivers face when a child or adolescent presents with a psychiatric chief complaint or emergency.

Executive Summary: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms  (2016)

Executive Summary: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Emerg...

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

This executive summary is an overview of the common clinical challenges pediatric caregivers face when a mental health condition may be an unclear or complicating factor in a non-mental health ED presentation.

This executive summary is an overview of the common clinical challenges pediatric caregivers face when a mental health condition may be an unclear or complicating factor in a non-mental health ED presentation.

Acute Procedural Pain: Paediatric Recommendations and Implementation Toolkits  (2017)

Acute Procedural Pain: Paediatric Recommendations and Implementation Toolkits

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The Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres, Knowledge Exchange Network

The Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres, Knowledge Exchange Net...

Objective: This overview is intended to summarize the systematic reviews of interventions studied to decrease paediatric pain that are currently available in the Cochrane Library. Given their unique physiology, research relevant to the management of newbo

Objective: This overview is intended to summarize the systematic reviews of interventions studied to decrease paediatric pain that are currently available in the Cochrane Library. Given their unique physiology, research relevant to the management of newbo

Recommandations de base: Otite moyenne aigue (2022)

Recommandations de base: Otite moyenne aigue (2022)

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Dr. Nicole Le Saux

Dr. Nicole Le Saux

French bottome line recommendations for the treatment of acute otitis media. Published online November, 2022. 

French bottome line recommendations for the treatment of acute otitis media. Published online November, 2022. 

Clinical guidelines

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute otitis media - Emergency management in children  (2018)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute otitis media - Emergency management in children

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Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

Children's Health Queensland Statewide Paediatric Guideline for emergency management of acute otitis media in children.

Children's Health Queensland Statewide Paediatric Guideline for emergency management of acute otitis media in children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing  (2021)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) NICE Guideline

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) NICE Guideline

Objective: This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute otitis media (ear infection). aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance.

Objective: This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute otitis media (ear infection). aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media  (2013)

Clinical Practice Guideline: The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media

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Lieberthal AS, Carroll AE, Chonmaitree T, Ganiats TG, Hoberman A, Jackson MA, Joffe MD, Miller DT, Rosenfeld RM, Sevilla XD, Schwartz RH, Thomas PA, Tunkel DE

Lieberthal AS, Carroll AE, Chonmaitree T, Ganiats TG, Hoberman A, Jackson MA,...

Evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Academy of Family Physicians.

Evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Academy of Family Physicians.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older  (2016)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older

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Le Saux N, Robinson JL, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee

Le Saux N, Robinson JL, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ...

Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on the management of acute otitis media in children aged 6 months and older.

Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on the management of acute otitis media in children aged 6 months and older.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute Otitis Media  (2021)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute Otitis Media

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The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

Guideline on the assessment and management of acute otitis media in children

Guideline on the assessment and management of acute otitis media in children

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and management of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media (Ear Infection)  (2019)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and management of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media (Ear Infection)

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Intermountain Healthcare

Intermountain Healthcare

Objective: This CPM provides best-practice recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (AOM), including guidance for appropriate use of antibiotics.

Objective: This CPM provides best-practice recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (AOM), including guidance for appropriate use of antibiotics.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Danish guidelines on management of otitis media in preschool children  (2016)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Danish guidelines on management of otitis media in preschool children

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Heidemann CH, Lous J, Berg J, Christensen JJ, Hkonsen SJ, Jakobsen M, Johansen CJ, Nielsen LH, Hansen MP, Poulsen A, Schousboe LP, Skrubbeltrang C, Vind AB, ...

Heidemann CH, Lous J, Berg J, Christensen JJ, Hkonsen SJ, Jakobsen M, Johanse...

The Danish Health and Medicines Authority and the Danish Society of Otorhinolaryngology guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media and surgical treatment of recurrent AOM and chronic OME in preschool children.

The Danish Health and Medicines Authority and the Danish Society of Otorhinolaryngology guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media and surgical treatment of recurrent AOM and chronic OME in preschool children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of otitis media with effusion in children. Socit franc aise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines  (2018)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of otitis media with effusion in children. Socit franc aise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines

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Blanc, F. et al.

Blanc, F. et al.

Objective: The Socit franaise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines concern the management of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children under the age of 12 years. They are based on extensive review of MEDLINE and Cochrane Library publications in English or French from 1996 to 2016 concerning the methods of diagnosis and assessment of otitis media with effusion, as well as the efficacy of tympanostomy tubes and medical and surgical treatments of OME.

Objective: The Socit franaise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines concern the management of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children under the age of 12 years. They are based on extensive review of MEDLINE and Cochrane Library publications in English or French from 1996 to 2016 concerning the methods of diagnosis and assessment of otitis media with effusion, as well as the efficacy of tympanostomy tubes and medical and surgical treatments of OME.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Resuscitation of blue baby and the use of prostaglandins  (2010)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Resuscitation of blue baby and the use of prostaglandins

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Linney M, Gnapragassam J, Wilson P, Rodd I

Linney M, Gnapragassam J, Wilson P, Rodd I

This document relates to the acute management of infants presenting acutely with collapse and/or cyanosis suggestive of congenital heart defect.

This document relates to the acute management of infants presenting acutely with collapse and/or cyanosis suggestive of congenital heart defect.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of the paediatric patient with acute head trauma  (2018)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of the paediatric patient with acute head trauma

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Farrell CA, Canadian Paediatric Society Acute Care Committee

Farrell CA, Canadian Paediatric Society Acute Care Committee

The purpose of this statement is to describe issues related to head trauma in infants, children and youth, including clinical manifestations, initial management priorities, guidelines for imaging, and subsequent observation and treatment.

The purpose of this statement is to describe issues related to head trauma in infants, children and youth, including clinical manifestations, initial management priorities, guidelines for imaging, and subsequent observation and treatment.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies  (2016)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Emerg...

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms  (2016)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Emerg...

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Acute management of croup in the emergency department  (2017)

Acute management of croup in the emergency department

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Ortiz-Alvarez O,

Ortiz-Alvarez O,

Acute management of croup in the emergency department.

Acute management of croup in the emergency department.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children  (2009)

Clinical Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children

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Royal College of Nursing

Royal College of Nursing

The guideline is aimed at a range of professional groups, patients and carers who may be involved in the assessment and management of childrens pain. The primary aims of this guideline are to: identify reliable and valid measures of pain intensity appropr

The guideline is aimed at a range of professional groups, patients and carers who may be involved in the assessment and management of childrens pain. The primary aims of this guideline are to: identify reliable and valid measures of pain intensity appropr

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pain-Less Practice: Techniques to Reduce Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Acute Care  (2017)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pain-Less Practice: Techniques to Reduce Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Acute Care

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Olsen, K, Weinberg, E

Olsen, K, Weinberg, E

Purpose: This article introduces the concept of a PainLESS Practicean evidence-based, tiered approach to procedural pain and anxiety management in acute care

Purpose: This article introduces the concept of a PainLESS Practicean evidence-based, tiered approach to procedural pain and anxiety management in acute care

Managing acute pain in children presenting to the emergency department without opioids  (2022)

Managing acute pain in children presenting to the emergency department without opioids

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Corrie E Chumpitazi1,Cindy Chang2,Zaza Atanelov3,Ann M Dietrich4,Samuel Hiu-Fung Lam5,Emily Rose6,Tim Ruttan7,Sam Shahid8,Michael J Stoner9,Carmen Sulton10,M...

Corrie E Chumpitazi1,Cindy Chang2,Zaza Atanelov3,Ann M Dietrich4,Samuel Hiu-F...

Implementing clinical pathways for acute behavioral health issues in pediatric medical settings  (2017)

Implementing clinical pathways for acute behavioral health issues in pediatric medical settings

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Feuer, V. and L. M. Prager

Feuer, V. and L. M. Prager

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL): Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and pediatric ENT infections. Short version  (2019)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL): Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and pediatric ENT infections. Short version

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Truffert, E. et al.

Truffert, E. et al.

Objective: To present the guidelines of the French Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery concerning the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in pediatric ENT infections.

Objective: To present the guidelines of the French Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery concerning the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in pediatric ENT infections.

Summaries of systematic reviews

Cochrane Summary: Influenza vaccine for preventing acute otitis media (middle ear infection)  (2017)

Cochrane Summary: Influenza vaccine for preventing acute otitis media (middle ear infection)

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Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion ('glue ear') in children  (2016)

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion ('glue ear') in children

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Venekamp RP, Burton MJ, van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, van Zon A, Schilder AG

Venekamp RP, Burton MJ, van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, van Zon A, Schilde...

Objective: To assess the benefits and harms of oral antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Objective: To assess the benefits and harms of oral antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Cochrane Summary: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

Cochrane Summary: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

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Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Background: In an asthma attack, the airways (small tubes in the lungs) narrow because of inflammation (swelling), muscle spasms and mucus secretions. Other symptoms include wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. This makes breathing difficult. Reliever inhalers typically contain short-acting beta2-agonists (SABAs) that relax the muscles in the airways, opening the airways so that breathing is easier. Anticholinergic drugs work by opening the airways and decreasing mucus secretions. Review question: We looked at randomised controlled trials to find out whether giving inhaled anticholinergics plus SABAs (instead of SABAs on their own) in the emergency department provides benefits or harms in children having an asthma attack. Key results: We found that children with a moderate or severe asthma attack who were given both drugs in the emergency department were less likely to be admitted to the hospital than those who only had SABAs. In the group receiving only SABAs, on average 23 out of 100 children with acute asthma were admitted to hospital compared with an average of 17 (95% CI 15 to 20) out of 100 children treated with SABAs plus anticholinergics. Taking both drugs was also better at improving lung function. Taking both drugs did not seem to reduce the possibility of another asthma attack. Fewer children treated with anticholinergics reported nausea and tremor, but no significant group difference was observed for vomiting. Quality of the evidence and further research: Most of the studies were in preschool- and school-aged children; three studies also included a small proportion of infants under 18 months of age, although there was no evidence that inclusion of these infants with wheezy episodes affected the results. Nine trials (45%) were at a low risk of bias and we regarded the evidence for hospitalisation as high quality. Physicians can administer the dose of anticholinergic and SABA in several different ways; as a single dose, or as a certain number of doses or more flexibly. Most of the trials gave the children two or three doses and we think that more research is needed to improve characterization of children that benefit from, and the most effective number and frequency of doses of, anticholinergic treatment.

Background: In an asthma attack, the airways (small tubes in the lungs) narrow because of inflammation (swelling), muscle spasms and mucus secretions. Other symptoms include wheezing, coughing and chest tightness. This makes breathing difficult. Reliever inhalers typically contain short-acting beta2-agonists (SABAs) that relax the muscles in the airways, opening the airways so that breathing is easier. Anticholinergic drugs work by opening the airways and decreasing mucus secretions. Review question: We looked at randomised controlled trials to find out whether giving inhaled anticholinergics plus SABAs (instead of SABAs on their own) in the emergency department provides benefits or harms in children having an asthma attack. Key results: We found that children with a moderate or severe asthma attack who were given both drugs in the emergency department were less likely to be admitted to the hospital than those who only had SABAs. In the group receiving only SABAs, on average 23 out of 100 children with acute asthma were admitted to hospital compared with an average of 17 (95% CI 15 to 20) out of 100 children treated with SABAs plus anticholinergics. Taking both drugs was also better at improving lung function. Taking both drugs did not seem to reduce the possibility of another asthma attack. Fewer children treated with anticholinergics reported nausea and tremor, but no significant group difference was observed for vomiting. Quality of the evidence and further research: Most of the studies were in preschool- and school-aged children; three studies also included a small proportion of infants under 18 months of age, although there was no evidence that inclusion of these infants with wheezy episodes affected the results. Nine trials (45%) were at a low risk of bias and we regarded the evidence for hospitalisation as high quality. Physicians can administer the dose of anticholinergic and SABA in several different ways; as a single dose, or as a certain number of doses or more flexibly. Most of the trials gave the children two or three doses and we think that more research is needed to improve characterization of children that benefit from, and the most effective number and frequency of doses of, anticholinergic treatment.

Cochrane Summary: Inhaled corticosteroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

Cochrane Summary: Inhaled corticosteroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

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Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA, Rowe, BH,

Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA, Rowe, BH,

Acuteasthma is a common cause of visits toemergencydepartments (ED) and the majority of patients are treated and discharged home. Some people will have arelapseofacuteasthma within two weeks of being discharged after apparently successful treatment. Beta2-agonist drugs are used to open the muscles in the airways and corticosteroids drugs are used to reduce inflammation of the swollen airways.Corticosteroidscan be inhaled (ICS) or swallowed as a tablet (so-calledoralcorticosteroids). ICS may reduceadverse effectsand get to the airways more directly thanoralcorticosteroids. Thisreviewof trials found that there was insufficient evidence that inhaling corticosteroids as well as taking the drugs orally is better thanoraluse alone, afteremergencydepartment treatment for an asthma attack. There is also insufficient evidence that taking ICS alone is as good as taking them orally, although there is some evidence to support using ICS alone for mild asthma attacks afteremergencydepartment discharge. Moreresearchis needed.

Acuteasthma is a common cause of visits toemergencydepartments (ED) and the majority of patients are treated and discharged home. Some people will have arelapseofacuteasthma within two weeks of being discharged after apparently successful treatment. Beta2-agonist drugs are used to open the muscles in the airways and corticosteroids drugs are used to reduce inflammation of the swollen airways.Corticosteroidscan be inhaled (ICS) or swallowed as a tablet (so-calledoralcorticosteroids). ICS may reduceadverse effectsand get to the airways more directly thanoralcorticosteroids. Thisreviewof trials found that there was insufficient evidence that inhaling corticosteroids as well as taking the drugs orally is better thanoraluse alone, afteremergencydepartment treatment for an asthma attack. There is also insufficient evidence that taking ICS alone is as good as taking them orally, although there is some evidence to support using ICS alone for mild asthma attacks afteremergencydepartment discharge. Moreresearchis needed.

