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Acute Otitis Media English (1) French All (1)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children

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Venekamp RP, Sanders SL, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM

The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for children with acute otitis media.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children

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Venekamp RP, Sanders SL, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM

The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for children with acute otitis media.

Anaphylaxis English (9) French All (9)

Review: Do Corticosteroids Prevent Biphasic Anaphylaxis?

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Alqurashi W, Ellis AK

This review analyzes the use of corticosteroids for reducing anaphylaxis severity and preventing biphasic anaphylaxis.

Comprehensive Review: Pitfalls in the use of epinephrine for anaphylaxis: patient and provider opportunities for improvement

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Cohen MB, Saunders SS, Wise SK, Nassif S, Platt MP

The purpose of this study was to identify the scope of epinephrine pitfalls and opportunities for improvement in the management of allergy emergencies.

Systematic Review: Time of Onset and Predictors of Biphasic Anaphylactic Reactions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Lee S, Bellolio MF, Hess EP, Erwin P, Murad MH, Campbell RL

The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of onset and predictors of biphasic anaphylactic reactions.

Review: Anaphylaxis: Unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years)

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Simons FE, Sampson HA

In this rostrum we aim to increase awareness of anaphylaxis in infancy in order to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and prevention of recurrences.

Review: Risk multipliers for severe food anaphylaxis

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Smith PK, Hourihane JO, Lieberman P

This paper reviews the factors that contribute to the risk of severe anaphylactic events and provides a framework for the ongoing management of patients at risk of severe food allergy.

Systematic Review: H2-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock: a systematic review

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Nurmatov UB, Rhatigan E, Simons FE, Sheikh A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of H2-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis

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Choo KJ, Simons FE, Sheikh A

We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community

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Sheikh A, Simons FE, Barbour V, Worth A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community.

Cochrane Systematic Review: H1-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock

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Sheikh A, ten Broek VM, Brown SG, Simons FE

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harm of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Review: Do Corticosteroids Prevent Biphasic Anaphylaxis?

Visit

Alqurashi W, Ellis AK

This review analyzes the use of corticosteroids for reducing anaphylaxis severity and preventing biphasic anaphylaxis.

Comprehensive Review: Pitfalls in the use of epinephrine for anaphylaxis: patient and provider opportunities for improvement

Visit

Cohen MB, Saunders SS, Wise SK, Nassif S, Platt MP

The purpose of this study was to identify the scope of epinephrine pitfalls and opportunities for improvement in the management of allergy emergencies.

Systematic Review: Time of Onset and Predictors of Biphasic Anaphylactic Reactions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Visit

Lee S, Bellolio MF, Hess EP, Erwin P, Murad MH, Campbell RL

The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of onset and predictors of biphasic anaphylactic reactions.

Review: Anaphylaxis: Unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years)

Visit

Simons FE, Sampson HA

In this rostrum we aim to increase awareness of anaphylaxis in infancy in order to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and prevention of recurrences.

Review: Risk multipliers for severe food anaphylaxis

Visit

Smith PK, Hourihane JO, Lieberman P

This paper reviews the factors that contribute to the risk of severe anaphylactic events and provides a framework for the ongoing management of patients at risk of severe food allergy.

Systematic Review: H2-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock: a systematic review

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Nurmatov UB, Rhatigan E, Simons FE, Sheikh A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of H2-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis

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Choo KJ, Simons FE, Sheikh A

We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community

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Sheikh A, Simons FE, Barbour V, Worth A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community.

Cochrane Systematic Review: H1-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock

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Sheikh A, ten Broek VM, Brown SG, Simons FE

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harm of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Asthma English (9) French All (9)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for treating acute asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Shan, Z, Rong, Y, Yang, W, Wang, D, Yao, P, Xie, J, Liu, L,

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate on treating adults and children with acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dexamethasone for acute asthma exacerbations in children: a meta-analysis (2014)

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Keeney, GE, Gray, MP, Morrison, AK, Levas, MN, Kessler, EA, Hill, GD, Gorelic...

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether intramuscular or oral dexamethasone is equivalent or superior to a 5-day course of oral prednisone or prednisolone. The primary outcome of interest was return visits or hospital readmissions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

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Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

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Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

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Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA Jr, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children (2012)

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Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for educating children who are at risk of asthma-related emergency department attendance (2009)

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Boyd, M, Lasserson, TJ, McKean, MC, Gibson, PG, Ducharme, FM, Haby, M,

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and update the previous review as to whether asthma education leads to improved health outcomes in children who have attended the emergency room for asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, JA, Bourdon, C, Bota, GW, Camargo, CA Jr,

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department. Seven trials were included (5 adult, 2 pediatric).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for treating acute asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Shan, Z, Rong, Y, Yang, W, Wang, D, Yao, P, Xie, J, Liu, L,

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate on treating adults and children with acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dexamethasone for acute asthma exacerbations in children: a meta-analysis (2014)

Visit

Keeney, GE, Gray, MP, Morrison, AK, Levas, MN, Kessler, EA, Hill, GD, Gorelic...

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether intramuscular or oral dexamethasone is equivalent or superior to a 5-day course of oral prednisone or prednisolone. The primary outcome of interest was return visits or hospital readmissions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

Visit

Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

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Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

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Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA Jr, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children (2012)

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Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for educating children who are at risk of asthma-related emergency department attendance (2009)

Visit

Boyd, M, Lasserson, TJ, McKean, MC, Gibson, PG, Ducharme, FM, Haby, M,

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and update the previous review as to whether asthma education leads to improved health outcomes in children who have attended the emergency room for asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2000)

Visit

Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, JA, Bourdon, C, Bota, GW, Camargo, CA Jr,

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department. Seven trials were included (5 adult, 2 pediatric).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Bronchiolitis English (7) French All (7)

Systematic Review: Nebulized hypertonic saline for acute bronchiolitis: A systematic review

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Klassen TP, Wainwright C.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age

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Farley R, Spurling GK, Eriksson L, Del Mar CB

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age compared to placebo or other interventions.

Systematic Review: Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis

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Gadomski AM, Scribani MB

Objective: to assess the effects of bronchodilators on clinical outcomes in infants (0 to 12 months) with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children

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Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson ...

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Epinephrine for bronchiolitis

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Hartling L, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Johnson DW, Plint AC, Klassen...

Objective: to examine the efficacy and safety of epinephrine in children less than two with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, Milne A, Johnson D, Plint A, Klassen TP, V...

Objectives: to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of bronchodilators and steroids, alone or combined, for the acute management of bronchiolitis in children aged less than 2 years.

Systematic Review: Nebulized hypertonic saline for acute bronchiolitis: A systematic review

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Klassen TP, Wainwright C.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age

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Farley R, Spurling GK, Eriksson L, Del Mar CB

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age compared to placebo or other interventions.

