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Children very often experience multiple painful procedures in the course of their emergency department visit, as a part of investigation and treatment. The pain associated with these procedures can cause both long and short-term sequelae. Minimizing procedure-related pain should be a routine part of emergency department care for children.

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Systematic reviews English (26) French All (26)

Systematic Review: Digital Technology Distraction for Acute Pain in Children: AMeta-analysis

Visit

Michelle Gates,Lisa Hartling,Jocelyn Shulhan-Kilroy,Tara MacGregor,Samantha G...

Objective:To determine the effect of digital technology distraction on pain and distress in children experiencing acutely painful conditions or procedures.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Psychological interventions for needlerelated procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents

Visit

BirnieKA, NoelM, ChambersCT, UmanLS, ParkerJA

Objectives: To provide an update to our 2006 review assessing the efficacy of psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Vapocoolant spray versus placebo spray/no treatment for reducing pain from intravenous cannulation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Visit

Zhu Y,Peng X,Wang S,Chen W,Liu C,Guo B,Zhao L,Gao Y,Wang K,Lou F.

Objectives:The objective of our meta-analysis is to compare the effectiveness of vapocoolant spray and placebo spray/no treatment for pain reduction during intravenous cannulation.

Systematic Review: Clinical efficacy of virtual reality for acute procedural pain management: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Visit

Evelyn Chan, Samantha Foster , Ryan Sambell , Paul Leong

There is no comprehensive, high-quality systematic review that specifically assesses the efficacy of virtual reality on acutely painful healthcare interventions, nor has there been any quantitative data synthesis on this topic. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta analysis to appraise the quality of published literature and to synthesize data for acute pain scores.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical anaesthetics for pain control during repair of dermal laceration

Visit

TayebBO, EidelmanA, EidelmanCL, McNicolED, CarrDB

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of infiltrated local anaesthetics with those of topical local anaesthetics for repair of dermal lacerations and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various single or multi-component topical anaesthetics to identify cocaine-free topically applied local anaesthetics that may provide equivalent analgesia to those containing cocaine.

Systematic Review: LidocaineGelforUrethralCatheterizationinChildren: AMeta-Analysis.

Visit

Chua ME,Firaza PNB,Ming JM,Silangcruz JMA,Braga LH,Lorenzo AJ

Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety of lidocaine gel vs nonanesthetic gel (NAG) in reducing transurethral bladder catheterization (TUBC) procedural pain in children.

Systematic Review: What is theBestPain ManagementDuringGastricTubeInsertionforInfantsAged0-12months: ASystematic Review.

Visit

Chen S,Zhang Q,Xie RH,Wen SW,Harrison D

Synthesized evidence on the effectiveness of pain management for nasogastric tube (NGT) and orogastric tube (OGT) insertions in infants is lacking. This paper is a systematic review of the effectiveness of pain management for gastric tube (GT) insertion in infants.

Systematic Review: Sweet Solutions to Reduce Procedural Pain in Neonates: AMeta-analysis

Visit

Denise Harrison,Catherine Larocque,Mariana Bueno,Yehudis Stokes,Lucy Turner,B...

Objective: To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures

Visit

Stevens B, Yamada J, Ohlsson A, Haliburton S, Shorkey A

Objective: To determine the efficacy, effect of dose and safety of oral sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period

Visit

Harrison D, Reszel J, Bueno M, et al.

Objectives:To determine the effect of breastfeeding on procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) up to one year of age compared to no intervention, placebo, parental holding, skin-to-skin contact, expressed breast milk, formula milk, bottle feeding, sweet-tasting solutions (e.g. sucrose or glucose), distraction, or other interventions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nonpharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

Visit

Pillai RiddellRR, RacineNM, GennisHG, TurcotteK, UmanLS, HortonRE, Ahola Kohu...

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reactivity, pain-related regulation).