Cochrane Summary: Role of ketamine for management of acute severe asthma in children (2012)

Cochrane Summary: Role of ketamine for management of acute severe asthma in children (2012)

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Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Children frequently visit theemergencydepartment foracuteexacerbation of asthma. Some of these children fail to respond tostandard treatment(corticosteroids and bronchodilators) with increasedmorbidity. Ketamine has bronchodilatory properties and may be useful foracuteexacerbation of asthma. We evaluated theefficacyof ketamine for management of severeacuteasthma in children who had not responded to standardtherapy. We found, through systematic search, only onestudywhere investigators assessed the usefulness of ketamine for management of severeacuteasthma in children. While this singlestudysuggested that there is a lack of evidence for usefulness of ketamine inacuteexacerbation of asthma in children, more trials are needed regarding the use of ketamine inacuteasthma before more specific recommendations can be made.

Children frequently visit theemergencydepartment foracuteexacerbation of asthma. Some of these children fail to respond tostandard treatment(corticosteroids and bronchodilators) with increasedmorbidity. Ketamine has bronchodilatory properties and may be useful foracuteexacerbation of asthma. We evaluated theefficacyof ketamine for management of severeacuteasthma in children who had not responded to standardtherapy. We found, through systematic search, only onestudywhere investigators assessed the usefulness of ketamine for management of severeacuteasthma in children. While this singlestudysuggested that there is a lack of evidence for usefulness of ketamine inacuteexacerbation of asthma in children, more trials are needed regarding the use of ketamine inacuteasthma before more specific recommendations can be made.

Cochrane Summary: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2009)

Cochrane Summary: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2009)

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Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, J, Bourdon, C, Bota, G, Blitz, S, Camargo, CA,

Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, J, Bourdon, C, Bota, G, Blitz, S, Camargo, CA,

In an asthma attack, the airways (passages to the lungs) narrow from muscle spasms and swelling (inflammation). Bronchodilator drugs (reliever inhalers) can be used to relax the muscles and open the airways, and corticosteroid drugs to reduce the inflammation. Magnesium sulfate is a drug that can also affect muscles, and may reduce inflammation as well. It can be given through a drip in the veins (intravenously). Thereviewof trials found thatintravenousmagnesium sulfate in addition to bronchodilators seems to be safe and beneficial for people with severe asthma attacks, or those for whom bronchodilators are not working.

In an asthma attack, the airways (passages to the lungs) narrow from muscle spasms and swelling (inflammation). Bronchodilator drugs (reliever inhalers) can be used to relax the muscles and open the airways, and corticosteroid drugs to reduce the inflammation. Magnesium sulfate is a drug that can also affect muscles, and may reduce inflammation as well. It can be given through a drip in the veins (intravenously). Thereviewof trials found thatintravenousmagnesium sulfate in addition to bronchodilators seems to be safe and beneficial for people with severe asthma attacks, or those for whom bronchodilators are not working.

Cochrane Summary: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2008)

Cochrane Summary: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2008)

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Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, F, Bretzlaff, J, Bota, G,

Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, F, Bretzlaff, J, Bota, G,

In an asthma attack, the airways (passages to the lungs) narrow from muscle spasms and swelling (inflammation). Bronchodilators (reliever inhalers to open up the lungs and airways) can be used for the spasms, and corticosteroids for the swelling.Corticosteroidscan be inhaled, or taken by mouth (orally) or through a drip into the veins (intravenously). Thereviewof trials found thatsystemic(oralorintravenous) corticosteroids reduce the need for people with asthma attacks to stay in hospital, with fewadverse effects.

In an asthma attack, the airways (passages to the lungs) narrow from muscle spasms and swelling (inflammation). Bronchodilators (reliever inhalers to open up the lungs and airways) can be used for the spasms, and corticosteroids for the swelling.Corticosteroidscan be inhaled, or taken by mouth (orally) or through a drip into the veins (intravenously). Thereviewof trials found thatsystemic(oralorintravenous) corticosteroids reduce the need for people with asthma attacks to stay in hospital, with fewadverse effects.

Cochrane Summary: Fluids for people with acute bacterial meningitis  (2016)

Cochrane Summary: Fluids for people with acute bacterial meningitis

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Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Cochrane Summary: Systemic corticosteroids for improving symptoms in children with acute middle ear infection  (2018)

Cochrane Summary: Systemic corticosteroids for improving symptoms in children with acute middle ear infection

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Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, Del Mar CB

Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, D...

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Cochrane Summary: Pain relievers for children with acute middle ear infection  (2016)

Cochrane Summary: Pain relievers for children with acute middle ear infection

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Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoiseaux RA

Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoise...

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Evidence Summary: Towards evidence based medicine for paediatricians. Question 3. Does the administration of glucagon improve the rate of radiological reduction in children with acute intestinal intussusception?  (2012)

Evidence Summary: Towards evidence based medicine for paediatricians. Question 3. Does the administration of glucagon improve the rate of radiological reduction in children with acute intestinal intussusception?

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Cachat F, Ramseyer P,

Cachat F, Ramseyer P,

This summary examines the relationship between glucagon and the rate of radiological reduction for acute intestinal intussusception.

This summary examines the relationship between glucagon and the rate of radiological reduction for acute intestinal intussusception.

Overviews of systematic reviews

Evidence Summary: Are topical antibiotics an alternative to oral antibiotics for children with acute otitis media and ear discharge?  (2016)

Evidence Summary: Are topical antibiotics an alternative to oral antibiotics for children with acute otitis media and ear discharge?

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Venekamp RP, Prasad V, Hay AD

Venekamp RP, Prasad V, Hay AD

Objective: To review the evidence comparing efectiveness of topical antibiotics with oral antibiotics, placebo, or no treatment in children with AOM presenting with ear discharge caused by spontaneous perforation of the eardrum.

Objective: To review the evidence comparing efectiveness of topical antibiotics with oral antibiotics, placebo, or no treatment in children with AOM presenting with ear discharge caused by spontaneous perforation of the eardrum.

Cochrane Summary: Hypertonic saline solution administered via nebuliser for acute bronchiolitis in infants  (2013)

Cochrane Summary: Hypertonic saline solution administered via nebuliser for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Summary: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children under two years of age  (2013)

Cochrane Summary: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children under two years of age

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Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson DW, Klassen TP, Hartling L

Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson ...

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Summary: Epinephrine for acute viral bronchiolitis in children less than two years of age  (2011)

Cochrane Summary: Epinephrine for acute viral bronchiolitis in children less than two years of age

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Hartling L, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Johnson DW, Plint AC, Klassen TP, Patel H, Fernandes RM

Hartling L, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Johnson DW, Plint AC, Klassen...

Objective: to examine the efficacy and safety of epinephrine in children less than two with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: to examine the efficacy and safety of epinephrine in children less than two with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Overview of Systematic Reviews: The Cochrane Library and safety of systemic corticosteroids for acute respiratory conditions in children: An overview of reviews  (2014)

Overview of Systematic Reviews: The Cochrane Library and safety of systemic corticosteroids for acute respiratory conditions in children: An overview of reviews

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Fernandes RM, Oleszczuk M, Woods CR, Rowe BH, Cates CJ, Hartling L.

Fernandes RM, Oleszczuk M, Woods CR, Rowe BH, Cates CJ, Hartling L.

Objective: To examine clinically relevant short-term safety outcomes related to acute single or recurrent systemic short-term (<2 weeks) corticosteroid use based on systematic reviews of acute respiratory conditions.

Objective: To examine clinically relevant short-term safety outcomes related to acute single or recurrent systemic short-term (<2 weeks) corticosteroid use based on systematic reviews of acute respiratory conditions.

Systematic reviews

Cochrane Systematic Review: Decongestants and antihistamines for acute otitis media in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Decongestants and antihistamines for acute otitis media in children

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Coleman C, Moore M.

Coleman C, Moore M.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of decongestant and antihistamine therapy in children with AOM on outcomes of AOM resolution, symptom resolution, medication side effects, and complications of AOM.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of decongestant and antihistamine therapy in children with AOM on outcomes of AOM resolution, symptom resolution, medication side effects, and complications of AOM.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media

Cochrane Systematic Review: Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media

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Thanaviratananich S, Laopaiboon M, Vatanasapt P.

Thanaviratananich S, Laopaiboon M, Vatanasapt P.

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of one or two daily doses with three or four daily doses of amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, for the treatment of AOM in children; and to compare complication rates and adverse reactions.

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of one or two daily doses with three or four daily doses of amoxicillin, with or without clavulanate, for the treatment of AOM in children; and to compare complication rates and adverse reactions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-course antibiotics for acute otitis media

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-course antibiotics for acute otitis media

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Kozyrskyj A, Klassen TP, Moffatt M, Harvey K.

Kozyrskyj A, Klassen TP, Moffatt M, Harvey K.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics (less than seven days) in comparison to a long course of antibiotics (seven days or greater) for the treatment of AOM in children.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics (less than seven days) in comparison to a long course of antibiotics (seven days or greater) for the treatment of AOM in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical analgesia for acute otitis media

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical analgesia for acute otitis media

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Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C.

Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of topical analgesia for AOM.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of topical analgesia for AOM.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children  (2015)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children

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Venekamp RP, Sanders SL, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM

Venekamp RP, Sanders SL, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM.

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the prevention of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the prevention of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media in children

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Leach AJ, Morris PS

Leach AJ, Morris PS

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of long-term antibiotics (for longer than six weeks) in preventing any AOM, AOM with perforation and C

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of long-term antibiotics (for longer than six weeks) in preventing any AOM, AOM with perforation and C

Systematic Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis of antimicrobial resistance in paediatric acute otitis media  (2019)

Systematic Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis of antimicrobial resistance in paediatric acute otitis media

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Michael W. Mathera, Michael Drinnana, John D. Perryc, Steven Powellb, Janet A. Wilsonb, Jason Powella

Michael W. Mathera, Michael Drinnana, John D. Perryc, Steven Powellb, Janet A...

Objective: We present a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, of both the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of AOM organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents, with the aim of informing responsible antimicrobial stewardship.

Objective: We present a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, of both the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of AOM organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents, with the aim of informing responsible antimicrobial stewardship.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Systemic corticosteroids for acute otitis media in children  (2018)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Systemic corticosteroids for acute otitis media in children

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Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, Del Mar CB

Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, D...

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Influenza vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in infants and children  (2017)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Influenza vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in infants and children

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Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Review: Antibiotic therapy for children with acute otitis media  (2017)

Review: Antibiotic therapy for children with acute otitis media

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Sakulchit T, Goldman RD

Sakulchit T, Goldman RD

Objective: Review of AOM and the evidence regarding use of antibiotics or watchful waiting to treat children at different levels of disease severity.

Objective: Review of AOM and the evidence regarding use of antibiotics or watchful waiting to treat children at different levels of disease severity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children  (2016)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children

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Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoiseaux RA

Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoise...

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Cochrane Review: Probiotics for preventing acute otitis media in children  (2019)

Cochrane Review: Probiotics for preventing acute otitis media in children

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Scott AM, Clark J, Julien B, Islam F, Roos K, Grimwood K, Little P, Del Mar CB

Scott AM, Clark J, Julien B, Islam F, Roos K, Grimwood K, Little P, Del Mar CB

Objective: To assess the effects of probiotics to prevent the occurrence and reduce the severity of acute otitis media in children.

Objective: To assess the effects of probiotics to prevent the occurrence and reduce the severity of acute otitis media in children.

Cochrane Review: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in children  (2020)

Cochrane Review: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in children

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de Svaux JLH, Venekamp RP, Lutje V, Hak E, Schilder AGM, Sanders EAM, Damoiseaux RAMJ de

de Svaux JLH, Venekamp RP, Lutje V, Hak E, Schilder AGM, Sanders EAM, Damoise...

Objective: To assess the effect of PCVs in preventing AOM in children up to 12 years of age.

Objective: To assess the effect of PCVs in preventing AOM in children up to 12 years of age.

Systematic Review: Clinical practice guidelines for acute otitis media in children: a systematic review and appraisal of European national guidelines  (2020)

Systematic Review: Clinical practice guidelines for acute otitis media in children: a systematic review and appraisal of European national guidelines

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Suzuki, H.G. et al.

Suzuki, H.G. et al.

Objective: To appraise European guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM) in children, including methodological quality, level of evidence (LoE), astrength of recommendations (SoR), and consideration of antibiotic stewardship

Objective: To appraise European guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM) in children, including methodological quality, level of evidence (LoE), astrength of recommendations (SoR), and consideration of antibiotic stewardship

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children

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van Zon A, van der Heijden GJ, van Dongen TM, Burton MJ, Schilder AG

van Zon A, van der Heijden GJ, van Dongen TM, Burton MJ, Schilder AG

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antihistamines and/or decongestants for otitis media with effusion (OME) in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antihistamines and/or decongestants for otitis media with effusion (OME) in children

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Griffin G, Flynn CA

Griffin G, Flynn CA

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine whether antihistamine, decongestant or combination therapy is effective in treating children who present with OME.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine whether antihistamine, decongestant or combination therapy is effective in treating children who present with OME.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Identification of children in the first four years of life for early treatment for otitis media with effusion

Cochrane Systematic Review: Identification of children in the first four years of life for early treatment for otitis media with effusion

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Simpson SA, Thomas CL, van der Linden MK, Macmillan H, van der Wouden JC, Butler C

Simpson SA, Thomas CL, van der Linden MK, Macmillan H, van der Wouden JC, Bu...

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess evidence from randomised controlled trials about the effect, on language and behavioural outcomes, of screening and treating children with clinically important OME in the first four years of their life. The focus was on the first four years of life because this is the time of most rapid language development. The consequences of hearing loss are likely to be most serious during this time. In addition, children of this age are least likely to be able to report or seek help for impaired hearing, particularly if these problems have a slow onset and are subtle.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess evidence from randomised controlled trials about the effect, on language and behavioural outcomes, of screening and treating children with clinically important OME in the first four years of their life. The focus was on the first four years of life because this is the time of most rapid language development. The consequences of hearing loss are likely to be most serious during this time. In addition, children of this age are least likely to be able to report or seek help for impaired hearing, particularly if these problems have a slow onset and are subtle.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children

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Simpson SA, Lewis R, van der Voort J, Butler CC

Simpson SA, Lewis R, van der Voort J, Butler CC

OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence for treating children with hearing loss associated with OME with systemic or topical intranasal steroids.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence for treating children with hearing loss associated with OME with systemic or topical intranasal steroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children  (2016)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children

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Venekamp RP, Burton MJ, van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, van Zon A, Schilder AG

Venekamp RP, Burton MJ, van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, van Zon A, Schilde...