Systematic Review: Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis

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Gadomski AM, Scribani MB

Objective: to assess the effects of bronchodilators on clinical outcomes in infants (0 to 12 months) with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children

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Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson ...

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Epinephrine for bronchiolitis

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Hartling L, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Johnson DW, Plint AC, Klassen...

Objective: to examine the efficacy and safety of epinephrine in children less than two with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, Milne A, Johnson D, Plint A, Klassen TP, V...

Objectives: to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of bronchodilators and steroids, alone or combined, for the acute management of bronchiolitis in children aged less than 2 years.

Concussion English (7) French All (7)

Systematic Review: Predictors of clinical recovery from concussion: a systematic review

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Iverson GL, Gardner AJ, Terry DP, Ponsford JL, Sills AK, Broshek DK, Solomon GS

This is a systematic review of factors that might be associated with, or influence, clinical recovery from sport-related concussion

Systematic Review: Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review

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Schneider KJ, Leddy JJ, Guskiewicz KM, Seifert T, McCrea M, Silverberg ND, Fe...

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC).

Systematic Review: Psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury in children: results of a systematic review by the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis

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Keightley ML, Ct P, Rumney P, Hung R, Carroll LJ, Cancelliere C, Cassidy JD

Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in children.

Systematic Review: Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review

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Zemek RL, Farion KJ, Sampson M, McGahern C

Objective: To identify predictors of persistent concussion symptoms (PCS) in children following concussion.

Systematic Review: Interventions provided in the acute phase for mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

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Gravel J, D'Angelo A, Carrire B, Crevier L, Beauchamp MH, Chauny JM, Wassef M...

This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acute settings for patients who experience mild traumatic brain injury.

Systematic Review: Clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury: a systematic review

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Pickering A, Harnan S, Fitzgerald P, Pandor A, Goodacre S

This study aimed to identify clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury and compare their diagnostic accuracy for detection of intracranial injury (ICI) and injury requiring neurosurgical intervention (NSI).

Systematic Review: Which symptom assessments and approaches are uniquely appropriate for paediatric concussion?

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Gioia GA, Schneider JC, Vaughan CG, Isquith PK

Objectives: To (a) identify post-concussion symptom scales appropriate for children and adolescents in sports; (b) review evidence for reliability and validity; and (c) recommend future directions for scale development.

Systematic Review: Predictors of clinical recovery from concussion: a systematic review

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Iverson GL, Gardner AJ, Terry DP, Ponsford JL, Sills AK, Broshek DK, Solomon GS

This is a systematic review of factors that might be associated with, or influence, clinical recovery from sport-related concussion

Systematic Review: Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review

Visit

Schneider KJ, Leddy JJ, Guskiewicz KM, Seifert T, McCrea M, Silverberg ND, Fe...

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC).

Systematic Review: Psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury in children: results of a systematic review by the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis

Visit

Keightley ML, Ct P, Rumney P, Hung R, Carroll LJ, Cancelliere C, Cassidy JD

Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in children.

Systematic Review: Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review

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Zemek RL, Farion KJ, Sampson M, McGahern C

Objective: To identify predictors of persistent concussion symptoms (PCS) in children following concussion.

Systematic Review: Interventions provided in the acute phase for mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

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Gravel J, D'Angelo A, Carrire B, Crevier L, Beauchamp MH, Chauny JM, Wassef M...

This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acute settings for patients who experience mild traumatic brain injury.

Systematic Review: Clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury: a systematic review

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Pickering A, Harnan S, Fitzgerald P, Pandor A, Goodacre S

This study aimed to identify clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury and compare their diagnostic accuracy for detection of intracranial injury (ICI) and injury requiring neurosurgical intervention (NSI).

Systematic Review: Which symptom assessments and approaches are uniquely appropriate for paediatric concussion?

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Gioia GA, Schneider JC, Vaughan CG, Isquith PK

Objectives: To (a) identify post-concussion symptom scales appropriate for children and adolescents in sports; (b) review evidence for reliability and validity; and (c) recommend future directions for scale development.

Congenital Heart Defect English (1) French All (1)

Systematic Review: Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Thangaratinam S, Brown K, Zamora J, Khan KS, Ewer AK

Objective: To assess the performance of pulse oximetry as a screening method for the detection of critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies.

Systematic Review: Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Thangaratinam S, Brown K, Zamora J, Khan KS, Ewer AK

Objective: To assess the performance of pulse oximetry as a screening method for the detection of critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies.

Constipation English (10) French All (10)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation

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Gordon M, MacDonald JK, Parker CE, Akobeng AK, Thomas AG

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic and stimulant laxatives used to treat functional childhood constipation.

Systematic Review: Is There A Role for Pre-, Pro- and Synbiotics in the Treatment of Functional Constipation in Children?

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Koppen IJ, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation.

Review: Management of Functional Constipation in Children: Therapy in Practice

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Koppen IJ, Lammers LA, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

This review discusses the evaluation and management of functional constipation in the pediatric population and provides a summary of drug treatment options.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children: fibre and probiotics

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Tabbers MM, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of fibre for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of probiotics for children with chronic constipation?

Review: Irritable bowel syndrome in children: pathogenesis, diagnosis and evidence-based treatment

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Sandhu BK, Paul SP

This review covers the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Behavioural and cognitive interventions with or without other treatments for the management of faecal incontinence in children

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Brazzelli M, Griffiths PV, Cody JD, Tappin D

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of behavioural and/or cognitive interventions for the management of faecal incontinence in children.

Systematic Review: Nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation: systematic review

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Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

The objectives of this systematic review were to summarize the evidence and assess the reported quality of studies concerning nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation, including fiber, fluid, physical movement, prebiotics, probiotics, behavioral therapy, multidisciplinary treatment, and forms of alternative medicine.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children

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Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of treatments for clearing the bowel in children with faecal impaction?

Review: Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric constipation

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Greenwald BJ

The purpose of this review was to discuss the diagnosis and management of pediatric constipation by nurse practitioners in primary care.

Systematic Review: Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures

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Pijpers MA, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA, Berger MY

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate and summarise the quantity and quality of the current evidence for the effect of laxatives and dietary measures on functional childhood constipation.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation

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Gordon M, MacDonald JK, Parker CE, Akobeng AK, Thomas AG

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic and stimulant laxatives used to treat functional childhood constipation.

Systematic Review: Is There A Role for Pre-, Pro- and Synbiotics in the Treatment of Functional Constipation in Children?

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Koppen IJ, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation.