Systematic Review: A systematic review of vapocoolants for reducing pain from venipuncture and venous cannulation in children and adults

Visit

Hogan ME, Smart S, Shah V, Taddio A

Our aim was to systematically review the literature regarding the analgesic effectiveness of vapocoolants in children and adults.

Systematic Review: Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for acute procedural pain: a systematic review

Visit

Lee GY, Yamada J, Kyololo O, Shorkey A, Stevens B

Objective: To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendations for their use.

Review: Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems

Visit

Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine an...

Control of pain and stress for children is a vital component of emergency medical care. Timely administration of analgesia affects the entire emergency medical experience and can have a lasting effect on a child's and family's reaction to current and future medical care. A systematic approach to pain management and anxiolysis, including staff education and protocol development, can provide comfort to children in the emergency setting and improve staff and family satisfaction.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age

Visit

Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureur M, Fowler C

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age compared with no treatment, placebo, other sweet-tasting solutions, or pharmacological or other non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates

Visit

Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS

Objectives: The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of breastfeeding or supplemental breast milk in reducing procedural pain in neonates. The secondary objective was to conduct subgroup analyses based on the type of control intervention, gestational age and the amount of supplemental breast milk given.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years

Visit

Harrison D, Yamada J, Adams-Webber T, Ohlsson A, Beyene J, Stevens B

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of sweet tasting solutions or substances for reducing needle-related procedural pain in children beyond one year of age.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

Visit

Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Din Osmun L, Ah...

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reactivity, pain-related regulation).

Systematic Review: The effectiveness of virtual reality distraction for pain reduction:a systematic review

Visit

Kevin M Malloy , Leonard S Milling

This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled research on the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) distraction for reducing pain.

Systematic Review: Music for pain and anxiety in children undergoing medical procedures: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Visit

Klassen JA, Liang Y, Tjosvold L, Klassen TP, Hartling L

Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of music therapy (MT) on pain and anxiety in children undergoing clinical procedures.

Review: Clinical implications of unmanaged needle-insertion pain and distress in children

Visit

Kennedy RM, Luhmann J, Zempsky WT

This review summarizes the evidence for the importance of managing pediatric procedural pain and methods for reducing venous access pain.

Review: Needle pain in children: contextual factors

Visit

Walco GA

Pediatric pain experiences result from a complex interplay of genetic, experiential, and developmental factors. These elements, as they relate to needle-stick procedures and other relevant painful phenomena, are explored in this article so that the context of possible interventions may be more fully appreciated. Clinical implications are discussed incorporating ethical perspectives.

Review: Pharmacologic approaches for reducing venous access pain in children

Visit

Zempsky WT

A variety of pharmacologic options are available to clinicians who want to provide effective and safe topical local anesthesia to children undergoing venous access procedures. These options can be distinguished on the basis of how they deliver active drug through the impermeable outer layer of skin, the stratum corneum, to pain receptors located in the dermis and epidermis. Three general methodologies are typically used to bypass the stratum corneum: direct injection of local anesthetics, usually via a small-gauge hypodermic syringe; passive diffusion from topical creams or gels; and active needle-free drug strategies that enhance the rate of drug passage into the dermis and epidermis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Venepuncture versus heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates

Visit

Shah V, Ohlsson A

Objectives: To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates.

Systematic Review: Theroleofparentalpresencein thecontextofchildren'smedicalprocedures: asystematic review.

Visit

Piira T,Sugiura T,Champion GD,Donnelly N,Cole AS

There are conflicting views and practices regarding whether or not parents should be present at the time of their child's medical procedure. A systematic review was conducted to assess the effects of parental presence in the paediatric treatment room on child, parent and health professional outcomes and to synthesize this body of literature.

Cochrane Systematic Review: To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates

Visit

Farion K, Osmond MH, Hartling L, Russell K, Klassen T, Crumley E, Wiebe N

Objectives: To summarize the best available evidence for the effect of tissue adhesives in the management of traumatic lacerations in children and adults.