Objective: To assess the benefits and harms of oral antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Objective: To assess the benefits and harms of oral antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Aerosolized prostacyclin for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Aerosolized prostacyclin for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

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Afshari A, Brok J, Mller AM, Wetterslev J

Afshari A, Brok J, Mller AM, Wetterslev J

OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the benefits and harms of aerosolized prostacyclin in critically ill patients with ALI and ARDS.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the benefits and harms of aerosolized prostacyclin in critically ill patients with ALI and ARDS.

Cochrane Systematic Review: High-frequency ventilation versus conventional ventilation for treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome

Cochrane Systematic Review: High-frequency ventilation versus conventional ventilation for treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome

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Sud S, Sud M, Friedrich JO, Wunsch H, Meade MO, Ferguson ND, Adhikari NK

Sud S, Sud M, Friedrich JO, Wunsch H, Meade MO, Ferguson ND, Adhikari NK

OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical and physiological effects of high frequency oscillation (HFO) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared to conventional ventilation.

OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical and physiological effects of high frequency oscillation (HFO) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared to conventional ventilation.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

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Afshari A, Brok J, Mller AM, Wetterslev J. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults....

Afshari A, Brok J, Mller AM, Wetterslev J. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute re...

OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the benefits and harms of INO in critically ill patients with AHRF.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the benefits and harms of INO in critically ill patients with AHRF.

Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children  (2013)

Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children

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Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson DW, Klassen TP, Hartling L

Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson ...

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants  (2013)

Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis  (2011)

Systematic Review: Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, Milne A, Johnson D, Plint A, Klassen TP, Vandermeer B

Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, Milne A, Johnson D, Plint A, Klassen TP, V...

Objectives: to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of bronchodilators and steroids, alone or combined, for the acute management of bronchiolitis in children aged less than 2 years.

Objectives: to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of bronchodilators and steroids, alone or combined, for the acute management of bronchiolitis in children aged less than 2 years.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Continuous negative extrathoracic pressure or continuous positive airway pressure compared to conventional ventilation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Continuous negative extrathoracic pressure or continuous positive airway pressure compared to conventional ventilation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure in children

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Shah PS, Ohlsson A, Shah JP.

Shah PS, Ohlsson A, Shah JP.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of CNEP or Ni-CPAP compared to conventional ventilation in children (at least one month old and less than 18 years of age) with AHRF due to non-cardiogenic causes for improving the mortality or morbidity associated with AHRF.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of CNEP or Ni-CPAP compared to conventional ventilation in children (at least one month old and less than 18 years of age) with AHRF due to non-cardiogenic causes for improving the mortality or morbidity associated with AHRF.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation for acute sinusitis in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation for acute sinusitis in children

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Shaikh N, Wald ER, Pi M.

Shaikh N, Wald ER, Pi M.

Objectives: To systematically review the efficacy of decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation in children with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis. We considered the following four interventions: 1) decongestants versus placebo or no medication, 2) antihistamines versus placebo or no medication, 3) decongestant and antihistamine combination versus placebo or no medication, 4) nasal irrigation versus no irrigation. The primary outcomes of the review were symptom resolution (improvement in symptom score from enrolment to day five and overall symptom burden (as measured by average symptom scores while on therapy).

Objectives: To systematically review the efficacy of decongestants, antihistamines and nasal irrigation in children with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis. We considered the following four interventions: 1) decongestants versus placebo or no medication, 2) antihistamines versus placebo or no medication, 3) decongestant and antihistamine combination versus placebo or no medication, 4) nasal irrigation versus no irrigation. The primary outcomes of the review were symptom resolution (improvement in symptom score from enrolment to day five and overall symptom burden (as measured by average symptom scores while on therapy).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Honey for acute cough in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Honey for acute cough in children

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Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE.

Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled corticosteroids during acute bronchiolitis in the prevention of post-bronchiolitic wheezing

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled corticosteroids during acute bronchiolitis in the prevention of post-bronchiolitic wheezing

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Blom DJ, Ermers M, Bont L, van Woensel JB, Van Aalderen WM.

Blom DJ, Ermers M, Bont L, van Woensel JB, Van Aalderen WM.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids, started during the acute phase of bronchiolitis, on the prevention of post-bronchiolitic wheezing.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids, started during the acute phase of bronchiolitis, on the prevention of post-bronchiolitic wheezing.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intranasal steroids for acute sinusitis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intranasal steroids for acute sinusitis

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Zalmanovici Trestioreanu A, Yaphe J.

Zalmanovici Trestioreanu A, Yaphe J.

Objectives: We examined whether intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are effective in relieving symptoms of acute sinusitis in adults and children.

Objectives: We examined whether intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are effective in relieving symptoms of acute sinusitis in adults and children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings

Cochrane Systematic Review: Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings

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Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T.

Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T.

Objectives: To assess the effects of oral OTC cough preparations for acute cough in children and adults.

Objectives: To assess the effects of oral OTC cough preparations for acute cough in children and adults.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Over-the-counter (OTC) medications to reduce cough as an adjunct to antibiotics for acute pneumonia in children and adults

Cochrane Systematic Review: Over-the-counter (OTC) medications to reduce cough as an adjunct to antibiotics for acute pneumonia in children and adults

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Chang CC, Cheng AC, Chang AB.

Chang CC, Cheng AC, Chang AB.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of OTC cough medications as an adjunct to antibiotics in children and adults with pneumonia.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of OTC cough medications as an adjunct to antibiotics in children and adults with pneumonia.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections

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Timmer A, Gnther J, Motschall E, Rcker G, Antes G, Kern WV.

Timmer A, Gnther J, Motschall E, Rcker G, Antes G, Kern WV.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of P. sidoides for the treatment of ARIs in children and adults.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of P. sidoides for the treatment of ARIs in children and adults.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections

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Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR, Huang CQ, Wu T.

Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR, Huang CQ, Wu T.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing acute URTIs.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for preventing acute URTIs.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

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Schuetz P, Mller B, Christ-Crain M, Stolz D, Tamm M, Bouadma L, Luyt CE, Wolff M, Chastre J, Tubach F, Kristoffersen KB, Burkhardt O, Welte T, Schroeder S, N...

Schuetz P, Mller B, Christ-Crain M, Stolz D, Tamm M, Bouadma L, Luyt CE, Wolf...

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review based on individual patient data was to assess the safety and efficacy of using procalcitonin for starting or stopping antibiotics over a large range of patients with varying severity of ARIs and from different clinical settings.

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review based on individual patient data was to assess the safety and efficacy of using procalcitonin for starting or stopping antibiotics over a large range of patients with varying severity of ARIs and from different clinical settings.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Rapid viral diagnosis for acute febrile respiratory illness in children in the Emergency Department

Cochrane Systematic Review: Rapid viral diagnosis for acute febrile respiratory illness in children in the Emergency Department

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Doan Q, Enarson P, Kissoon N, Klassen TP, Johnson DW.

Doan Q, Enarson P, Kissoon N, Klassen TP, Johnson DW.

Objectives: To determine the effect of rapid viral testing in the ED on the rate of precautionary testing, antibiotic use, and length of ED visit.

Objectives: To determine the effect of rapid viral testing in the ED on the rate of precautionary testing, antibiotic use, and length of ED visit.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections

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Kassel JC, King D, Spurling GK.

Kassel JC, King D, Spurling GK.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of saline nasal irrigation in treating the symptoms of acute URTIs.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of saline nasal irrigation in treating the symptoms of acute URTIs.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children

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Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, Milner RA, Pusic MV, Al Othman MA.

Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, Milner RA, Pusic MV, Al Othman MA.

Objectives: To summarize the evidence regarding the efficacy of two to six days of newer oral antibiotics (short duration) compared to 10 days of oral penicillin (standard duration) in treating children with acute GABHS pharyngitis.

Objectives: To summarize the evidence regarding the efficacy of two to six days of newer oral antibiotics (short duration) compared to 10 days of oral penicillin (standard duration) in treating children with acute GABHS pharyngitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Steam inhalation or humidified oxygen for acute bronchiolitis in children up to three years of age

Cochrane Systematic Review: Steam inhalation or humidified oxygen for acute bronchiolitis in children up to three years of age

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Umoren R, Odey F, Meremikwu MM.

Umoren R, Odey F, Meremikwu MM.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of steam inhalation or humidified oxygen to relieve respiratory distress and to evaluate adverse events in children up to three years old with acute bronchiolitis.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of steam inhalation or humidified oxygen to relieve respiratory distress and to evaluate adverse events in children up to three years old with acute bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Systemic corticosteroids for acute sinusitis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Systemic corticosteroids for acute sinusitis

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Venekamp RP, Thompson MJ, Hayward G, Heneghan CJ, Del Mar CB, Perera R, Glasziou PP, Rovers MM.

Venekamp RP, Thompson MJ, Hayward G, Heneghan CJ, Del Mar CB, Perera R, Glasz...

Objectives: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids on clinical response rates and to determine adverse effects and relapse rates of systemic corticosteroids compared to placebo or standard clinical care in children and adults with acute sinusitis.

Objectives: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids on clinical response rates and to determine adverse effects and relapse rates of systemic corticosteroids compared to placebo or standard clinical care in children and adults with acute sinusitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Addition of intravenous beta2-agonists to inhaled beta2-agonists for acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Addition of intravenous beta2-agonists to inhaled beta2-agonists for acute asthma

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Travers AH, Milan SJ, Jones AP, Camargo CA Jr, Rowe BH.

Travers AH, Milan SJ, Jones AP, Camargo CA Jr, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of adding intravenous (IV) beta(2)-agonists to inhaled beta(2)-agonist therapy for acute asthma treated in the emergency department.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of adding intravenous (IV) beta(2)-agonists to inhaled beta(2)-agonist therapy for acute asthma treated in the emergency department.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute asthma

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Graham V, Lasserson T, Rowe BH.

Graham V, Lasserson T, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of antibiotics prescribed in the treatment of acute asthma

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of antibiotics prescribed in the treatment of acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children

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McCallum GB, Morris PS, Chang AB.

McCallum GB, Morris PS, Chang AB.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of antibiotics compared to a control (no treatment or placebo) for persistent respiratory symptoms (within six months), following acute bronchiolitis.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of antibiotics compared to a control (no treatment or placebo) for persistent respiratory symptoms (within six months), following acute bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anticholinergic therapy for acute asthma in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anticholinergic therapy for acute asthma in children

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Teoh L, Cates CJ, Hurwitz M, Acworth JP, van Asperen P, Chang AB.

Teoh L, Cates CJ, Hurwitz M, Acworth JP, van Asperen P, Chang AB.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of only inhaled anticholinergic drugs (i.e. administered alone), compared to a control in children over the age of two years with acute asthma.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of only inhaled anticholinergic drugs (i.e. administered alone), compared to a control in children over the age of two years with acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children

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Griffiths B, Ducharme FM.

Griffiths B, Ducharme FM.

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Commercial versus home-made spacers in delivering bronchodilator therapy for acute therapy in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Commercial versus home-made spacers in delivering bronchodilator therapy for acute therapy in children

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Rodriguez C, Sossa M, Lozano JM.

Rodriguez C, Sossa M, Lozano JM.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to compare the response to inhaled beta-2 agonists delivered through metered-dose inhaler using home-made spacers, to the use of commercially produced spacers, in children with acute exacerbations of wheezing or asthma.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to compare the response to inhaled beta-2 agonists delivered through metered-dose inhaler using home-made spacers, to the use of commercially produced spacers, in children with acute exacerbations of wheezing or asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for hospitalised children with acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for hospitalised children with acute asthma

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Smith M, Iqbal S, Elliott TM, Everard M, Rowe BH.

Smith M, Iqbal S, Elliott TM, Everard M, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of systemic corticosteroids (oral, intravenous, or intramuscular) compared to placebo and inhaled steroids in acute paediatric asthma.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of systemic corticosteroids (oral, intravenous, or intramuscular) compared to placebo and inhaled steroids in acute paediatric asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for preventing relapse following acute exacerbations of asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for preventing relapse following acute exacerbations of asthma

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Rowe BH, Spooner CH, Ducharme FM, Bretzlaff JA, Bota GW.

Rowe BH, Spooner CH, Ducharme FM, Bretzlaff JA, Bota GW.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of corticosteroids (oral, intramuscular, or intravenous) for the treatment of asthmatic patients discharged from an acute care setting (i.e. usually the emergency department) after assessment and treatment of an acute asthmatic exacerbation.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of corticosteroids (oral, intramuscular, or intravenous) for the treatment of asthmatic patients discharged from an acute care setting (i.e. usually the emergency department) after assessment and treatment of an acute asthmatic exacerbation.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids

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Rowe BH, Spooner C, Ducharme FM, Bretzlaff JA, Bota GW.

Rowe BH, Spooner C, Ducharme FM, Bretzlaff JA, Bota GW.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early use of inhaled corticosteroids in the emergency department treatment of acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early use of inhaled corticosteroids in the emergency department treatment of acute asthma

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Edmonds ML, Milan SJ, Camargo CA Jr, Pollack CV, Rowe BH.

Edmonds ML, Milan SJ, Camargo CA Jr, Pollack CV, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of ICS for the treatment of patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To determine the benefit of ICS for the treatment of patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department (ED).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox for non-intubated acute asthma patients

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox for non-intubated acute asthma patients

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Rodrigo G, Pollack C, Rodrigo C, Rowe BH.

Rodrigo G, Pollack C, Rodrigo C, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the effect of the addition of heliox to standard medical care on the course of acute asthma, as measured by pulmonary function testing and clinical endpoints.

Objectives: To determine the effect of the addition of heliox to standard medical care on the course of acute asthma, as measured by pulmonary function testing and clinical endpoints.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma

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Cates CJ, Welsh EJ, Rowe BH.

Cates CJ, Welsh EJ, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma.