Review: Management of Functional Constipation in Children: Therapy in Practice

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Koppen IJ, Lammers LA, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

This review discusses the evaluation and management of functional constipation in the pediatric population and provides a summary of drug treatment options.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children: fibre and probiotics

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Tabbers MM, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of fibre for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of probiotics for children with chronic constipation?

Review: Irritable bowel syndrome in children: pathogenesis, diagnosis and evidence-based treatment

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Sandhu BK, Paul SP

This review covers the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Behavioural and cognitive interventions with or without other treatments for the management of faecal incontinence in children

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Brazzelli M, Griffiths PV, Cody JD, Tappin D

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of behavioural and/or cognitive interventions for the management of faecal incontinence in children.

Systematic Review: Nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation: systematic review

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Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

The objectives of this systematic review were to summarize the evidence and assess the reported quality of studies concerning nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation, including fiber, fluid, physical movement, prebiotics, probiotics, behavioral therapy, multidisciplinary treatment, and forms of alternative medicine.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children

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Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of treatments for clearing the bowel in children with faecal impaction?

Review: Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric constipation

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Greenwald BJ

The purpose of this review was to discuss the diagnosis and management of pediatric constipation by nurse practitioners in primary care.

Systematic Review: Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures

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Pijpers MA, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA, Berger MY

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate and summarise the quantity and quality of the current evidence for the effect of laxatives and dietary measures on functional childhood constipation.

Croup English (5) French All (5)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox for croup in children (2010)

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Vorwerk, C, Coats, T,

Objective: To examine the effect of heliox on relieving symptoms and distress, determined by a croup score (a tool for measuring the severity of croup) or clinical assessment variables, through comparisons with placebo or active treatment(s) in children with croup. Published: February 2010; Evidence current to: June 2009.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children (2013)

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Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Vandermeer, B, Klassen, TP, Johnson, DW,

Objective: To assess the efficacy (measured by croup scores, rate of intubation and health care utilization such as rate of hospitalization) and safety (frequency and severity of side effects) of nebulized epinephrine versus placebo in children with croup, evaluated in an emergency department (ED) or hospital setting. Published: October 2013; Evidence current to: July 2013.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Humidified air inhalation for treating croup (2006)

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Moore, M, Little, P,

Objective: To assess the efficacy of humidified air in the treatment of croup. Published: January 2006; Evidence current to: January 2006.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for croup (2011)

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Russell, K, Liang, Y, O'Gorman, K, Johnson, DW, Klassen, TP,

Objective: To provide evidence to guide clinicians in their treatment of patients with croup by determining the effectiveness of glucocorticoids and to identify areas requiring future research. Published: January 2011; Evidence current to: July 2010.

Review: Croup in children

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Candice L. Bjornson, David W. Johnson

Objective: This review will address the diagnosis and management of croup in children, specifically focusing on clinical assessment of disease severity to guide management decisions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox for croup in children (2010)

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Vorwerk, C, Coats, T,

Objective: To examine the effect of heliox on relieving symptoms and distress, determined by a croup score (a tool for measuring the severity of croup) or clinical assessment variables, through comparisons with placebo or active treatment(s) in children with croup. Published: February 2010; Evidence current to: June 2009.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children (2013)

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Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Vandermeer, B, Klassen, TP, Johnson, DW,

Objective: To assess the efficacy (measured by croup scores, rate of intubation and health care utilization such as rate of hospitalization) and safety (frequency and severity of side effects) of nebulized epinephrine versus placebo in children with croup, evaluated in an emergency department (ED) or hospital setting. Published: October 2013; Evidence current to: July 2013.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Humidified air inhalation for treating croup (2006)

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Moore, M, Little, P,

Objective: To assess the efficacy of humidified air in the treatment of croup. Published: January 2006; Evidence current to: January 2006.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for croup (2011)

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Russell, K, Liang, Y, O'Gorman, K, Johnson, DW, Klassen, TP,

Objective: To provide evidence to guide clinicians in their treatment of patients with croup by determining the effectiveness of glucocorticoids and to identify areas requiring future research. Published: January 2011; Evidence current to: July 2010.

Review: Croup in children

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Candice L. Bjornson, David W. Johnson

Objective: This review will address the diagnosis and management of croup in children, specifically focusing on clinical assessment of disease severity to guide management decisions.

Diabetic ketoacidosis English (4) French All (4)

Systematic Review: Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis

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Chua, HR, Schneider, A, & Bellomo, R

Objective: This study was designed to examine the efficacy and risk of bicarbonate administration in the emergent treatment of severe acidemia in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Systematic Review: Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults

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Usher-Smith, JA, Thompson, MJ, Sharp, SJ, & Walter, FM

Objective: To identify the factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults.

Critically Appraised Topic: Evidence-based emergency medicine/critically appraised topic. Is fluid therapy associated with cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis?

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Hom, J, & Sinert, R

Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type I diabetes mellitus, and cerebral edema is the leading cause of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis death. Excessive intravenous fluid administration has been implicated as a cause of cerebral edema. We perform an evidence-based emergency medicine review assessing the association of intravenous fluid hydration and cerebral edema.

Systematic Review: Cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis

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Levin, DL

Objective: To review the causes of cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis (CEDKA), including pathophysiology, risk factors, and proposed mechanisms, to review the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of CEDKA and the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis as it pertains to prevention of cerebral edema.

Systematic Review: Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis

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Chua, HR, Schneider, A, & Bellomo, R

Objective: This study was designed to examine the efficacy and risk of bicarbonate administration in the emergent treatment of severe acidemia in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Systematic Review: Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults

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Usher-Smith, JA, Thompson, MJ, Sharp, SJ, & Walter, FM

Objective: To identify the factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults.

Critically Appraised Topic: Evidence-based emergency medicine/critically appraised topic. Is fluid therapy associated with cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis?

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Hom, J, & Sinert, R

Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type I diabetes mellitus, and cerebral edema is the leading cause of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis death. Excessive intravenous fluid administration has been implicated as a cause of cerebral edema. We perform an evidence-based emergency medicine review assessing the association of intravenous fluid hydration and cerebral edema.

Systematic Review: Cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis

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Levin, DL

Objective: To review the causes of cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis (CEDKA), including pathophysiology, risk factors, and proposed mechanisms, to review the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of CEDKA and the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis as it pertains to prevention of cerebral edema.

Febrile Status Epilepticus English (3) French All (3)

Review: Febrile seizures: emergency medicine perspective

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Kimia AA, Bachur RG, Torres A, Harper MB

This review describes current evidence on the evaluation of febrile seizures in the acute setting, the need for further outpatient assessment, and predictors regarding long-term outcomes of these patients

Review: Management of febrile convulsion in children

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Paul SP, Rogers E, Wilkinson R, Paul B

This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs.