Systematic Review: Digital Technology Distraction for Acute Pain in Children: AMeta-analysis

Visit

Michelle Gates,Lisa Hartling,Jocelyn Shulhan-Kilroy,Tara MacGregor,Samantha G...

Objective:To determine the effect of digital technology distraction on pain and distress in children experiencing acutely painful conditions or procedures.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Psychological interventions for needlerelated procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents

Visit

BirnieKA, NoelM, ChambersCT, UmanLS, ParkerJA

Objectives: To provide an update to our 2006 review assessing the efficacy of psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Vapocoolant spray versus placebo spray/no treatment for reducing pain from intravenous cannulation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Visit

Zhu Y,Peng X,Wang S,Chen W,Liu C,Guo B,Zhao L,Gao Y,Wang K,Lou F.

Objectives:The objective of our meta-analysis is to compare the effectiveness of vapocoolant spray and placebo spray/no treatment for pain reduction during intravenous cannulation.

Systematic Review: Clinical efficacy of virtual reality for acute procedural pain management: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Visit

Evelyn Chan, Samantha Foster , Ryan Sambell , Paul Leong

There is no comprehensive, high-quality systematic review that specifically assesses the efficacy of virtual reality on acutely painful healthcare interventions, nor has there been any quantitative data synthesis on this topic. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta analysis to appraise the quality of published literature and to synthesize data for acute pain scores.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical anaesthetics for pain control during repair of dermal laceration

Visit

TayebBO, EidelmanA, EidelmanCL, McNicolED, CarrDB

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of infiltrated local anaesthetics with those of topical local anaesthetics for repair of dermal lacerations and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various single or multi-component topical anaesthetics to identify cocaine-free topically applied local anaesthetics that may provide equivalent analgesia to those containing cocaine.

Systematic Review: LidocaineGelforUrethralCatheterizationinChildren: AMeta-Analysis.

Visit

Chua ME,Firaza PNB,Ming JM,Silangcruz JMA,Braga LH,Lorenzo AJ

Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety of lidocaine gel vs nonanesthetic gel (NAG) in reducing transurethral bladder catheterization (TUBC) procedural pain in children.

Systematic Review: What is theBestPain ManagementDuringGastricTubeInsertionforInfantsAged0-12months: ASystematic Review.

Visit

Chen S,Zhang Q,Xie RH,Wen SW,Harrison D

Synthesized evidence on the effectiveness of pain management for nasogastric tube (NGT) and orogastric tube (OGT) insertions in infants is lacking. This paper is a systematic review of the effectiveness of pain management for gastric tube (GT) insertion in infants.

Systematic Review: Sweet Solutions to Reduce Procedural Pain in Neonates: AMeta-analysis

Visit

Denise Harrison,Catherine Larocque,Mariana Bueno,Yehudis Stokes,Lucy Turner,B...

Objective: To review all trials evaluating sweet solutions for analgesia in neonates and to conduct cumulative meta-analyses (CMAs) on behavioral pain outcomes.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures

Visit

Stevens B, Yamada J, Ohlsson A, Haliburton S, Shorkey A

Objective: To determine the efficacy, effect of dose and safety of oral sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period

Visit

Harrison D, Reszel J, Bueno M, et al.

Objectives:To determine the effect of breastfeeding on procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period (first 28 days of life) up to one year of age compared to no intervention, placebo, parental holding, skin-to-skin contact, expressed breast milk, formula milk, bottle feeding, sweet-tasting solutions (e.g. sucrose or glucose), distraction, or other interventions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nonpharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

Visit

Pillai RiddellRR, RacineNM, GennisHG, TurcotteK, UmanLS, HortonRE, Ahola Kohu...

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reactivity, pain-related regulation).

Systematic Review: A systematic review of vapocoolants for reducing pain from venipuncture and venous cannulation in children and adults

Visit

Hogan ME, Smart S, Shah V, Taddio A

Our aim was to systematically review the literature regarding the analgesic effectiveness of vapocoolants in children and adults.