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma

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Powell C, Dwan K, Milan SJ, Beasley R, Hughes R, Knopp-Sihota JA, Rowe BH.

Powell C, Dwan K, Milan SJ, Beasley R, Hughes R, Knopp-Sihota JA, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of inhaled MgSO(4) administered in acute asthma on pulmonary functions and admission rates.Specific aims: To quantify the effects of inhaled MgSO(4) i) in addition to inhaled (2)-agonist, ii) in comparison to inhaled (2)-agonist alone or iii) in addition to combination treatment with inhaled (2) -agonist and ipratropium bromide.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of inhaled MgSO(4) administered in acute asthma on pulmonary functions and admission rates.Specific aims: To quantify the effects of inhaled MgSO(4) i) in addition to inhaled (2)-agonist, ii) in comparison to inhaled (2)-agonist alone or iii) in addition to combination treatment with inhaled (2) -agonist and ipratropium bromide.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge

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Edmonds ML, Milan SJ, Brenner BE, Camargo CA Jr, Rowe BH.

Edmonds ML, Milan SJ, Brenner BE, Camargo CA Jr, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous aminophylline for acute severe asthma in children over two years receiving inhaled bronchodilators

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous aminophylline for acute severe asthma in children over two years receiving inhaled bronchodilators

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Mitra A, Bassler D, Goodman K, Lasserson TJ, Ducharme FM.

Mitra A, Bassler D, Goodman K, Lasserson TJ, Ducharme FM.

Objectives: To determine if the addition of intravenous aminophylline produces a beneficial effect in children with acute severe asthma receiving conventional therapy.

Objectives: To determine if the addition of intravenous aminophylline produces a beneficial effect in children with acute severe asthma receiving conventional therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous beta2-agonists for acute asthma in the emergency department

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous beta2-agonists for acute asthma in the emergency department

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Travers A, Jones AP, Kelly K, Barker SJ, Camargo CA, Rowe BH.

Travers A, Jones AP, Kelly K, Barker SJ, Camargo CA, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of intravenous (IV) beta2-agonists for severe acute asthma treated in the emergency department.

Objectives: To determine the benefit of intravenous (IV) beta2-agonists for severe acute asthma treated in the emergency department.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous beta2-agonists versus intravenous aminophylline for acute asthma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous beta2-agonists versus intravenous aminophylline for acute asthma

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Travers AH, Jones AP, Camargo CA Jr, Milan SJ, Rowe BH.

Travers AH, Jones AP, Camargo CA Jr, Milan SJ, Rowe BH.

Objectives: To compare the benefit of IV beta(2)-agonists versus IV aminophylline for acute asthma treated in the emergency department and in patients admitted to hospital with acute severe asthma.

Objectives: To compare the benefit of IV beta(2)-agonists versus IV aminophylline for acute asthma treated in the emergency department and in patients admitted to hospital with acute severe asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children

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Jat KR, Chawla D.

Jat KR, Chawla D.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Leukotriene receptor antagonists in addition to usual care for acute asthma in adults and children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Leukotriene receptor antagonists in addition to usual care for acute asthma in adults and children

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Watts K, Chavasse RJ.

Watts K, Chavasse RJ.

Objectives: To determine if the addition of a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) produces a beneficial effect in children and adults with acute asthma who are currently receiving inhaled bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids.

Objectives: To determine if the addition of a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) produces a beneficial effect in children and adults with acute asthma who are currently receiving inhaled bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department

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Rowe BH, Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, Bota GW, Camargo CA Jr.

Rowe BH, Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, Bota GW, Camargo CA Jr.

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department.

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral corticosteroids for bronchiectasis (stable and acute exacerbations)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral corticosteroids for bronchiectasis (stable and acute exacerbations)

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Lasserson T, Holt K, Greenstone M.

Lasserson T, Holt K, Greenstone M.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of oral corticosteroids in acute and stable bronchiectasis

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of oral corticosteroids in acute and stable bronchiectasis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Surgical interventions for treating acute fractures or non-union of the middle third of the clavicle

Cochrane Systematic Review: Surgical interventions for treating acute fractures or non-union of the middle third of the clavicle

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Lenza M, Belloti JC, Gomes Dos Santos JB, Matsumoto MH, Faloppa F

Lenza M, Belloti JC, Gomes Dos Santos JB, Matsumoto MH, Faloppa F

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of surgical treatment for acute fracture or non-union of the middle third of the clavicle.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of surgical treatment for acute fracture or non-union of the middle third of the clavicle.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged from acute hospital settings to home

Cochrane Systematic Review: Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged from acute hospital settings to home

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Johnson A, Sandford J, Tyndall J

Johnson A, Sandford J, Tyndall J

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of providing written health information in addition to verbal information for patients and/or significant others being discharged from acute hospital settings to home.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of providing written health information in addition to verbal information for patients and/or significant others being discharged from acute hospital settings to home.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Blood transfusions for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease

Cochrane Systematic Review: Blood transfusions for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease

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Alhashimi D, Fedorowicz Z, Alhashimi F, Dastgiri S

Alhashimi D, Fedorowicz Z, Alhashimi F, Dastgiri S

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of blood transfusions, simple and exchange, for treating ACS by comparing improvement in symptoms and clinical outcomes against standard care.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of blood transfusions, simple and exchange, for treating ACS by comparing improvement in symptoms and clinical outcomes against standard care.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled nitric oxide for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled nitric oxide for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease

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Al Hajeri A, Serjeant GR, Fedorowicz Z

Al Hajeri A, Serjeant GR, Fedorowicz Z

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide for treating acute chest syndrome by comparing improvement in symptoms and clinical outcomes against standard care.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide for treating acute chest syndrome by comparing improvement in symptoms and clinical outcomes against standard care.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for acute auricular haematoma

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for acute auricular haematoma

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Jones SE, Mahendran S

Jones SE, Mahendran S

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of treatment options in acute auricular haematoma.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of treatment options in acute auricular haematoma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Drug management for acute tonic-clonic convulsions including convulsive status epilepticus in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Drug management for acute tonic-clonic convulsions including convulsive status epilepticus in children

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Appleton R, Macleod S, Martland T

Appleton R, Macleod S, Martland T

OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence comparing the efficacy and safety of midazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and paraldehyde in treating acute tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus in children treated in hospital.

OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence comparing the efficacy and safety of midazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and paraldehyde in treating acute tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus in children treated in hospital.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever

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Cilliers A, Manyemba J, Adler AJ, Saloojee H

Cilliers A, Manyemba J, Adler AJ, Saloojee H

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and pentoxifylline for preventing or reducing further heart valve damage in patients with acute rheumatic fever.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and pentoxifylline for preventing or reducing further heart valve damage in patients with acute rheumatic fever.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early versus Delayed Refeeding for Children with Acute Diarrhoea

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early versus Delayed Refeeding for Children with Acute Diarrhoea

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Gregorio GV, Dans LF, Silvestre MA

Gregorio GV, Dans LF, Silvestre MA

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of early and late reintroduction of feeding in children with acute diarrhoea.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of early and late reintroduction of feeding in children with acute diarrhoea.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea

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Allen SJ, Martinez EG, Gregorio GV, Dans LF

Allen SJ, Martinez EG, Gregorio GV, Dans LF

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of probiotics in proven or presumed acute infectious diarrhoea.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of probiotics in proven or presumed acute infectious diarrhoea.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

Cochrane Systematic Review: Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

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Gregorio GV, Gonzales ML, Dans LF, Martinez EG

Gregorio GV, Gonzales ML, Dans LF, Martinez EG

OBJECTIVES: To compare polymer-based ORS with glucose-based ORS for treating acute watery diarrhoea.

OBJECTIVES: To compare polymer-based ORS with glucose-based ORS for treating acute watery diarrhoea.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration caused by acute diarrhoea in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration caused by acute diarrhoea in children

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Hahn S, Kim S, Garner P. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration caused by acute diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst...

Hahn S, Kim S, Garner P. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for tr...

OBJECTIVES: To compare reduced osmolarity ORS with WHO standard ORS in children with acute diarrhoea.

OBJECTIVES: To compare reduced osmolarity ORS with WHO standard ORS in children with acute diarrhoea.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury

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Roberts I, Shakur H, Ker K, Coats T; CRASH-2 Trial collaborators

Roberts I, Shakur H, Ker K, Coats T; CRASH-2 Trial collaborators

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of antifibrinolytic drugs on mortality, vascular occlusive events, surgical intervention and receipt of blood transfusion after acute traumatic injury.

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of antifibrinolytic drugs on mortality, vascular occlusive events, surgical intervention and receipt of blood transfusion after acute traumatic injury.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Bradykinin beta-2 receptor antagonists for acute traumatic brain injury

Cochrane Systematic Review: Bradykinin beta-2 receptor antagonists for acute traumatic brain injury

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Ker K, Blackhall K

Ker K, Blackhall K

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the safety and effectiveness of beta-2 receptor antagonists for TBI.

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the safety and effectiveness of beta-2 receptor antagonists for TBI.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Hyperventilation therapy for acute traumatic brain injury

Cochrane Systematic Review: Hyperventilation therapy for acute traumatic brain injury

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Schierhout G, Roberts I

Schierhout G, Roberts I

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of hyperventilation on death and neurological disability following head injury.

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of hyperventilation on death and neurological disability following head injury.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury

Cochrane Systematic Review: Progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury

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Ma J, Huang S, Qin S, You C

Ma J, Huang S, Qin S, You C

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of progesterone in people with acute TBI.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of progesterone in people with acute TBI.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Steroids for acute spinal cord injury

Cochrane Systematic Review: Steroids for acute spinal cord injury

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Bracken MB

Bracken MB

OBJECTIVES: To review randomized trials of steroids for human acute spinal cord injury.

OBJECTIVES: To review randomized trials of steroids for human acute spinal cord injury.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dipyrone for acute primary headaches

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dipyrone for acute primary headaches

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Ramacciotti AS, Soares BG, Atallah AN

Ramacciotti AS, Soares BG, Atallah AN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of dipyrone for acute primary headaches in adults and children.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of dipyrone for acute primary headaches in adults and children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Hydromorphone for acute and chronic pain

Cochrane Systematic Review: Hydromorphone for acute and chronic pain

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Quigley C

Quigley C

OBJECTIVES: This review explores and assesses the evidence for the efficacy of hydromorphone in the management of pain.

OBJECTIVES: This review explores and assesses the evidence for the efficacy of hydromorphone in the management of pain.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute pyelonephritis in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute pyelonephritis in children

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Hodson EM, Willis NS, Craig JC

Hodson EM, Willis NS, Craig JC

OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Bicarbonate versus lactate solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Bicarbonate versus lactate solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis

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Bai ZG, Yang K, Tian J, Ma B, Liu Y, Jiang L, Tan J, Liu TX, Chi I

Bai ZG, Yang K, Tian J, Ma B, Liu Y, Jiang L, Tan J, Liu TX, Chi I

OBJECTIVES: To look at the benefits and harms of bicarbonate versus lactate solutions in acute PD.

OBJECTIVES: To look at the benefits and harms of bicarbonate versus lactate solutions in acute PD.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short versus standard duration oral antibiotic therapy for acute urinary tract infection in children

Cochrane Systematic Review: Short versus standard duration oral antibiotic therapy for acute urinary tract infection in children

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Michael M, Hodson EM, Craig JC, Martin S, Moyer VA

Michael M, Hodson EM, Craig JC, Martin S, Moyer VA

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of short-course (2-4 days) compared to standard duration (7-14 days) oral antibiotic treatment for acute UTI in children.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of short-course (2-4 days) compared to standard duration (7-14 days) oral antibiotic treatment for acute UTI in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anticholinergics for neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia

Cochrane Systematic Review: Anticholinergics for neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia

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Rathbone J, Soares-Weiser K

Rathbone J, Soares-Weiser K

OBJECTIVES: To review anticholinergic drugs for neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia.

OBJECTIVES: To review anticholinergic drugs for neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds

Cochrane Systematic Review: Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds

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Dat AD, Poon F, Pham KB, Doust J

Dat AD, Poon F, Pham KB, Doust J

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing of acute wounds (for example lacerations, surgical incisions and burns) and chronic wounds (for example infected wounds, arterial and venous ulcers).

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing of acute wounds (for example lacerations, surgical incisions and burns) and chronic wounds (for example infected wounds, arterial and venous ulcers).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents

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Fedorowicz Z, Jagannath VA, Carter B

Fedorowicz Z, Jagannath VA, Carter B

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis induced vomiting in children and adolescents.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis induced vomiting in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Diclofenac for acute pain in children  (2009)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Diclofenac for acute pain in children

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Standing JF, Savage I, Pritchard D, Waddington M

Standing JF, Savage I, Pritchard D, Waddington M

OBJECTIVES: 1) Assess the efficacy of diclofenac for acute pain in children. 2) Assess the safety of diclofenac for short-term use in children. 3) Identify gaps in the evidence to direct future research.

OBJECTIVES: 1) Assess the efficacy of diclofenac for acute pain in children. 2) Assess the safety of diclofenac for short-term use in children. 3) Identify gaps in the evidence to direct future research.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Acetylcysteine and carbocysteine for acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease

Cochrane Systematic Review: Acetylcysteine and carbocysteine for acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease

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Chalumeau M, Duijvestijn YC

Chalumeau M, Duijvestijn YC

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety and to establish a benefit-risk ratio of acetylcysteine and carbocysteine as symptomatic treatments for acute upper and lower RTIs in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease.

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety and to establish a benefit-risk ratio of acetylcysteine and carbocysteine as symptomatic treatments for acute upper and lower RTIs in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Advising patients to increase fluid intake for treating acute respiratory infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Advising patients to increase fluid intake for treating acute respiratory infections

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Guppy MP, Mickan SM, Del Mar CB, Thorning S, Rack A

Guppy MP, Mickan SM, Del Mar CB, Thorning S, Rack A

OBJECTIVES: To answer the following questions.1. Does recommending increased fluid intake as a treatment for acute respiratory infections improve duration and severity of symptoms? 2. Are there adverse effects from recommending increased fluids in people with acute respiratory infections? 3. Are any benefits or harms related to site of infection (upper or lower respiratory tract) or a different severity of illness?