Systematic Review: Risk of bacterial meningitis in young children with a first seizure in the context of fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Najaf-Zadeh A, Dubos F, Hue V, Pruvost I, Bennour A, Martinot A

This systematic review assesses the risk of bacterial meningitis among various subgroups of young children with a first seizure in the context of fever, and the utility of routine lumbar puncture in children with an apparent first febrile seizure.

Review: Febrile seizures: emergency medicine perspective

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Kimia AA, Bachur RG, Torres A, Harper MB

This review describes current evidence on the evaluation of febrile seizures in the acute setting, the need for further outpatient assessment, and predictors regarding long-term outcomes of these patients

Review: Management of febrile convulsion in children

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Paul SP, Rogers E, Wilkinson R, Paul B

This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs.

Systematic Review: Risk of bacterial meningitis in young children with a first seizure in the context of fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Najaf-Zadeh A, Dubos F, Hue V, Pruvost I, Bennour A, Martinot A

This systematic review assesses the risk of bacterial meningitis among various subgroups of young children with a first seizure in the context of fever, and the utility of routine lumbar puncture in children with an apparent first febrile seizure.

Fever in neonates and infants English (11) French All (11)

Review: During the Emergency Department Evaluation of a Well-Appearing Neonate with Fever, Should Empiric Acyclovir Be Initiated?

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Bruno E, Pillus D, Cheng D, Vilke G, Pokrajac N

This review aimed to identify when to initiate testing and treatment for herpes simplex virus infection.

Review: Facing the ongoing challenge of the febrile young infant

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DePorre AG, Aronson PL, McCulloh RJ

The authors highlight the historical context of febrile infant management, review important definitions and terminology, discuss the most clinically relevant viral and bacterial causes of fever in the young infant, describe current risk stratification tools guiding medicaldecision making, and outline research and clinical practice improvement priorities for improving the management of the febrile young infant.

Review: Management of the Febrile Young Infant: Update for the 21st Century

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Woll C, Neuman MI, Aronson PL

Newer laboratory investigations such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have favorable test characteristics compared with traditional laboratory studies such as a white blood cell count. These novel biomarkers have not gained widespread acceptance because of lack of robust prospectively collected data, varying thresholds to define positivity, and differing inclusion criteria across studies. However, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, when combined with other patient characteristics in the step-by-step approach, have a high sensitivity for detection of serious bacterial infection.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis to Determine Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Outpatient Neonates With RSV Infection

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Bonadio W, Huang F, Nateson S, Okpalaji C, Kodsi A, Sokolovsky S, Homel P

This study aimed to analyze a large group of febrile neonates 28 days or younger who received outpatient sepsis evaluation and nasopharyngeal aspirate antigen testing (NPAT) for respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection to determine whether there is a clinically significant association between viral study results and risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI: bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis).

Systematic Review: Diagnostic utility of biomarkers for neonatal sepsis--a systematic review

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Hedegaard SS, Wisborg K, Hvas AM

The objective of the study was to systematically evaluate existing evidence of the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for prediction of sepsis in neonates.

Review: Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

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James SH, Kimberlin DW

This review describes diagnostic and therapeutic advances for infants with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2).

Systematic Review: Use of serum procalcitonin in evaluation of febrile infants: a meta-analysis of 2317 patients

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England JT, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC

The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine: 1) the ability of serum procalcitonin concentrations to identify febrile infants < 91 days of age at high and low risk for serious bacterial infections, and 2) to compare its utility with available clinical prediction rules.

Systematic Review: Diagnosis and management of febrile infants (0-3 months)

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Hui C, Neto G, Tsertsvadze A, Yazdi F, Tricco AC, Tsouros S, Skidmore B, Dani...

Objectives: To review the evidence for diagnostic accuracy of screening for serious bacterial illness (SBI) and invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in febrile infants 3 months or younger; ascertain harms and benefits of various management strategies; compare prevalence of SBI and HSV between different clinical settings; determine how well the presence of viral infection predicts against SBI; and review evidence on parental compliance to return for followup assessments (infants less than 6 months).

Review: Management of the non-toxic-appearing acutely febrile child: a 21st century approach

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Jhaveri R, Byington CL, Klein JO, Shapiro ED

This review discusses challenges and new approaches to assessment and management of febrile children with suspected serious bacterial infections.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever

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Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and children presenting with fever.

Systematic Review: Temperature measured at the axilla compared with rectum in children and young people: systematic review

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Craig JV, Lancaster GA, Williamson PR, Smyth RL

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the agreement between temperature measured at the axilla and rectum in children and young people.

Review: During the Emergency Department Evaluation of a Well-Appearing Neonate with Fever, Should Empiric Acyclovir Be Initiated?

Visit

Bruno E, Pillus D, Cheng D, Vilke G, Pokrajac N

This review aimed to identify when to initiate testing and treatment for herpes simplex virus infection.

Review: Facing the ongoing challenge of the febrile young infant

Visit

DePorre AG, Aronson PL, McCulloh RJ

The authors highlight the historical context of febrile infant management, review important definitions and terminology, discuss the most clinically relevant viral and bacterial causes of fever in the young infant, describe current risk stratification tools guiding medicaldecision making, and outline research and clinical practice improvement priorities for improving the management of the febrile young infant.

Review: Management of the Febrile Young Infant: Update for the 21st Century

Visit

Woll C, Neuman MI, Aronson PL

Newer laboratory investigations such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have favorable test characteristics compared with traditional laboratory studies such as a white blood cell count. These novel biomarkers have not gained widespread acceptance because of lack of robust prospectively collected data, varying thresholds to define positivity, and differing inclusion criteria across studies. However, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, when combined with other patient characteristics in the step-by-step approach, have a high sensitivity for detection of serious bacterial infection.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis to Determine Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Outpatient Neonates With RSV Infection

Visit

Bonadio W, Huang F, Nateson S, Okpalaji C, Kodsi A, Sokolovsky S, Homel P

This study aimed to analyze a large group of febrile neonates 28 days or younger who received outpatient sepsis evaluation and nasopharyngeal aspirate antigen testing (NPAT) for respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection to determine whether there is a clinically significant association between viral study results and risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI: bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis).

Systematic Review: Diagnostic utility of biomarkers for neonatal sepsis--a systematic review

Visit

Hedegaard SS, Wisborg K, Hvas AM

The objective of the study was to systematically evaluate existing evidence of the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for prediction of sepsis in neonates.

Review: Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

Visit

James SH, Kimberlin DW

This review describes diagnostic and therapeutic advances for infants with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2).

Systematic Review: Use of serum procalcitonin in evaluation of febrile infants: a meta-analysis of 2317 patients

Visit

England JT, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC

The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine: 1) the ability of serum procalcitonin concentrations to identify febrile infants < 91 days of age at high and low risk for serious bacterial infections, and 2) to compare its utility with available clinical prediction rules.

