Croup is a common respiratory illness caused by a viral infection in the airway. Accompanied by a barky cough and respiratory distress, this illness is most common in children aged birth to 6 years, peaking at 2 years of age.



Systematic reviews

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox for croup in children (2010)


Vorwerk, C, Coats, T,

Objective: To examine the effect of heliox on relieving symptoms and distress, determined by a croup score (a tool for measuring the severity of croup) or clinical assessment variables, through comparisons with placebo or active treatment(s) in children with croup. Published: February 2010; Evidence current to: June 2009.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children (2013)


Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Vandermeer, B, Klassen, TP, Johnson, DW,

Objective: To assess the efficacy (measured by croup scores, rate of intubation and health care utilization such as rate of hospitalization) and safety (frequency and severity of side effects) of nebulized epinephrine versus placebo in children with croup, evaluated in an emergency department (ED) or hospital setting. Published: October 2013; Evidence current to: July 2013.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Humidified air inhalation for treating croup (2006)


Moore, M, Little, P,

Objective: To assess the efficacy of humidified air in the treatment of croup. Published: January 2006; Evidence current to: January 2006.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for croup (2011)


Russell, K, Liang, Y, O'Gorman, K, Johnson, DW, Klassen, TP,

Objective: To provide evidence to guide clinicians in their treatment of patients with croup by determining the effectiveness of glucocorticoids and to identify areas requiring future research. Published: January 2011; Evidence current to: July 2010.

Review: Croup in children


Candice L. Bjornson, David W. Johnson

Objective: This review will address the diagnosis and management of croup in children, specifically focusing on clinical assessment of disease severity to guide management decisions.