OBJECTIVES: To answer the following questions.1. Does recommending increased fluid intake as a treatment for acute respiratory infections improve duration and severity of symptoms? 2. Are there adverse effects from recommending increased fluids in people with acute respiratory infections? 3. Are any benefits or harms related to site of infection (upper or lower respiratory tract) or a different severity of illness?

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis

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Kenealy T, Arroll B

Kenealy T, Arroll B

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of antibiotics compared with placebo for reducing general and specific nasopharyngeal symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) (common colds). To determine if antibiotics have any influence on the tcomes for acute purulent rhinitis and acute clear rhinitis lasting less than 10 days before the intervention. To determine whether there are significant adverse outcomes associated with antibiotic therapy for participants with a clinical diagnosis of acute URTI or acute purulent rhinitis.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of antibiotics compared with placebo for reducing general and specific nasopharyngeal symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) (common colds). To determine if antibiotics have any influence on the tcomes for acute purulent rhinitis and acute clear rhinitis lasting less than 10 days before the intervention. To determine whether there are significant adverse outcomes associated with antibiotic therapy for participants with a clinical diagnosis of acute URTI or acute purulent rhinitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old

Cochrane Systematic Review: Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old

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Roqu i Figuls M, Gin-Garriga M, Granados Rugeles C, Perrotta C

Roqu i Figuls M, Gin-Garriga M, Granados Rugeles C, Perrotta C

OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to determine the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in infants aged less than 24 months old with acute bronchiolitis. A condary objective was to determine the efficacy of different techniques of chest physiotherapy (for ample, vibration and percussion and passive forced exhalation).

OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to determine the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in infants aged less than 24 months old with acute bronchiolitis. A condary objective was to determine the efficacy of different techniques of chest physiotherapy (for ample, vibration and percussion and passive forced exhalation).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Chest radiograph for acute lower respiratory infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Chest radiograph for acute lower respiratory infections

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Swingler GH, Zwarenstein M

Swingler GH, Zwarenstein M

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chest radiography on clinical outcome in acute lower respiratory infections.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chest radiography on clinical outcome in acute lower respiratory infections.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP.

Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP.

Objectives: To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with viral bronchiolitis.

Objectives: To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury  (2005)

Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury

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Alderson P, Roberts I

Alderson P, Roberts I

To quantify the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment ofacutetraumatic brain injury.

To quantify the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment ofacutetraumatic brain injury.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dexamethasone for acute asthma exacerbations in children: a meta-analysis (2014)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dexamethasone for acute asthma exacerbations in children: a meta-analysis (2014)

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Keeney, GE, Gray, MP, Morrison, AK, Levas, MN, Kessler, EA, Hill, GD, Gorelick, MH, Jackson, JL,

Keeney, GE, Gray, MP, Morrison, AK, Levas, MN, Kessler, EA, Hill, GD, Gorelic...

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether intramuscular or oral dexamethasone is equivalent or superior to a 5-day course of oral prednisone or prednisolone. The primary outcome of interest was return visits or hospital readmissions.

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether intramuscular or oral dexamethasone is equivalent or superior to a 5-day course of oral prednisone or prednisolone. The primary outcome of interest was return visits or hospital readmissions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

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Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

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Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for treating acute asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for treating acute asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Shan, Z, Rong, Y, Yang, W, Wang, D, Yao, P, Xie, J, Liu, L,

Shan, Z, Rong, Y, Yang, W, Wang, D, Yao, P, Xie, J, Liu, L,

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate on treating adults and children with acute asthma.

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate on treating adults and children with acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

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Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA Jr, Rowe, BH,

Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA Jr, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children (2012)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children (2012)

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Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2000)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, JA, Bourdon, C, Bota, GW, Camargo, CA Jr,

Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, JA, Bourdon, C, Bota, GW, Camargo, CA Jr,

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department. Seven trials were included (5 adult, 2 pediatric).

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department. Seven trials were included (5 adult, 2 pediatric).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Systematic Review: Nebulized hypertonic saline for acute bronchiolitis: A systematic review  (2015)

Systematic Review: Nebulized hypertonic saline for acute bronchiolitis: A systematic review

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Klassen TP, Wainwright C.

Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Klassen TP, Wainwright C.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting  (2010)

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

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Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury  (2015)

Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury

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Ker K, Roberts I, Shakur H, Coats TJ,

Ker K, Roberts I, Shakur H, Coats TJ,

Review to assess the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in patients with acute traumatic injury.

Review to assess the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in patients with acute traumatic injury.

Systematic Review: Management Modalities and Outcomes Following Acute Scaphoid Fractures in Children: A Quantitative Review and Meta-Analysis  (2017)

Systematic Review: Management Modalities and Outcomes Following Acute Scaphoid Fractures in Children: A Quantitative Review and Meta-Analysis

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Shaterian A, Santos PJF, Lee CJ, Evans GRD, Leis A

Shaterian A, Santos PJF, Lee CJ, Evans GRD, Leis A

The objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes following different treatment modalities for pediatric scaphoid fractures.

The objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes following different treatment modalities for pediatric scaphoid fractures.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis  (2016)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis

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Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis  (2015)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis

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Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, Prasad K, Van de Beek D

Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, Prasad K, Van de Beek D

Objective: To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis.

Objective: To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis.

Review: Lumbar puncture and brain herniation in acute bacterial meningitis: a review  (2007)

Review: Lumbar puncture and brain herniation in acute bacterial meningitis: a review

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Joffe AR

Joffe AR

Objective: There has been controversy regarding the risk of cerebral herniation caused by a lumbar puncture (LP) in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). This review discusses in detail the issues involved in this controversy.

Objective: There has been controversy regarding the risk of cerebral herniation caused by a lumbar puncture (LP) in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). This review discusses in detail the issues involved in this controversy.

Systematic Review: Screening for Suicide Risk in the Pediatric Emergency and Acute Care Setting  (2007)

Systematic Review: Screening for Suicide Risk in the Pediatric Emergency and Acute Care Setting

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Wintersteen MB, Diamond GS, Fein JA

Wintersteen MB, Diamond GS, Fein JA

Objective: reviews epidemiology, psychiatric comorbidities, risk factors, warning signs, screening measures, and issues related to screening for suicide risk in the pediatric emergency department and acute care settings.

Objective: reviews epidemiology, psychiatric comorbidities, risk factors, warning signs, screening measures, and issues related to screening for suicide risk in the pediatric emergency department and acute care settings.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute bronchiolitis in children  (2019)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute bronchiolitis in children

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KR Jat, JL Mathew

KR Jat, JL Mathew

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of CPAP compared to no or sham CPAP in infants and children under three years of age with acute bronchiolitis.

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of CPAP compared to no or sham CPAP in infants and children under three years of age with acute bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants  (2017)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C,Klassen TP

Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C,Klassen TP

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulizing hypertonic saline ( 3%) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulizing hypertonic saline ( 3%) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children under two years of age  (2013)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children under two years of age

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Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson DW, Klassen TP, Hartling L

Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson ...

Objective: To review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Objective: To review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Review: Quality indicators for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis: a systematic review.  (2017)

Review: Quality indicators for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis: a systematic review.

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Dhami S, Sheikh A, Muraro A, et al.

Dhami S, Sheikh A, Muraro A, et al.

To identify quality indicators to support the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis.

To identify quality indicators to support the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis.

Systematic review: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: a systematic review.  (2020)

Systematic review: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: a systematic review.

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Abrams JY, Godfred-Cato SE, Oster ME, et al.

Abrams JY, Godfred-Cato SE, Oster ME, et al.

Objective: To develop a more comprehensive description of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a novel syndrome linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, by conducting a systematic analysis of studies from different settings that used various inclusion criteria.

Objective: To develop a more comprehensive description of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a novel syndrome linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, by conducting a systematic analysis of studies from different settings that used various inclusion criteria.

Systematic Review: Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for acute procedural pain: a systematic review  (2014)

Systematic Review: Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for acute procedural pain: a systematic review

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Lee GY, Yamada J, Kyololo O, Shorkey A, Stevens B

Lee GY, Yamada J, Kyololo O, Shorkey A, Stevens B

Objective: To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendations for their use.

Objective: To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendations for their use.

Systematic Review: Digital Technology Distraction for Acute Pain in Children: AMeta-analysis  (2020)

Systematic Review: Digital Technology Distraction for Acute Pain in Children: AMeta-analysis

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Michelle Gates,Lisa Hartling,Jocelyn Shulhan-Kilroy,Tara MacGregor,Samantha Guitard,Aireen Wingert,Robin Featherstone,Ben Vandermeer,Naveen Poonai,Janeva Kir...

Michelle Gates,Lisa Hartling,Jocelyn Shulhan-Kilroy,Tara MacGregor,Samantha G...

Objective:To determine the effect of digital technology distraction on pain and distress in children experiencing acutely painful conditions or procedures.

Objective:To determine the effect of digital technology distraction on pain and distress in children experiencing acutely painful conditions or procedures.

Systematic Review: Clinical efficacy of virtual reality for acute procedural pain management: A systematic review and meta-analysis  (2018)

Systematic Review: Clinical efficacy of virtual reality for acute procedural pain management: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Evelyn Chan, Samantha Foster , Ryan Sambell , Paul Leong

Evelyn Chan, Samantha Foster , Ryan Sambell , Paul Leong

There is no comprehensive, high-quality systematic review that specifically assesses the efficacy of virtual reality on acutely painful healthcare interventions, nor has there been any quantitative data synthesis on this topic. We therefore conducted a sy

There is no comprehensive, high-quality systematic review that specifically assesses the efficacy of virtual reality on acutely painful healthcare interventions, nor has there been any quantitative data synthesis on this topic. We therefore conducted a sy

The role of inhaled methoxyflurane in acute pain management  (2018)

The role of inhaled methoxyflurane in acute pain management

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Porter KM, Dayan AD, Dickerson S, Middleton PM.

Porter KM, Dayan AD, Dickerson S, Middleton PM.

Methoxyflurane is an inhaled analgesic administered via a disposable inhaler which has been used in Australia for over 40 years for the management of pain associated with trauma and for medical procedures in children and adults. Now available in 16 countr

Methoxyflurane is an inhaled analgesic administered via a disposable inhaler which has been used in Australia for over 40 years for the management of pain associated with trauma and for medical procedures in children and adults. Now available in 16 countr

Cochrane Systematic Review: Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections

Cochrane Systematic Review: Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections

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Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R, Farley R.

Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Foxlee R, Farley R.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of delayed antibiotics compared to immediate or no antibiotics as a prescribing strategy for ARTIs. We evaluated clinical outcomes including duration and severity measures for pain, malaise, fever, cough and rhinorrhoea in sore throat, otitis media, bronchitis (cough) and the common cold. We also evaluated the outcomes of antibiotic use, patient satisfaction, antibiotic resistance and re-consultation rates and use of alternative therapies.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of delayed antibiotics compared to immediate or no antibiotics as a prescribing strategy for ARTIs. We evaluated clinical outcomes including duration and severity measures for pain, malaise, fever, cough and rhinorrhoea in sore throat, otitis media, bronchitis (cough) and the common cold. We also evaluated the outcomes of antibiotic use, patient satisfaction, antibiotic resistance and re-consultation rates and use of alternative therapies.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles

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Kabra SK, Lodha R

Kabra SK, Lodha R

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles to prevent complications and reduce pneumonia, other morbidities and mortality.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles to prevent complications and reduce pneumonia, other morbidities and mortality.

Review: From paper to practice: Strategies for improving antibiotic stewardship in the pediatric ambulatory setting.  (2018)

Review: From paper to practice: Strategies for improving antibiotic stewardship in the pediatric ambulatory setting.

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Bozzella MJ, Harik N, Newland JG, Hamdy RF

Bozzella MJ, Harik N, Newland JG, Hamdy RF

Objective: The intent with this review is to provide an overview of strategies that pediatric providers can take from paper to practice.

Objective: The intent with this review is to provide an overview of strategies that pediatric providers can take from paper to practice.

Systematic Review: Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis  (2010)

Systematic Review: Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Costelloe C, Metcalfe C, Lovering A, Mant D, Hay AD

Costelloe C, Metcalfe C, Lovering A, Mant D, Hay AD

Objective: To systematically review the literature and, where appropriate, meta-analyse studies investigating subsequent antibiotic resistance in individuals prescribed antibiotics in primary care.

Objective: To systematically review the literature and, where appropriate, meta-analyse studies investigating subsequent antibiotic resistance in individuals prescribed antibiotics in primary care.

Key studies

Key study: Symptomatic and asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in the first year of life: association with acute otitis media development  (2015)

Key study: Symptomatic and asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in the first year of life: association with acute otitis media development

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Chonmaitree T, Alvarez-Fernandez P, Jennings K, Trujillo R, Marom T, Loeffelholz MJ, Miller AL, McCormick DP, Patel JA, Pyles RB

Chonmaitree T, Alvarez-Fernandez P, Jennings K, Trujillo R, Marom T, Loeffelh...

Objective: This study determined the epidemiologic characteristics and etiology of asymptomatic upper respiratory tract infection in the first year of life and the association with acute otitis media complication.

Objective: This study determined the epidemiologic characteristics and etiology of asymptomatic upper respiratory tract infection in the first year of life and the association with acute otitis media complication.

Key study: Treatment of acute otitis media in children under 2 years of age  (2011)

Key study: Treatment of acute otitis media in children under 2 years of age

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Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Shaikh N, Wald ER, Kearney DH, Colborn DK, Kurs-Lasky M, Bhatnagar S, Haralam MA, Zoffel LM, Jenkins C, Pope MA, Balent...

Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Shaikh N, Wald ER, Kearney DH, Colborn ...

Objective: We undertook this clinical trial to determine the extent to which antimicrobial treatment affects the course of both symptoms and signs of acute otitis media, irrespective of the apparent severity of the disease, among children 6 to 23 months of age in whom the diagnosis of acute otitis media is quite certain.

Objective: We undertook this clinical trial to determine the extent to which antimicrobial treatment affects the course of both symptoms and signs of acute otitis media, irrespective of the apparent severity of the disease, among children 6 to 23 months of age in whom the diagnosis of acute otitis media is quite certain.