Systematic Review: Diagnosis and management of febrile infants (0-3 months)

Visit

Hui C, Neto G, Tsertsvadze A, Yazdi F, Tricco AC, Tsouros S, Skidmore B, Dani...

Objectives: To review the evidence for diagnostic accuracy of screening for serious bacterial illness (SBI) and invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in febrile infants 3 months or younger; ascertain harms and benefits of various management strategies; compare prevalence of SBI and HSV between different clinical settings; determine how well the presence of viral infection predicts against SBI; and review evidence on parental compliance to return for followup assessments (infants less than 6 months).

Review: Management of the non-toxic-appearing acutely febrile child: a 21st century approach

Visit

Jhaveri R, Byington CL, Klein JO, Shapiro ED

This review discusses challenges and new approaches to assessment and management of febrile children with suspected serious bacterial infections.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever

Visit

Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and children presenting with fever.

Systematic Review: Temperature measured at the axilla compared with rectum in children and young people: systematic review

Visit

Craig JV, Lancaster GA, Williamson PR, Smyth RL

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the agreement between temperature measured at the axilla and rectum in children and young people.

Fractures English (2) French All (2)

Systematic Review: Which radiological investigations should be performed to identify fractures in suspected child abuse? (2006)

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Kemp, AM, Butler, A, Morris, S, Mann, M, Kemp, KW, Rolfe, K, Sibert, JR, &...

Objectives: To determine which radiological investigations should be performed and which children should be investigated.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

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Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I, & Gillespie, WJ

Objective: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Systematic Review: Which radiological investigations should be performed to identify fractures in suspected child abuse? (2006)

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Kemp, AM, Butler, A, Morris, S, Mann, M, Kemp, KW, Rolfe, K, Sibert, JR, &...

Objectives: To determine which radiological investigations should be performed and which children should be investigated.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

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Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I, & Gillespie, WJ

Objective: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Gastroenteritis English (13) French All (13)

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of three clinical dehydration scales: a systematic review

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Falszewska A, Szajewska H, Dziechciarz P

Objective: To systematically assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Clinical Dehydration Scale, the WHO Scale and the Gorelick Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Comparative effectiveness and safety of interventions for acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

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Florez ID, Veroniki AA, Al Khalifah R, Yepes-Nuez JJ, Sierra JM, Vernooij RWM...

Objective: To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of the pharmacological and nutritional interventions for reducing the duration of acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children.

Systematic Review: Rapid intravenous rehydration of children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Iro MA, Sell T, Brown N, Maitland K

Objective: To compare rapid and slower intravenous rehydration rates for children with acute gastroenteritis.

Review: Antimicrobial treatment of diarrhea/acute gastroenteritis in children

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Cohen R, Raymond J, Gendrel D

The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Azithromycin is the preferred antibiotic for infections due to Shigella and Campylobacter. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are recommended for salmonellosis when antibiotic treatment is indicated.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

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Goldenberg JZ, Yap C, Lytvyn L, Lo CK, Beardsley J, Mertz D, Johnston BC

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

Systematic Review: Iatrogenic Dysnatremias in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

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Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Freedman SB

Objectives: To evaluate the association between acquired dysnatremias and intravenous rehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Hartling L, Tarr PI, Schnadower D, Freedman SB; A...

Objectives: To determine the relationship between hydration status, the development and severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome, and adverse outcomes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-infected individuals.

Systematic Review: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Antibiotics, and Risk of Developing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Meta-analysis

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Freedman SB, Xie J, Neufeld MS, Hamilton WL, Hartling L, Tarr PI; Alberta Pro...

This review assessed if antibiotic administration to individuals with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection is associated with development of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Systematic Review: Gastroenteritis Therapies in Developed Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Freedman SB, Pasichnyk D, Black KJ, Fitzpatrick E, Gouin S, Milne A, Hartling...

This systematic review evaluates oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antiemetics, probiotics or intravenous fluids for children with gastroenteritis.

Review: Ondansetron and probiotics in the management of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in developed countries

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Schnadower D, Finkelstein Y, Freedman SB

The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of adjunctive therapies, ondansetron and probiotics, in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Diagnosing clinically significant dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis using noninvasive methods: a meta-analysis

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Freedman SB, Vandermeer B, Milne A, Hartling L; Pediatric Emergency Research ...

Objective: To determine the most accurate, noninvasive method of assessing dehydration.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents

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Fedorowicz Z, Jagannath VA, Carter B

This systematic review assesses the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis induced vomiting in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children

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Hartling L, Bellemare S, Wiebe N, Russell K, Klassen TP, Craig W

This systematic review compares oral with intravenous therapy for treating dehydration due to acute gastroenteritis in children.

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of three clinical dehydration scales: a systematic review

Visit

Falszewska A, Szajewska H, Dziechciarz P

Objective: To systematically assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Clinical Dehydration Scale, the WHO Scale and the Gorelick Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Comparative effectiveness and safety of interventions for acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

Visit

Florez ID, Veroniki AA, Al Khalifah R, Yepes-Nuez JJ, Sierra JM, Vernooij RWM...

Objective: To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of the pharmacological and nutritional interventions for reducing the duration of acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children.

Systematic Review: Rapid intravenous rehydration of children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Visit

Iro MA, Sell T, Brown N, Maitland K

Objective: To compare rapid and slower intravenous rehydration rates for children with acute gastroenteritis.

Review: Antimicrobial treatment of diarrhea/acute gastroenteritis in children

Visit

Cohen R, Raymond J, Gendrel D

The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Azithromycin is the preferred antibiotic for infections due to Shigella and Campylobacter. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are recommended for salmonellosis when antibiotic treatment is indicated.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

Visit

Goldenberg JZ, Yap C, Lytvyn L, Lo CK, Beardsley J, Mertz D, Johnston BC

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

Systematic Review: Iatrogenic Dysnatremias in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

Visit

Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Freedman SB

Objectives: To evaluate the association between acquired dysnatremias and intravenous rehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Visit

Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Hartling L, Tarr PI, Schnadower D, Freedman SB; A...

Objectives: To determine the relationship between hydration status, the development and severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome, and adverse outcomes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-infected individuals.

Systematic Review: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Antibiotics, and Risk of Developing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Meta-analysis

Visit

Freedman SB, Xie J, Neufeld MS, Hamilton WL, Hartling L, Tarr PI; Alberta Pro...

This review assessed if antibiotic administration to individuals with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection is associated with development of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Systematic Review: Gastroenteritis Therapies in Developed Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Visit

Freedman SB, Pasichnyk D, Black KJ, Fitzpatrick E, Gouin S, Milne A, Hartling...