Systematic Review: Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for acute procedural pain: a systematic review

Visit

Lee GY, Yamada J, Kyololo O, Shorkey A, Stevens B

Objective: To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendations for their use.

Review: Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems

Visit

Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine an...

Control of pain and stress for children is a vital component of emergency medical care. Timely administration of analgesia affects the entire emergency medical experience and can have a lasting effect on a child's and family's reaction to current and future medical care. A systematic approach to pain management and anxiolysis, including staff education and protocol development, can provide comfort to children in the emergency setting and improve staff and family satisfaction.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age

Visit

Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureur M, Fowler C

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age compared with no treatment, placebo, other sweet-tasting solutions, or pharmacological or other non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates

Visit

Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS

Objectives: The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of breastfeeding or supplemental breast milk in reducing procedural pain in neonates. The secondary objective was to conduct subgroup analyses based on the type of control intervention, gestational age and the amount of supplemental breast milk given.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years

Visit

Harrison D, Yamada J, Adams-Webber T, Ohlsson A, Beyene J, Stevens B

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of sweet tasting solutions or substances for reducing needle-related procedural pain in children beyond one year of age.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain

Visit

Pillai Riddell RR, Racine NM, Turcotte K, Uman LS, Horton RE, Din Osmun L, Ah...

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for infant and child (up to three years) acute pain, excluding breastmilk, sucrose, and music. Analyses accounted for infant age (preterm, neonate, older) and pain response (pain reactivity, pain-related regulation).

Systematic Review: The effectiveness of virtual reality distraction for pain reduction:a systematic review

Visit

Kevin M Malloy , Leonard S Milling

This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled research on the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) distraction for reducing pain.

Systematic Review: Music for pain and anxiety in children undergoing medical procedures: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Visit

Klassen JA, Liang Y, Tjosvold L, Klassen TP, Hartling L

Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of music therapy (MT) on pain and anxiety in children undergoing clinical procedures.

Review: Clinical implications of unmanaged needle-insertion pain and distress in children

Visit

Kennedy RM, Luhmann J, Zempsky WT

This review summarizes the evidence for the importance of managing pediatric procedural pain and methods for reducing venous access pain.

Review: Needle pain in children: contextual factors

Visit

Walco GA

Pediatric pain experiences result from a complex interplay of genetic, experiential, and developmental factors. These elements, as they relate to needle-stick procedures and other relevant painful phenomena, are explored in this article so that the context of possible interventions may be more fully appreciated. Clinical implications are discussed incorporating ethical perspectives.

Review: Pharmacologic approaches for reducing venous access pain in children

Visit

Zempsky WT

A variety of pharmacologic options are available to clinicians who want to provide effective and safe topical local anesthesia to children undergoing venous access procedures. These options can be distinguished on the basis of how they deliver active drug through the impermeable outer layer of skin, the stratum corneum, to pain receptors located in the dermis and epidermis. Three general methodologies are typically used to bypass the stratum corneum: direct injection of local anesthetics, usually via a small-gauge hypodermic syringe; passive diffusion from topical creams or gels; and active needle-free drug strategies that enhance the rate of drug passage into the dermis and epidermis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Venepuncture versus heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates

Visit

Shah V, Ohlsson A

Objectives: To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates.

Systematic Review: Theroleofparentalpresencein thecontextofchildren'smedicalprocedures: asystematic review.

Visit

Piira T,Sugiura T,Champion GD,Donnelly N,Cole AS

There are conflicting views and practices regarding whether or not parents should be present at the time of their child's medical procedure. A systematic review was conducted to assess the effects of parental presence in the paediatric treatment room on child, parent and health professional outcomes and to synthesize this body of literature.

Cochrane Systematic Review: To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates

Visit

Farion K, Osmond MH, Hartling L, Russell K, Klassen T, Crumley E, Wiebe N

Objectives: To summarize the best available evidence for the effect of tissue adhesives in the management of traumatic lacerations in children and adults.

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