Key study: A placebo-controlled trial of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media  (2011)

Key study: A placebo-controlled trial of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media

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Thtinen PA, Laine MK, Huovinen P, Jalava J, Ruuskanen O, Ruohola A

Thtinen PA, Laine MK, Huovinen P, Jalava J, Ruuskanen O, Ruohola A

Objective: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in the age group with the highest incidence of acute otitis media. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media when strict diagnostic criteria are used and the antimicrobial coverage and dosage of the active treatment are adequate.

Objective: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in the age group with the highest incidence of acute otitis media. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media when strict diagnostic criteria are used and the antimicrobial coverage and dosage of the active treatment are adequate.

Key study: Acute otitis media in children presenting to the emergency department: Is it diagnosed and managed appropriately?  (2019)

Key study: Acute otitis media in children presenting to the emergency department: Is it diagnosed and managed appropriately?

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Niroshan Balasundaram, Dung Phan, Daniel Mazzoni, Elliot Duong, Amy Sweeny, Chris Del Mar and Gerben Keijzers

Niroshan Balasundaram, Dung Phan, Daniel Mazzoni, Elliot Duong, Amy Sweeny, C...

Objective: To describe the diagnostic and management practice in children with acute otitis media (AOM) presenting to the emergency department (ED) and compare diagnosis and management against existing guidelines.

Objective: To describe the diagnostic and management practice in children with acute otitis media (AOM) presenting to the emergency department (ED) and compare diagnosis and management against existing guidelines.

Key study: Diagnostic Accuracy, Prescription Behavior, and Watchful Waiting Efficacy for Pediatric Acute Otitis Media  (2019)

Key study: Diagnostic Accuracy, Prescription Behavior, and Watchful Waiting Efficacy for Pediatric Acute Otitis Media

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Brinker DL Jr, MacGeorge EL, Hackman N

Brinker DL Jr, MacGeorge EL, Hackman N

Objective: To assess the implications and recommendations to improve antibiotic stewardship through watchful waiting as an alternative to immediate antibiotic treatment in children with AOM.

Objective: To assess the implications and recommendations to improve antibiotic stewardship through watchful waiting as an alternative to immediate antibiotic treatment in children with AOM.

Key study: Optimising pain management in children with acute otitis media through a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial  (2018)

Key study: Optimising pain management in children with acute otitis media through a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

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van Uum RT, Venekamp RP, Sjoukes A, van de Pol AC, de Wit GA, Schilder AGM, Damoiseaux RAMJ,

van Uum RT, Venekamp RP, Sjoukes A, van de Pol AC, de Wit GA, Schilder AGM, D...

Objective: We have developed a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention to optimise pain management in children with AOM, and we trial its clinical and cost effectiveness.

Objective: We have developed a primary care-based multifaceted educational intervention to optimise pain management in children with AOM, and we trial its clinical and cost effectiveness.

Key study: Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children  (2016)

Key study: Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children

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Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Kearney DH, Bhatnagar S, Shope TR, Martin JM, Kurs-Lasky M, Copelli SJ, Colborn DK, Block SL, Labella JJ, Lynch TG, Coh...

Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, Kearney DH, Bhatnagar S, Shope TR, Mart...

Objective: Given methodologic limitations in available publications, we undertook the current trial involving children 6 to 23 months of age to determine whether limiting antimicrobial treatment to 5 days rather than using the standard 10-day regimen would afford equivalent outcomes and whether doing so also for subsequent episodes would lead to a reduction in the overall use of antimicrobial treatment, with a resulting reduction in the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Objective: Given methodologic limitations in available publications, we undertook the current trial involving children 6 to 23 months of age to determine whether limiting antimicrobial treatment to 5 days rather than using the standard 10-day regimen would afford equivalent outcomes and whether doing so also for subsequent episodes would lead to a reduction in the overall use of antimicrobial treatment, with a resulting reduction in the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Key study: Use of symptoms and risk factors to predict acute otitis media in infants  (2016)

Key study: Use of symptoms and risk factors to predict acute otitis media in infants

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McCormick DP, Jennings K, Ede LC, Alvarez-Fernandez P, Patel J, Chonmaitree T

McCormick DP, Jennings K, Ede LC, Alvarez-Fernandez P, Patel J, Chonmaitree T

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of symptoms and other risk factors in predicting the presence of AOM in infants.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of symptoms and other risk factors in predicting the presence of AOM in infants.

Key Study: Invasive bacterial Infections in afebrile infants diagnosed with acute otitis media  (2021)

Key Study: Invasive bacterial Infections in afebrile infants diagnosed with acute otitis media

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Son H McLaren 1, Andrea T Cruz 2, Kenneth Yen, et al. Pediatrics

Son H McLaren 1, Andrea T Cruz 2, Kenneth Yen, et al. Pediatrics

Objective: to determine the prevalence of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs) and adverse events in afebrile infants with acute otitis media (AOM).

Objective: to determine the prevalence of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs) and adverse events in afebrile infants with acute otitis media (AOM).

Key Study: Anaesthetic-analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT  (2019)

Key Study: Anaesthetic-analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT

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Hay, A.D. et al.

Hay, A.D. et al.

Objective: The Childrens Ear Pain Study (CEDAR) investigated whether or not providing anaestheticanalgesic ear drops reduced antibiotic consumption in children with AOM. Secondary objectives included pain control and cost-effectiveness.

Objective: The Childrens Ear Pain Study (CEDAR) investigated whether or not providing anaestheticanalgesic ear drops reduced antibiotic consumption in children with AOM. Secondary objectives included pain control and cost-effectiveness.

Key Study: Evaluation of the utility of radiography in acute bronchiolitis  (2007)

Key Study: Evaluation of the utility of radiography in acute bronchiolitis

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Schuh S, Lalani A, Allen U, Manson D, Babyn P, Stephens D, MacPhee S, Mokanski M, Khaikin S, Dick P

Schuh S, Lalani A, Allen U, Manson D, Babyn P, Stephens D, MacPhee S, Mokansk...

Objectives: to determine the proportion of radiographs inconsistent with bronchiolitis in children with typical presentation of bronchiolitis and to compare rates of intended antibiotic therapy before radiography versus those given antibiotics after radiography.

Objectives: to determine the proportion of radiographs inconsistent with bronchiolitis in children with typical presentation of bronchiolitis and to compare rates of intended antibiotic therapy before radiography versus those given antibiotics after radiography.

Key Study: Acute care clinical indicators associated with discharge outcomes in children with severe traumatic brain injury  (2014)

Key Study: Acute care clinical indicators associated with discharge outcomes in children with severe traumatic brain injury

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Vavilala MS, Kernic MA, Wang J, Kannan N, Mink RB, Wainwright MS, Groner JI, Bell MJ, Giza CC, Zatzick DF, Ellenbogen RG, Boyle LN, Mitchell PH, Rivara FP

Vavilala MS, Kernic MA, Wang J, Kannan N, Mink RB, Wainwright MS, Groner JI, ...

The effect of the 2003 severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) guidelines on outcomes has not been examined. We aimed to develop a set ofacutecare guideline-influenced clinical indicators of adherence and tested the relationship between these indicators during the first 72 hours after hospital admission and discharge outcomes.

The effect of the 2003 severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) guidelines on outcomes has not been examined. We aimed to develop a set ofacutecare guideline-influenced clinical indicators of adherence and tested the relationship between these indicators during the first 72 hours after hospital admission and discharge outcomes.

Key Study: The Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure: a valid clinical score for assessing acute asthma severity from toddlers to teenagers (2008)

Key Study: The Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure: a valid clinical score for assessing acute asthma severity from toddlers to teenagers (2008)

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Ducharme, FM, Chalut, D, Plotnick, L, Savdie, C, Kudirka, D, Zhang, X, Meng, L, McGillivray, D,

Ducharme, FM, Chalut, D, Plotnick, L, Savdie, C, Kudirka, D, Zhang, X, Meng, ...

To determine the performance characteristics of the Preschool Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) in preschool and school-aged children with acute asthma.

To determine the performance characteristics of the Preschool Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) in preschool and school-aged children with acute asthma.

Key Study: The Preschool Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM): a responsive index of acute asthma severity (2000)

Key Study: The Preschool Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM): a responsive index of acute asthma severity (2000)

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Chalut DS, Ducharme FM, Davis GM

Chalut DS, Ducharme FM, Davis GM

To elaborate and validate a Preschool Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) that would accurately reflect the severity of airway obstruction and the response to treatment in young patients with asthma.

To elaborate and validate a Preschool Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) that would accurately reflect the severity of airway obstruction and the response to treatment in young patients with asthma.

Key Study: Acute EEG findings in children with febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study  (2012)

Key Study: Acute EEG findings in children with febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study

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Nordli DR Jr, Mosh SL, Shinnar S, Hesdorffer DC, Sogawa Y, Pellock JM, Lewis DV, Frank LM, Shinnar RC, Sun S

Nordli DR Jr, Mosh SL, Shinnar S, Hesdorffer DC, Sogawa Y, Pellock JM, Lewis ...

Objective: The FEBSTAT (Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures) study prospectively addresses the relationships among serial EEG, MRI, and clinical follow-up in a cohort of children followed from the time of presentation with febrile status epilepticus.

Objective: The FEBSTAT (Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures) study prospectively addresses the relationships among serial EEG, MRI, and clinical follow-up in a cohort of children followed from the time of presentation with febrile status epilepticus.

Key Study: Photographing Injuries in the Acute Care Setting: Development and Evaluation of a Standardized Protocol for Research, Forensics, and Clinical Practice  (2016)

Key Study: Photographing Injuries in the Acute Care Setting: Development and Evaluation of a Standardized Protocol for Research, Forensics, and Clinical Practice

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Bloemen EM, Rosen T, Cline Schiroo JA, Clark S, Mulcare MR, Stern ME, Mysliwiec R, Flomenbaum NE, Lachs MS, Hargarten S

Bloemen EM, Rosen T, Cline Schiroo JA, Clark S, Mulcare MR, Stern ME, Mysliwi...

Our goal was to develop and evaluate a protocol for standardized photography of injuries that may be broadly applied.

Our goal was to develop and evaluate a protocol for standardized photography of injuries that may be broadly applied.

Key Study: Clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children with acute concussion in the ED  (2016)

Key Study: Clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children with acute concussion in the ED

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Zemek R, Barrowman N, Freedman SB, Gravel J, Gagnon I, McGahern C, Aglipay M, Sangha G, Boutis K, Beer D, Craig W, Burns E, Farion KJ, Mikrogianakis A, Barlo...

Zemek R, Barrowman N, Freedman SB, Gravel J, Gagnon I, McGahern C, Aglipay M,...

Objective: To derive and validate a clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children presenting to the emergency department.

Objective: To derive and validate a clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children presenting to the emergency department.

Key Study: Adherence behavior in an acute pediatric hand trauma population: A pilot study of parental report of adherence levels and influencing factors  (2016)

Key Study: Adherence behavior in an acute pediatric hand trauma population: A pilot study of parental report of adherence levels and influencing factors

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Cole T, Underhill A, Kennedy S

Cole T, Underhill A, Kennedy S

The hand is a common site of injury in children; however, little is known regarding adherence to hand trauma management in this population.

The hand is a common site of injury in children; however, little is known regarding adherence to hand trauma management in this population.

Key Study: Acute ischemia and pink pulseless hand in 68 of 404 gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures in children: Urgent management and therapeutic consensus  (2016)

Key Study: Acute ischemia and pink pulseless hand in 68 of 404 gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures in children: Urgent management and therapeutic consensus

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Louahem D, Cottalorda J

Louahem D, Cottalorda J

The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe our strategy and to determine the guidelines of therapeutic consensus.

The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe our strategy and to determine the guidelines of therapeutic consensus.

Key Study: A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules  (2016)

Key Study: A clinical decision rule for the use of plain radiography in children after acute wrist injury: development and external validation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules

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Slaar A, Walenkamp MM, Bentohami A, Maas M, van Rijn RR, Steyerberg EW, Jager LC, Sosef NL, van Velde R, Ultee JM, Goslings JC, Schep NW

Slaar A, Walenkamp MM, Bentohami A, Maas M, van Rijn RR, Steyerberg EW, Jager...

The objective of this study was to develop and validate a clinica decision rule to decide whether radiography in children with wrist trauma is required.

The objective of this study was to develop and validate a clinica decision rule to decide whether radiography in children with wrist trauma is required.

Key Study: The role of dexamethasone in decreasing early recurrence of acute intussusception in children: A retrospective study  (2017)

Key Study: The role of dexamethasone in decreasing early recurrence of acute intussusception in children: A retrospective study

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Efrati Y, Klin B, Kozer E, Abu-Kishk I

Efrati Y, Klin B, Kozer E, Abu-Kishk I

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dexamethasone in decreasing early RI.

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dexamethasone in decreasing early RI.

Key Study: Prevalence and Impact of Admission Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on Treatment Intensity, Resource Use, and Mortality: An Evaluation of 956 Severely Injured Children and Adolescents  (2017)

Key Study: Prevalence and Impact of Admission Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on Treatment Intensity, Resource Use, and Mortality: An Evaluation of 956 Severely Injured Children and Adolescents

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Liras IN, Caplan HW, Stensballe J, Wade CE, Cox CS, Cotton BA

Liras IN, Caplan HW, Stensballe J, Wade CE, Cox CS, Cotton BA

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and impact of arrival coagulopathy, determined by viscoelastic hemostatic testing, in severely injured children.

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and impact of arrival coagulopathy, determined by viscoelastic hemostatic testing, in severely injured children.

Key Study: Prevalence of Concomitant Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Neonates with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study  (2017)

Key Study: Prevalence of Concomitant Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Neonates with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

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Wallace SS, Brown DN, Cruz AT

Wallace SS, Brown DN, Cruz AT

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of concomitant acute bacterial meningitis in neonates with febrile urinary tract infection.

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of concomitant acute bacterial meningitis in neonates with febrile urinary tract infection.