This systematic review evaluates oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antiemetics, probiotics or intravenous fluids for children with gastroenteritis.

Review: Ondansetron and probiotics in the management of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in developed countries

Visit

Schnadower D, Finkelstein Y, Freedman SB

The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of adjunctive therapies, ondansetron and probiotics, in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Diagnosing clinically significant dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis using noninvasive methods: a meta-analysis

Visit

Freedman SB, Vandermeer B, Milne A, Hartling L; Pediatric Emergency Research ...

Objective: To determine the most accurate, noninvasive method of assessing dehydration.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents

Visit

Fedorowicz Z, Jagannath VA, Carter B

This systematic review assesses the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis induced vomiting in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children

Visit

Hartling L, Bellemare S, Wiebe N, Russell K, Klassen TP, Craig W

This systematic review compares oral with intravenous therapy for treating dehydration due to acute gastroenteritis in children.

Intussusception English (14) French All (14)

Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

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Gluckman, S, Karpelowsky, J, Webster, AC & McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness of Imaging Modalities for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intussusception: A Critically Appraised Topic

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Carroll AG, Kavanagh RG, Ni Leidhin C, Cullinan NM, Lavelle LP, Malone DE

The purpose of this study was to critically appraise and compare the diagnostic performance of imaging modalities that are used for the diagnosis of intussusception and methods used in the treatment of ileocolic intussusception.

Systematic Review: Comparison of safety and efficacy of image-guided enema reduction techniques for paediatric intussusception: A review of the literature

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Chew R, Ditchfield M, Paul E, Goergen SK

The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of fluroscopically guided pneumatic reduction (FGPR) compared to ultrasound (US) guided intussusception reduction (USGIR) techniques for paediatric intussusception treatment.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

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Gluckman S, Karpelowsky J, Webster AC, McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Risk of intussusception following rotavirus vaccination: An evidence based meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies

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Kassim P, Eslick GD

A meta-analysis was performed to summarise available evidence and to give an overall risk of developing intussusception from case-control and cohort studies for all rotavirus vaccines that have been manufactured up to date.

Systematic Review: Risk of Intussusception After Rotavirus Vaccination

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Koch J, Harder T, von Kries R, Wichmann O

This study reviewed the literature for self-controlled case series studies on the risk of intussusception after RV vaccination.

Systematic Review: What Measures Improve Reduction of Intussusception in Pediatric Patients?

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Long B, April MD

This study reviewed randomized clinical trials comparing contrast media, imaging modalities, pharmacologic adjuvants, protocols for delayed repeated enema, surgical approaches, or other curative techniques for intussusception management.

Systematic Review: Systematic review shows that pathological lead points are important and frequent in intussusception and are not limited to infants

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Fiegel H, Gfroerer S, Rolle U

A systematic literature review was performed from 1998 to 2016 to evaluate the incidence and types of pathalogical lead points in paediatric intussusception.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of Air Versus Liquid Enema for Intussusception Reduction in Children

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Sadigh G, Zou KH, Razavi SA, Khan R, Applegate KE

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of air versus liquid enema reduction in the treatment of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Recurrence rates after intussusception enema reduction: a meta-analysis

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Gray MP, Li SH, Hoffmann RG, Gorelick MH,

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate overall, 24-hour, and 48-hour recurrence rates after enema reduction in children.

Systematic Review: An institutional analysis and systematic review with meta-analysis of pneumatic versus hydrostatic reduction for pediatric intussusception

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Beres AL, Baird R,

This paper conducts a review and a critical appraisal to find the optimal intussusception reduction technique to maximize success while minimizing morbidity.

Systematic Review: Postoperative intussusceptions in children and infants: a systematic review

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Yang G, Wang X, Jiang W, Ma J, Zhao J, Liu W,

Objective: To evaluate the clinical features of postoperative intussusception through a literature review.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use

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Soares-Weiser K, Maclehose H, Bergman H, Ben-Aharon I, Nagpal S, Goldberg E, ...

Objective: To evaluate rotavirus vaccines approved for use (RV1, RV5, and LLR) for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea.

Comparative Effectiveness Review: Intussusception in children: cost-effectiveness of ultrasound vs diagnostic contrast enema

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Bucher BT, Hall BL, Warner BW, Keller MS,

Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of different imaging strategies for the diagnosis of pediatric intussusception using a decision analytic model.

Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

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Gluckman, S, Karpelowsky, J, Webster, AC & McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness of Imaging Modalities for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intussusception: A Critically Appraised Topic

Visit

Carroll AG, Kavanagh RG, Ni Leidhin C, Cullinan NM, Lavelle LP, Malone DE

The purpose of this study was to critically appraise and compare the diagnostic performance of imaging modalities that are used for the diagnosis of intussusception and methods used in the treatment of ileocolic intussusception.

Systematic Review: Comparison of safety and efficacy of image-guided enema reduction techniques for paediatric intussusception: A review of the literature

Visit

Chew R, Ditchfield M, Paul E, Goergen SK

The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of fluroscopically guided pneumatic reduction (FGPR) compared to ultrasound (US) guided intussusception reduction (USGIR) techniques for paediatric intussusception treatment.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

Visit

Gluckman S, Karpelowsky J, Webster AC, McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Risk of intussusception following rotavirus vaccination: An evidence based meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies

Visit

Kassim P, Eslick GD

A meta-analysis was performed to summarise available evidence and to give an overall risk of developing intussusception from case-control and cohort studies for all rotavirus vaccines that have been manufactured up to date.

Systematic Review: Risk of Intussusception After Rotavirus Vaccination

Visit

Koch J, Harder T, von Kries R, Wichmann O

This study reviewed the literature for self-controlled case series studies on the risk of intussusception after RV vaccination.

Systematic Review: What Measures Improve Reduction of Intussusception in Pediatric Patients?

Visit

Long B, April MD

This study reviewed randomized clinical trials comparing contrast media, imaging modalities, pharmacologic adjuvants, protocols for delayed repeated enema, surgical approaches, or other curative techniques for intussusception management.

Systematic Review: Systematic review shows that pathological lead points are important and frequent in intussusception and are not limited to infants

Visit

Fiegel H, Gfroerer S, Rolle U

A systematic literature review was performed from 1998 to 2016 to evaluate the incidence and types of pathalogical lead points in paediatric intussusception.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of Air Versus Liquid Enema for Intussusception Reduction in Children

Visit

Sadigh G, Zou KH, Razavi SA, Khan R, Applegate KE

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of air versus liquid enema reduction in the treatment of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Recurrence rates after intussusception enema reduction: a meta-analysis

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Gray MP, Li SH, Hoffmann RG, Gorelick MH,

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate overall, 24-hour, and 48-hour recurrence rates after enema reduction in children.