Key study: Lumbar Puncture Performed Promptly or After Neuroimaging in Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Adults: A Prospective National Cohort Study Evaluating Different Guidelines  (2018)

Key study: Lumbar Puncture Performed Promptly or After Neuroimaging in Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Adults: A Prospective National Cohort Study Evaluating Different Guidelines

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Glimker M, Sjlin J, kesson S, Naucler P

Glimker M, Sjlin J, kesson S, Naucler P

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect on outcome of adherence to European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and Swedish guidelines regarding neuroimaging before LP.

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect on outcome of adherence to European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and Swedish guidelines regarding neuroimaging before LP.

Key Study: A randomized, controlled trial of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and codeine for acute pain relief in children with musculoskeletal trauma  (2007)

Key Study: A randomized, controlled trial of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and codeine for acute pain relief in children with musculoskeletal trauma

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Clark, E, Plint, AC, Correll, R, et al

Clark, E, Plint, AC, Correll, R, et al

To determine which of 3 analgesics, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or codeine, given as a single dose, provides the most efficacious analgesia for children presenting to the emergency department with pain from acute musculoskeletal injuries.

To determine which of 3 analgesics, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or codeine, given as a single dose, provides the most efficacious analgesia for children presenting to the emergency department with pain from acute musculoskeletal injuries.

Key Study: [Does heliox administered by low-flow nasal cannula improve respiratory distress in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis? A randomized controlled trial]  (2019)

Key Study: [Does heliox administered by low-flow nasal cannula improve respiratory distress in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis? A randomized controlled trial]

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Seliem, W and Sultan, AM

Seliem, W and Sultan, AM

Objective: To evaluate whether the use of heliox (79:21) delivered through a low flow nasal cannula would improve respiratory distress in infants with acute bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus.

Objective: To evaluate whether the use of heliox (79:21) delivered through a low flow nasal cannula would improve respiratory distress in infants with acute bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus.

Key Study: Heliox delivered by high flow nasal cannula improves oxygenation in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis  (2018)

Key Study: Heliox delivered by high flow nasal cannula improves oxygenation in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis

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Seliem, W. S., A. M.

Seliem, W. S., A. M.

Objective: to evaluate the hypothesis that use of heliox would result in improvement of gas exchange when used with high flow nasal cannula in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis.

Objective: to evaluate the hypothesis that use of heliox would result in improvement of gas exchange when used with high flow nasal cannula in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis.

Key Study: Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children with acute bronchiolitis  (2018)

Key Study: Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children with acute bronchiolitis

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Biagi C, Pierantoni L, Baldazzi M, Greco L, Dormi A, Dondi A, Faldella G, Lanari M

Biagi C, Pierantoni L, Baldazzi M, Greco L, Dormi A, Dondi A, Faldella G, Lan...

Objective: to assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of LUS for the detection of pneumonia in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis and to evaluate the agreement between LUS and CXR in diagnosing pneumonia in these patients.

Objective: to assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of LUS for the detection of pneumonia in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis and to evaluate the agreement between LUS and CXR in diagnosing pneumonia in these patients.

Key Study: Effect of nebulized hypertonic saline treatment in emergenc departments on hospitalization rate for acute bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial  (2017)

Key Study: Effect of nebulized hypertonic saline treatment in emergenc departments on hospitalization rate for acute bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial

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Angoulvant F, Belletre X, Milcent K, et al

Angoulvant F, Belletre X, Milcent K, et al

Objective: To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis.

Objective: To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis.

Key Study: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for the initial respiratory management of acute viral bronchiolitis in young infants: a multicenter randomized controlled trial (TRAMONTANE study)  (2017)

Key Study: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for the initial respiratory management of acute viral bronchiolitis in young infants: a multicenter randomized controlled trial (TRAMONTANE study)

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Milsi C, Essouri S, Pouyau R, Liet JM, Afanetti M, Portefaix A, Baleine J,Durand S, Combes C, Douillard A, Cambonie G, Groupe Francophone de Ranimation et dU...

Milsi C, Essouri S, Pouyau R, Liet JM, Afanetti M, Portefaix A, Baleine J,Dur...

Objective: To assess oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC).

Objective: To assess oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC).

Key Study: A cost-effectiveness analysis of omitting radiography in diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis  (2009)

Key Study: A cost-effectiveness analysis of omitting radiography in diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis

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Yong JHE, Schuh S, Rashidi R, Vanderby S, Lau R, Laporte A, Nauenberg E, Ungar WJ

Yong JHE, Schuh S, Rashidi R, Vanderby S, Lau R, Laporte A, Nauenberg E, Unga...

Objective:To carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis of omitting chest radiography in the diagnosis of infant bronchiolitis.

Objective:To carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis of omitting chest radiography in the diagnosis of infant bronchiolitis.

Key Study: Acute cannabis toxicity  (2019)

Key Study: Acute cannabis toxicity

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Noble MJH, K.; Hendrickson, R. G.

Noble MJH, K.; Hendrickson, R. G.

We describe the clinical effects of, and products associated with, acute exposures to cannabis during the early legalization period of recreational cannabis in Oregon and Alaska.

We describe the clinical effects of, and products associated with, acute exposures to cannabis during the early legalization period of recreational cannabis in Oregon and Alaska.

Key Study: Acute intoxication caused by synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB and MMB-2201: A case series  (2017)

Key Study: Acute intoxication caused by synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB and MMB-2201: A case series

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Barcelo BP, S.; Lopez-Corominas, V.; Gomila, I.; Yates, C.; Busardo, F. P.; Pellegrini, M.

Barcelo BP, S.; Lopez-Corominas, V.; Gomila, I.; Yates, C.; Busardo, F. P.; P...

Here, we report five cases of acute intoxication by synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB and MMB-2201 with analytical confirmation

Here, we report five cases of acute intoxication by synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB and MMB-2201 with analytical confirmation

Key Study: Acute intoxication caused by a synthetic cannabinoid in two adolescents  (2012)

Key Study: Acute intoxication caused by a synthetic cannabinoid in two adolescents

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Heath TSB, Z.; Thompson, A. J.; Tecklenburg, F. W.

Heath TSB, Z.; Thompson, A. J.; Tecklenburg, F. W.

In this report, we describe two adolescent patients admitted after they inhaled K2, resulting in loss of consciousness, tachycardia, and diffuse pain.

In this report, we describe two adolescent patients admitted after they inhaled K2, resulting in loss of consciousness, tachycardia, and diffuse pain.

Key Study: Ataxia and shaking in a 2-year-old girl: acute marijuana intoxication presenting as seizure.  (2005)

Key Study: Ataxia and shaking in a 2-year-old girl: acute marijuana intoxication presenting as seizure.

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Bonkowsky, J. L., Sarco, D., & Pomeroy, S. L

Bonkowsky, J. L., Sarco, D., & Pomeroy, S. L

This is a case study of a young girl experiencing cannabis usage.

This is a case study of a young girl experiencing cannabis usage.

Key Study: Pediatric Abdominal X-rays in the Acute Care Setting Are We Overdiagnosing Constipation?  (2020)

Key Study: Pediatric Abdominal X-rays in the Acute Care Setting Are We Overdiagnosing Constipation?

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Malik Muhammad Anwar ul Haq, Hernando Lyons, Madiha Halim

Malik Muhammad Anwar ul Haq, Hernando Lyons, Madiha Halim

To determine 1) the sensitivity and specificity of plain AXR in the diagnosis of constipation and 2) the effect of age, race, gender, comorbid conditions, and practice setting on the diagnosis of constipation.

To determine 1) the sensitivity and specificity of plain AXR in the diagnosis of constipation and 2) the effect of age, race, gender, comorbid conditions, and practice setting on the diagnosis of constipation.

Key study: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 clinical syndromes and predictors of disease severity in hospitalized children and youth.  (2020)

Key study: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 clinical syndromes and predictors of disease severity in hospitalized children and youth.

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Fernandes DM, Oliveira CR, Guerguis S, et al.

Fernandes DM, Oliveira CR, Guerguis S, et al.

Objective: To characterize the demographic and clinical features of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) syndromes and identify admission variables predictive of disease severity.

Objective: To characterize the demographic and clinical features of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) syndromes and identify admission variables predictive of disease severity.

Key study: Association between early participation in physical activity following acute concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents  (2016)

Key study: Association between early participation in physical activity following acute concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents

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Grool AM, Aglipay M, Momoli F, et al.

Grool AM, Aglipay M, Momoli F, et al.

To investigate the association between participation in physical activity within 7 days postinjury and incidence of persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS).

To investigate the association between participation in physical activity within 7 days postinjury and incidence of persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS).

High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for the initial respiratory management of acute viral bronchiolitis in young infants: a multicenter randomized controlled trial (TRAMONTANE study).  (2017)

High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for the initial respiratory management of acute viral bronchiolitis in young infants: a multicenter randomized controlled trial (TRAMONTANE study).

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Milsi C, Essouri S, Pouyau R, Liet JM, Afanetti M, Portefaix A, et al.

Milsi C, Essouri S, Pouyau R, Liet JM, Afanetti M, Portefaix A, et al.

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is currently the gold standard for respiratory support for moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). Although oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used, evidence of its efficacy and safety is lacking in infants. In young infants with moderate to severe AVB, initial management with HFNC did not have a failure rate similar to that of nCPAP.

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is currently the gold standard for respiratory support for moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). Although oxygen delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used, evidence of its efficacy and safety is lacking in infants. In young infants with moderate to severe AVB, initial management with HFNC did not have a failure rate similar to that of nCPAP.

Use of high-flow nasal cannula support in the emergency department reduces the need for intubation in pediatric acute respiratory insufficiency.  (2012)

Use of high-flow nasal cannula support in the emergency department reduces the need for intubation in pediatric acute respiratory insufficiency.

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Wing R, James C, Maranda LS, Armsby CC.

Wing R, James C, Maranda LS, Armsby CC.

The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is associated with a decreased need for intubation in patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department (PED) and admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI). High-flow nasal cannula used early in the development of pediatric ARI is associated with a decreased the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation.

The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is associated with a decreased need for intubation in patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department (PED) and admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI). High-flow nasal cannula used early in the development of pediatric ARI is associated with a decreased the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation.

Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Children Admitted to the PICU for Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A Retrospective Study.  (2019)

Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Children Admitted to the PICU for Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A Retrospective Study.

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Weissbach A, Zur N, Kaplan E, Kadmon G, Gendler Y, Nahum E.

Weissbach A, Zur N, Kaplan E, Kadmon G, Gendler Y, Nahum E.

Acute kidney injury in the critically ill pediatric population is associated with worse outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, associated clinical variables, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in children admitted to the PICU with diabetic ketoacidosis.

Acute kidney injury in the critically ill pediatric population is associated with worse outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, associated clinical variables, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in children admitted to the PICU with diabetic ketoacidosis.

A randomized controlled trial of intranasal-midazolam versus intravenous-diazepam for acute childhood seizures  (2013)

A randomized controlled trial of intranasal-midazolam versus intravenous-diazepam for acute childhood seizures

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Thakker A, Shanbag P.

Thakker A, Shanbag P.

The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of midazolam given intranasally with diazepam given intravenously in the treatment of acute childhood seizures.

The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of midazolam given intranasally with diazepam given intravenously in the treatment of acute childhood seizures.

Efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children: a randomised trial  (2012)

Efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children: a randomised trial

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Malamiri RA, Ghaempanah M, Khosroshahi N, Nikkhah A, Bavarian B, Ashrafi MR.

Malamiri RA, Ghaempanah M, Khosroshahi N, Nikkhah A, Bavarian B, Ashrafi MR.

Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are the most commonly used anticonvulsants for controlling status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. However, these medications have several well-known adverse effects. Previous studies on both adults and children have shown the efficacy and safety of rapid infusion of valproate in controlling status epilepticus. However, few well-designed randomised trials have been carried out in children, and there remains a paucity of data regarding intravenous sodium valproate use in children. Therefore, our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of rapid loading of valproate with those of intravenous phenobarbital in children with status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures.

Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are the most commonly used anticonvulsants for controlling status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. However, these medications have several well-known adverse effects. Previous studies on both adults and children have shown the efficacy and safety of rapid infusion of valproate in controlling status epilepticus. However, few well-designed randomised trials have been carried out in children, and there remains a paucity of data regarding intravenous sodium valproate use in children. Therefore, our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of rapid loading of valproate with those of intravenous phenobarbital in children with status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures.

Intranasal midazolam compared with intravenous diazepam in patients suffering from acute seizure: a randomized clinical trial  (2012)

Intranasal midazolam compared with intravenous diazepam in patients suffering from acute seizure: a randomized clinical trial

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Javadzadeh M, Sheibani K, Hashemieh M, Saneifard H.

Javadzadeh M, Sheibani K, Hashemieh M, Saneifard H.

Acute seizure attack is a stressful experience both for health care personnel and parents. These attacks might cause morbidity and mortality among patients, so reliable methods to control the seizure preferably at home should be developed. This study was performed to measure the time needed to control seizure attacks using intranasal midazolam compared to the common treatment (intravenous diazepam) and to evaluate its probable side effects.

Acute seizure attack is a stressful experience both for health care personnel and parents. These attacks might cause morbidity and mortality among patients, so reliable methods to control the seizure preferably at home should be developed. This study was performed to measure the time needed to control seizure attacks using intranasal midazolam compared to the common treatment (intravenous diazepam) and to evaluate its probable side effects.

Intranasal versus intravenous lorazepam for control of acute seizures in children: a randomized open-label study  (2011)

Intranasal versus intravenous lorazepam for control of acute seizures in children: a randomized open-label study

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Arya R, Gulati S, Kabra M, Sahu JK, Kalra V.

Arya R, Gulati S, Kabra M, Sahu JK, Kalra V.

Intravenous lorazepam is considered the drug of first choice for control of acute convulsive seizures. However, resource or personnel constraints necessitate the study of alternative routes and medications. This study compared the efficacy and adverse effects of intranasal versus intravenous lorazepam in children aged 6-14 years who presented with acute seizures.

Intravenous lorazepam is considered the drug of first choice for control of acute convulsive seizures. However, resource or personnel constraints necessitate the study of alternative routes and medications. This study compared the efficacy and adverse effects of intranasal versus intravenous lorazepam in children aged 6-14 years who presented with acute seizures.