Systematic Review: An institutional analysis and systematic review with meta-analysis of pneumatic versus hydrostatic reduction for pediatric intussusception

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Beres AL, Baird R,

This paper conducts a review and a critical appraisal to find the optimal intussusception reduction technique to maximize success while minimizing morbidity.

Systematic Review: Postoperative intussusceptions in children and infants: a systematic review

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Yang G, Wang X, Jiang W, Ma J, Zhao J, Liu W,

Objective: To evaluate the clinical features of postoperative intussusception through a literature review.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use

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Soares-Weiser K, Maclehose H, Bergman H, Ben-Aharon I, Nagpal S, Goldberg E, ...

Objective: To evaluate rotavirus vaccines approved for use (RV1, RV5, and LLR) for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea.

Comparative Effectiveness Review: Intussusception in children: cost-effectiveness of ultrasound vs diagnostic contrast enema

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Bucher BT, Hall BL, Warner BW, Keller MS,

Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of different imaging strategies for the diagnosis of pediatric intussusception using a decision analytic model.

Lower Extremity Fractures English (2) French All (2)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents

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Madhuri, V, Dutt, V, Gahukamble, AD & Tharyan, P

Objective: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Accuracy of Ottawa Ankle Rules to exclude fractures of the ankle and midfoot in children: a meta-analysis

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Dowling, S, Spooner, CH, Liang, Y, Dryden, DM, Friesen, C, Klassen, TP & ...

Objective: To conduct a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) to exclude ankle and midfoot fractures in children and the extent to which x-ray use could be reduced without missing significant fractures.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents

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Madhuri, V, Dutt, V, Gahukamble, AD & Tharyan, P

Objective: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Accuracy of Ottawa Ankle Rules to exclude fractures of the ankle and midfoot in children: a meta-analysis

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Dowling, S, Spooner, CH, Liang, Y, Dryden, DM, Friesen, C, Klassen, TP & ...

Objective: To conduct a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) to exclude ankle and midfoot fractures in children and the extent to which x-ray use could be reduced without missing significant fractures.

Management of children with aggression in the ED English (1) French All (1)

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Management of children with developmental disabilities in the ED English (5) French All (5)

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

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Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

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Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

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Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

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Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

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Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

Visit

Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

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Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

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Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Management of children with special needs in the ED English (5) French All (5)

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

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Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

Visit

McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

Visit

Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

Visit

Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

Visit

Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

Visit

Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

Visit

McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

Visit

Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

Visit

Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

Visit

Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Pain Treatment English (15) French All (15)

Systematic Review: Psychometric properties of the numerical rating scale to assess self-reported pain intensity in children and adolescents: A systematic review

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Castarlenas E, Jensen MP, von Baeyer CL, Miró J.

Objective: The Numerical Rating Scale-11 (NRS-11) is one of the most widely used scales to assess self-reported pain intensity in children, despite the limited information on its psychometric properties for assessing pain in pediatric populations. Recently, there has been an increase in published findings regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the NRS-11 as a measure of pain in youths. The purpose of this study was to review this research and summarize what is known regarding the reliability and validity of the NRS-11 as a self-report measure of pediatric pain intensity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intranasal fentanyl for the management of acute pain in children

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Murphy A, O'Sullivan R, Wakai A, Grant TS, Barrett MJ, Cronin J, McCoy SC, Ho...

Objective: We identified and evaluated all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials to assess the effects of intranasal fentanyl (INF) versus alternative analgesic interventions in children with acute pain, with respect to reduction in pain score, occurrence of adverse events, patient tolerability, use of "rescue analgesia," patient/parental satisfaction and patient mortality.

Systematic Review: Opioid analgesia for acute abdominal pain in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Poonai N, Paskar D, Konrad SL, Rieder M, Joubert G, Lim R, Golozar A, Uledi S...

Objectives: There are long-held concerns that analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain may obscure the physical examination and lead to missing a diagnosis of appendicitis. Despite evidence to the contrary, analgesia continues to be underutilized and suboptimally dosed in children with acute abdominal pain. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine if opioids provide analgesia without an increase in side effects and appendicitis-related complications.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nerve blocks for initial pain management of femoral fractures in children

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Black KJ, Bevan CA, Murphy NG, Howard JJ

Objectives: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of femoral nerve block (FNB) or fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for initial pain management of children with fractures of the femur (thigh bone) in the pre-hospital or in-hospital emergency setting, with or without systemic analgesia.

Other Review: Treating abdominal pain in children: what do we know?

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Ali S, Sli H

Abdominal pain is a common reason for emergency department visits in the United States. Failure to treat children's pain has long been considered substandard and unethical. Within the emergency department setting, pain has been repeatedly shown to be undertreated. Analgesic medications are suboptimally used for children with abdominal pain because of a wide variety of causes. To our knowledge, there is no standard of care for the treatment of such pain. As such, several recent studies have set out to determine the most appropriate methods to address this gap in knowledge. The proceeding article will attempt to review the literature as it pertains to severe acute abdominal pain, biliary colic, renal colic, and dysmenorrhea.

Systematic Review: A systematic review of faces scales for the self-report of pain intensity in children

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Tomlinson D, von Baeyer CL, Stinson JN, Sung L

Objectives: To summarize and systematically review faces pain scales most commonly used to obtain self-report of pain intensity in children for evaluation of reliability and validity and to compare the scales for preference and utility.

Systematic Review: Pain management and sedation for children in the emergency department

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Atkinson P, Chesters A, Heinz P

We provide an overview of published evidence to help clinicians assess, manage, and minimise pain in children presenting to hospital.

Systematic Review: Treatment of children with migraine in the emergency department: a qualitative systematic review

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Bailey B, McManus BC

Objective: To evaluate which treatment could be effective in the emergency department (ED) for children with migraine and status migrainosus, we carried out a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated treatment that could be used for those conditions.

Other Review: Does analgesia mask diagnosis of appendicitis among children?

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Bromberg R, Goldman RD

Question: Can analgesia be given safely to patients with suspected appendicitis prior to surgical evaluation without masking physical signs and symptoms?

Systematic Review: Systematic review of observational (behavioral) measures of pain for children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years

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von Baeyer CL, Spagrud LJ

Observational (behavioral) scales of pain for children aged 3 to 18 years were systematically reviewed to identify those recommended as outcome measures in clinical trials.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical analgesia for acute otitis media

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Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of topical analgesia for AOM.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for use in clinical trials in children and adolescents

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Stinson JN, Kavanagh T, Yamada J, Gill N, Stevens B

The aim of this study was to systematically review the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for children and adolescents for use in clinical trials evaluating pain treatments.