Intramuscular midazolam vs intravenous diazepam for acute seizures  (2005)

Intramuscular midazolam vs intravenous diazepam for acute seizures

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Shah I, Deshmukh CT.

Shah I, Deshmukh CT.

To determine effectiveness of intramuscular midazolam to control acute seizures in children as compared to intravenous diazepam.

To determine effectiveness of intramuscular midazolam to control acute seizures in children as compared to intravenous diazepam.

Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating acute seizures in children  (2004)

Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating acute seizures in children

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Mahmoudian T, Zadeh MM.

Mahmoudian T, Zadeh MM.

Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine, is usually given intravenously in status epilepticus. The aim of this study was to determine whether intranasal midazolam is as safe and effective as intravenous diazepam in the treatment of acute childhood seizures. Seventy children aged 2 months to 15 years with acute seizures (febrile or afebrile) admitted to the pediatric emergency department of a general hospital during a 14-month period were eligible for inclusion. Intranasal midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and intravenous diazepam 0.2 mg/kg were administered after intravenous lines were established. Intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam were equally effective. The mean time to control of seizures was 3.58 (SD 1.68) minutes in the midazolam group and 2.94 (SD 2.62) in the diazepam group, not counting the time required to insert the intravenous line. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Although intranasal midazolam was as safe and effective as diazepam, seizures were controlled more quickly with intravenous diazepam than with intranasal midazolam. Intranasal midazolam can possibly be used not only in medical centers, but also in general practice and at home after appropriate instructions are given to families of children with recurrent seizures.

Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine, is usually given intravenously in status epilepticus. The aim of this study was to determine whether intranasal midazolam is as safe and effective as intravenous diazepam in the treatment of acute childhood seizures. Seventy children aged 2 months to 15 years with acute seizures (febrile or afebrile) admitted to the pediatric emergency department of a general hospital during a 14-month period were eligible for inclusion. Intranasal midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and intravenous diazepam 0.2 mg/kg were administered after intravenous lines were established. Intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam were equally effective. The mean time to control of seizures was 3.58 (SD 1.68) minutes in the midazolam group and 2.94 (SD 2.62) in the diazepam group, not counting the time required to insert the intravenous line. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Although intranasal midazolam was as safe and effective as diazepam, seizures were controlled more quickly with intravenous diazepam than with intranasal midazolam. Intranasal midazolam can possibly be used not only in medical centers, but also in general practice and at home after appropriate instructions are given to families of children with recurrent seizures.

Effects of intranasal midazolam and rectal diazepam on acute convulsions in children: prospective randomized study  (2002)

Effects of intranasal midazolam and rectal diazepam on acute convulsions in children: prospective randomized study

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Figin T, Gurer Y, Tezi T, Senbil N, Zorlu P, Okuyaz C, et al.

Figin T, Gurer Y, Tezi T, Senbil N, Zorlu P, Okuyaz C, et al.

In this study, the effects and side effects of rectal diazepam and intranasal midazolam were compared in the treatment of acute convulsions in children to develop a practical and safe treatment protocol.

In this study, the effects and side effects of rectal diazepam and intranasal midazolam were compared in the treatment of acute convulsions in children to develop a practical and safe treatment protocol.

Intravenous levetiracetam in acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus in children: experience from a children's hospital  (2012)

Intravenous levetiracetam in acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus in children: experience from a children's hospital

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McTague A, Kneen R, Kumar R, Spinty S, Appleton R.

McTague A, Kneen R, Kumar R, Spinty S, Appleton R.

To report the effectiveness and safety of intravenous levetiracetam in the treatment of children with acute repeated seizures, and status epilepticus in a children's hospital.

To report the effectiveness and safety of intravenous levetiracetam in the treatment of children with acute repeated seizures, and status epilepticus in a children's hospital.

Lorazepam versus diazepam in the acute treatment of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus.  (1995)

Lorazepam versus diazepam in the acute treatment of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus.

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Appleton R, Sweeney A, Choonara I, Robson J, Molyneux E.

Appleton R, Sweeney A, Choonara I, Robson J, Molyneux E.

Lorazepam was compared with diazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions and status epilepticus in 102 children in a prospective, open, 'odd and even dates' trial. Convulsions were controlled in 76 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of lorazepam and 51 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of diazepam. Significantly fewer patients treated with lorazepam required additional anticonvulsants to terminate the seizure. Respiratory depression occurred in 3 per cent of lorazepam-treated patients and 15 per cent of diazepam-treated patients. No patient who received lorazepam required admission to the intensive care unit for either respiratory depression or persisting status epilepticus. Rectally administered lorazepam appeared to be particularly valuable (100 per cent efficacy) when venous access was not possible.

Lorazepam was compared with diazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions and status epilepticus in 102 children in a prospective, open, 'odd and even dates' trial. Convulsions were controlled in 76 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of lorazepam and 51 per cent of patients treated with a single dose of diazepam. Significantly fewer patients treated with lorazepam required additional anticonvulsants to terminate the seizure. Respiratory depression occurred in 3 per cent of lorazepam-treated patients and 15 per cent of diazepam-treated patients. No patient who received lorazepam required admission to the intensive care unit for either respiratory depression or persisting status epilepticus. Rectally administered lorazepam appeared to be particularly valuable (100 per cent efficacy) when venous access was not possible.

Intravenous levetiracetam in Thai children and adolescents with status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures  (2015)

Intravenous levetiracetam in Thai children and adolescents with status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures

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Khongkhatithum C, Thampratankul L, Wiwattanadittakul N, Visudtibhan A.

Khongkhatithum C, Thampratankul L, Wiwattanadittakul N, Visudtibhan A.

This study investigated the safety and the efficacy of levetiracetam for intravenous treatment of convulsive status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures in children and adolescents.

This study investigated the safety and the efficacy of levetiracetam for intravenous treatment of convulsive status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures in children and adolescents.

Safety and efficacy of intravenous valproate in pediatric status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures  (2003)

Safety and efficacy of intravenous valproate in pediatric status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures

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Yu KT, Mills S, Thompson N, Cunanan C.

Yu KT, Mills S, Thompson N, Cunanan C.

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous valproate (VPA) loading in children with status epilepticus (SE) or acute repetitive seizures.

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous valproate (VPA) loading in children with status epilepticus (SE) or acute repetitive seizures.

Executive summary: Evaluation and management of children and adolescents with acute mental health or behavioral problems. Part I: Common clinical challenges of patients with mental health and/or behavioral emergencies  (2016)

Executive summary: Evaluation and management of children and adolescents with acute mental health or behavioral problems. Part I: Common clinical challenges of patients with mental health and/or behavioral emergencies

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Chun, T. H., S. E. Mace, E. R. Katz, J. E. Shook, J. M. Callahan, G. P. Conners, E. E. Conway, N. C. Dudley, T. K. Gross, N. E. Lane, C. G. Macias, N. L. Tim...

Chun, T. H., S. E. Mace, E. R. Katz, J. E. Shook, J. M. Callahan, G. P. Conne...

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Resource - Acute Procedural Pain Toolkits  (2016)

Resource - Acute Procedural Pain Toolkits

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Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres Pain Community of Practice

Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres Pain Community of Practice

These Toolkits are a resource for clinicians who work with children that may experience acute procedural pain and support moving best practice recommendations into practice. Based on the best research evidence and clinical practice, these Toolkits

These Toolkits are a resource for clinicians who work with children that may experience acute procedural pain and support moving best practice recommendations into practice. Based on the best research evidence and clinical practice, these Toolkits

Emergency Medicine Cases Podcast: Management of Acute Pediatric Asthma Exacerbations (2016)

Emergency Medicine Cases Podcast: Management of Acute Pediatric Asthma Exacerbations (2016)

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Dr. Dennis Scolnik & Dr. Sanjay Mehta

Dr. Dennis Scolnik & Dr. Sanjay Mehta

Episode 79: In this EM Cases episode on Pediatric Asthma, Dr. Dennis Scolnik and Dr. Sanjay Mehta discuss risk stratification (including the PASS and PRAM scores), indications for CXR, the value of blood gases, MDIs with spacer vs nebulizers for salbutamol and ipatropium bromide, the best way to give corticosteroids, the value of inhaled steroids, the importance of early administration of magnesium sulphate in the sickest kids, and the controversies around the use of ketamine, heliox, high flow nasal cannuala oxygen, NIPPV, epinephrine and IV salbutamol in severe asthma exacerbations. With the multinational and extensive experience of Dr. Dennis Scolnik, the clinical fellowship Program Director at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and Dr. Sanjay Mehta, multiple award winning educator, you'll become more comfortable the next time you are faced with a child presenting with asthma in your ED. Published online: April 2016.

Episode 79: In this EM Cases episode on Pediatric Asthma, Dr. Dennis Scolnik and Dr. Sanjay Mehta discuss risk stratification (including the PASS and PRAM scores), indications for CXR, the value of blood gases, MDIs with spacer vs nebulizers for salbutamol and ipatropium bromide, the best way to give corticosteroids, the value of inhaled steroids, the importance of early administration of magnesium sulphate in the sickest kids, and the controversies around the use of ketamine, heliox, high flow nasal cannuala oxygen, NIPPV, epinephrine and IV salbutamol in severe asthma exacerbations. With the multinational and extensive experience of Dr. Dennis Scolnik, the clinical fellowship Program Director at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and Dr. Sanjay Mehta, multiple award winning educator, you'll become more comfortable the next time you are faced with a child presenting with asthma in your ED. Published online: April 2016.

Drug management for acute tonicclonic convulsions including convulsive status epilepticus in children  (2018)

Drug management for acute tonicclonic convulsions including convulsive status epilepticus in children

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McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R.

McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R.

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsant drugs used to treat any acute tonicclonic convulsion of any duration, including established convulsive (tonicclonic) status epilepticus in children who present to a hospital or emergency medical department.

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsant drugs used to treat any acute tonicclonic convulsion of any duration, including established convulsive (tonicclonic) status epilepticus in children who present to a hospital or emergency medical department.

An Evidence-Based Approach to Minimizing Acute Procedural Pain in the Emergency Department and Beyond. Pediatr Emerg Care 2016;32(1):36-42.  (2016)

An Evidence-Based Approach to Minimizing Acute Procedural Pain in the Emergency Department and Beyond. Pediatr Emerg Care 2016;32(1):36-42.

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Ali S, McGrath T, Drendel AL

Ali S, McGrath T, Drendel AL

Objective: This review article aims to provide a summary of several strategies, which are supported by definitive and systematically reviewed evidence, that can be implemented alone or in combination to reduce procedural pain and anxiety for children in t

Objective: This review article aims to provide a summary of several strategies, which are supported by definitive and systematically reviewed evidence, that can be implemented alone or in combination to reduce procedural pain and anxiety for children in t

Ketamine use for acute agitation in the emergency department  (2015)

Ketamine use for acute agitation in the emergency department

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Hopper, A. B., G. M. Vilke, E. M. Castillo, A. Campillo, T. Davie and M. P. Wilson

Hopper, A. B., G. M. Vilke, E. M. Castillo, A. Campillo, T. Davie and M. P. W...

Ketamine sedation for patients with acute agitation and psychiatric illness requiring aeromedical retrieval  (2012)

Ketamine sedation for patients with acute agitation and psychiatric illness requiring aeromedical retrieval

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Le Cong, M., B. Gynther, E. Hunter and P. Schuller

Le Cong, M., B. Gynther, E. Hunter and P. Schuller

Ketamine reduces the need for intubation in patients with acute severe mental illness and agitation requiring transport to definitive care: An observational study  (2017)

Ketamine reduces the need for intubation in patients with acute severe mental illness and agitation requiring transport to definitive care: An observational study

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Parsch, C. S., A. Boonstra, D. Teubner, W. Emmerton, B. McKenny and D. Y. Ellis

Parsch, C. S., A. Boonstra, D. Teubner, W. Emmerton, B. McKenny and D. Y. Ellis

Pharmacogenetics of acute treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents  (2009)

Pharmacogenetics of acute treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents

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Kronenberg, S., A. Apter, M. Carmel, A. Frisch and A. Weizman

Kronenberg, S., A. Apter, M. Carmel, A. Frisch and A. Weizman

Comparison of risperidone orodispersible tablet and intramuscular haloperidol in the treatment of acute psychotic agitation: a randomized open, prospective study  (2010)

Comparison of risperidone orodispersible tablet and intramuscular haloperidol in the treatment of acute psychotic agitation: a randomized open, prospective study

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Lim, H. K., J. J. Kim, C. U. Pae, C. U. Lee, C. Lee and I. H. Paik

Lim, H. K., J. J. Kim, C. U. Pae, C. U. Lee, C. Lee and I. H. Paik

Management of acute undifferentiated agitation in the emergency department: a randomized double-blind trial of droperidol, ziprasidone, and midazolam  (2005)

Management of acute undifferentiated agitation in the emergency department: a randomized double-blind trial of droperidol, ziprasidone, and midazolam

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Martel, M., A. Sterzinger, J. Miner, J. Clinton and M. Biros

Martel, M., A. Sterzinger, J. Miner, J. Clinton and M. Biros

A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sublingual asenapine for acute agitation  (2014)

A single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sublingual asenapine for acute agitation

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Pratts, M., L. Citrome, W. Grant, L. Leso and L. A. Opler

Pratts, M., L. Citrome, W. Grant, L. Leso and L. A. Opler

A randomized, double-blind study of paliperidone extended-release in treatment of acute schizophrenia in adolescents  (2011)

A randomized, double-blind study of paliperidone extended-release in treatment of acute schizophrenia in adolescents

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Singh, J., A. Robb, U. Vijapurkar, I. Nuamah and D. Hough

Singh, J., A. Robb, U. Vijapurkar, I. Nuamah and D. Hough

Risperidone versus haloperidol, in combination with lorazepam, in the treatment of acute agitation and psychosis: a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  (2006)

Risperidone versus haloperidol, in combination with lorazepam, in the treatment of acute agitation and psychosis: a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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Veser, F. H., B. D. Veser, J. T. McMullan, J. Zealberg and G. W. Currier

Veser, F. H., B. D. Veser, J. T. McMullan, J. Zealberg and G. W. Currier

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