Other Review: Pediatric pain management in the emergency department

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Bauman BH, McManus JG

In this article, the authors review the history of ED pediatric pain management and sedation, discuss special considerations in pediatric pain assessment and management, review various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods of alleviating pain and anxiety, and present ideas to improve the culture of the pediatric ED, so that it can achieve the goal of becoming pain-free.

Sytematic Review: Symptomatic treatment of migraine in children: a systematic review of medication trials

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Damen L, Bruijn JK, Verhagen AP, Berger MY, Passchier J, Koes BW

Objective: Treatment of pediatric migraine includes an individually tailored regimen of both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic measures. The mainstay of symptomatic treatment in children with migraine is intermittent oral or suppository analgesics, but there is no coherent body of evidence on symptomatic treatment of childhood migraine available. The objective of this review is to describe and assess the evidence from randomized and clinical controlled trials concerning the efficacy and tolerability of symptomatic treatment of migraine in children.

Other Review: Analgesics for the treatment of pain in children

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Berde CB, Sethna NF

Studies over the past 15 years suggest that neonates, infants, and children can receive analgesia and anesthesia safely, with proper age-related adjustments in clinical practice and dosing. Although the emphasis in this review is on the pharmacologic management of pain, several nonpharmacologic approaches, including hypnosis and related cognitive behavioral approaches, have had good efficacy in children with acute or chronic pain.5,6 Making the hospital environment a less terrifying place may reduce anxiety and fear, which can themselves exacerbate pain.7 Conversely, nonpharmacologic approaches should not be used as an excuse to withhold appropriate analgesics.

Systematic Review: Psychometric properties of the numerical rating scale to assess self-reported pain intensity in children and adolescents: A systematic review

Visit

Castarlenas E, Jensen MP, von Baeyer CL, Miró J.

Objective: The Numerical Rating Scale-11 (NRS-11) is one of the most widely used scales to assess self-reported pain intensity in children, despite the limited information on its psychometric properties for assessing pain in pediatric populations. Recently, there has been an increase in published findings regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the NRS-11 as a measure of pain in youths. The purpose of this study was to review this research and summarize what is known regarding the reliability and validity of the NRS-11 as a self-report measure of pediatric pain intensity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intranasal fentanyl for the management of acute pain in children

Visit

Murphy A, O'Sullivan R, Wakai A, Grant TS, Barrett MJ, Cronin J, McCoy SC, Ho...

Objective: We identified and evaluated all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials to assess the effects of intranasal fentanyl (INF) versus alternative analgesic interventions in children with acute pain, with respect to reduction in pain score, occurrence of adverse events, patient tolerability, use of "rescue analgesia," patient/parental satisfaction and patient mortality.

Systematic Review: Opioid analgesia for acute abdominal pain in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Visit

Poonai N, Paskar D, Konrad SL, Rieder M, Joubert G, Lim R, Golozar A, Uledi S...

Objectives: There are long-held concerns that analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain may obscure the physical examination and lead to missing a diagnosis of appendicitis. Despite evidence to the contrary, analgesia continues to be underutilized and suboptimally dosed in children with acute abdominal pain. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine if opioids provide analgesia without an increase in side effects and appendicitis-related complications.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nerve blocks for initial pain management of femoral fractures in children

Visit

Black KJ, Bevan CA, Murphy NG, Howard JJ

Objectives: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of femoral nerve block (FNB) or fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for initial pain management of children with fractures of the femur (thigh bone) in the pre-hospital or in-hospital emergency setting, with or without systemic analgesia.

Other Review: Treating abdominal pain in children: what do we know?

Visit

Ali S, Sli H

Abdominal pain is a common reason for emergency department visits in the United States. Failure to treat children's pain has long been considered substandard and unethical. Within the emergency department setting, pain has been repeatedly shown to be undertreated. Analgesic medications are suboptimally used for children with abdominal pain because of a wide variety of causes. To our knowledge, there is no standard of care for the treatment of such pain. As such, several recent studies have set out to determine the most appropriate methods to address this gap in knowledge. The proceeding article will attempt to review the literature as it pertains to severe acute abdominal pain, biliary colic, renal colic, and dysmenorrhea.

Systematic Review: A systematic review of faces scales for the self-report of pain intensity in children

Visit

Tomlinson D, von Baeyer CL, Stinson JN, Sung L

Objectives: To summarize and systematically review faces pain scales most commonly used to obtain self-report of pain intensity in children for evaluation of reliability and validity and to compare the scales for preference and utility.

Systematic Review: Pain management and sedation for children in the emergency department

Visit

Atkinson P, Chesters A, Heinz P

We provide an overview of published evidence to help clinicians assess, manage, and minimise pain in children presenting to hospital.

Systematic Review: Treatment of children with migraine in the emergency department: a qualitative systematic review

Visit

Bailey B, McManus BC

Objective: To evaluate which treatment could be effective in the emergency department (ED) for children with migraine and status migrainosus, we carried out a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated treatment that could be used for those conditions.

Other Review: Does analgesia mask diagnosis of appendicitis among children?

Visit

Bromberg R, Goldman RD

Question: Can analgesia be given safely to patients with suspected appendicitis prior to surgical evaluation without masking physical signs and symptoms?

Systematic Review: Systematic review of observational (behavioral) measures of pain for children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years

Visit

von Baeyer CL, Spagrud LJ

Observational (behavioral) scales of pain for children aged 3 to 18 years were systematically reviewed to identify those recommended as outcome measures in clinical trials.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical analgesia for acute otitis media

Visit

Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of topical analgesia for AOM.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for use in clinical trials in children and adolescents

Visit

Stinson JN, Kavanagh T, Yamada J, Gill N, Stevens B

The aim of this study was to systematically review the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for children and adolescents for use in clinical trials evaluating pain treatments.

Other Review: Pediatric pain management in the emergency department

Visit

Bauman BH, McManus JG

In this article, the authors review the history of ED pediatric pain management and sedation, discuss special considerations in pediatric pain assessment and management, review various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods of alleviating pain and anxiety, and present ideas to improve the culture of the pediatric ED, so that it can achieve the goal of becoming pain-free.

Sytematic Review: Symptomatic treatment of migraine in children: a systematic review of medication trials

Visit

Damen L, Bruijn JK, Verhagen AP, Berger MY, Passchier J, Koes BW

Objective: Treatment of pediatric migraine includes an individually tailored regimen of both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic measures. The mainstay of symptomatic treatment in children with migraine is intermittent oral or suppository analgesics, but there is no coherent body of evidence on symptomatic treatment of childhood migraine available. The objective of this review is to describe and assess the evidence from randomized and clinical controlled trials concerning the efficacy and tolerability of symptomatic treatment of migraine in children.

Other Review: Analgesics for the treatment of pain in children