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Acute Otitis Media English (9) French All (9)

Systematic Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis of antimicrobial resistance in paediatric acute otitis media

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Michael W. Mathera, Michael Drinnana, John D. Perryc, Steven Powellb, Janet A...

Objective: We present a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, of both the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of AOM organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents, with the aim of informing responsible antimicrobial stewardship.

Review: From paper to practice: Strategies for improving antibiotic stewardship in the pediatric ambulatory setting.

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Bozzella MJ, Harik N, Newland JG, Hamdy RF

Objective: The intent with this review is to provide an overview of strategies that pediatric providers can take from paper to practice.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Systemic corticosteroids for acute otitis media in children

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Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, D...

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Influenza vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in infants and children

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Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Review: Antibiotic therapy for children with acute otitis media

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Sakulchit T, Goldman RD

Objective: Review of AOM and the evidence regarding use of antibiotics or watchful waiting to treat children at different levels of disease severity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children

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Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoise...

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children

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Venekamp RP, Burton MJ, van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, van Zon A, Schilde...

Objective: To assess the benefits and harms of oral antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children

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Venekamp RP, Sanders SL, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM.

Systematic Review: Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Costelloe C, Metcalfe C, Lovering A, Mant D, Hay AD

Objective: To systematically review the literature and, where appropriate, meta-analyse studies investigating subsequent antibiotic resistance in individuals prescribed antibiotics in primary care.

Systematic Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis of antimicrobial resistance in paediatric acute otitis media

Visit

Michael W. Mathera, Michael Drinnana, John D. Perryc, Steven Powellb, Janet A...

Objective: We present a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, of both the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of AOM organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents, with the aim of informing responsible antimicrobial stewardship.

Review: From paper to practice: Strategies for improving antibiotic stewardship in the pediatric ambulatory setting.

Visit

Bozzella MJ, Harik N, Newland JG, Hamdy RF

Objective: The intent with this review is to provide an overview of strategies that pediatric providers can take from paper to practice.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Systemic corticosteroids for acute otitis media in children

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Ranakusuma RW, Pitoyo Y, Safitri ED, Thorning S, Beller EM, Sastroasmoro S, D...

Objective: To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Influenza vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in infants and children

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Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media in infants and children.

Review: Antibiotic therapy for children with acute otitis media

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Sakulchit T, Goldman RD

Objective: Review of AOM and the evidence regarding use of antibiotics or watchful waiting to treat children at different levels of disease severity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children

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Sjoukes A, Venekamp RP, van de Pol AC, Hay AD, Little P, Schilder AG, Damoise...

Objective: Our primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of paracetamol (acetaminophen) or NSAIDs, alone or combined, compared with placebo or no treatment in relieving pain in children with AOM. Our secondary objective was to assess the effectiveness of NSAIDs compared with paracetamol in children with AOM.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children

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Venekamp RP, Burton MJ, van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, van Zon A, Schilde...

Objective: To assess the benefits and harms of oral antibiotics in children up to 18 years with OME.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children

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Venekamp RP, Sanders SL, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for children with AOM.

Systematic Review: Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Costelloe C, Metcalfe C, Lovering A, Mant D, Hay AD

Objective: To systematically review the literature and, where appropriate, meta-analyse studies investigating subsequent antibiotic resistance in individuals prescribed antibiotics in primary care.

Anaphylaxis English (9) French All (9)

Review: Do Corticosteroids Prevent Biphasic Anaphylaxis?

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Alqurashi W, Ellis AK

This review analyzes the use of corticosteroids for reducing anaphylaxis severity and preventing biphasic anaphylaxis.

Comprehensive Review: Pitfalls in the use of epinephrine for anaphylaxis: patient and provider opportunities for improvement

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Cohen MB, Saunders SS, Wise SK, Nassif S, Platt MP

The purpose of this study was to identify the scope of epinephrine pitfalls and opportunities for improvement in the management of allergy emergencies.

Systematic Review: Time of Onset and Predictors of Biphasic Anaphylactic Reactions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Lee S, Bellolio MF, Hess EP, Erwin P, Murad MH, Campbell RL

The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of onset and predictors of biphasic anaphylactic reactions.

Review: Anaphylaxis: Unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years)

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Simons FE, Sampson HA

In this rostrum we aim to increase awareness of anaphylaxis in infancy in order to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and prevention of recurrences.

Review: Risk multipliers for severe food anaphylaxis

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Smith PK, Hourihane JO, Lieberman P

This paper reviews the factors that contribute to the risk of severe anaphylactic events and provides a framework for the ongoing management of patients at risk of severe food allergy.

Systematic Review: H2-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock: a systematic review

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Nurmatov UB, Rhatigan E, Simons FE, Sheikh A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of H2-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis

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Choo KJ, Simons FE, Sheikh A

We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community

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Sheikh A, Simons FE, Barbour V, Worth A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community.

Cochrane Systematic Review: H1-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock

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Sheikh A, ten Broek VM, Brown SG, Simons FE

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harm of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Review: Do Corticosteroids Prevent Biphasic Anaphylaxis?

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Alqurashi W, Ellis AK

This review analyzes the use of corticosteroids for reducing anaphylaxis severity and preventing biphasic anaphylaxis.

Comprehensive Review: Pitfalls in the use of epinephrine for anaphylaxis: patient and provider opportunities for improvement

Visit

Cohen MB, Saunders SS, Wise SK, Nassif S, Platt MP

The purpose of this study was to identify the scope of epinephrine pitfalls and opportunities for improvement in the management of allergy emergencies.

Systematic Review: Time of Onset and Predictors of Biphasic Anaphylactic Reactions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Lee S, Bellolio MF, Hess EP, Erwin P, Murad MH, Campbell RL

The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of onset and predictors of biphasic anaphylactic reactions.

Review: Anaphylaxis: Unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years)

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Simons FE, Sampson HA

In this rostrum we aim to increase awareness of anaphylaxis in infancy in order to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and prevention of recurrences.

Review: Risk multipliers for severe food anaphylaxis

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Smith PK, Hourihane JO, Lieberman P

This paper reviews the factors that contribute to the risk of severe anaphylactic events and provides a framework for the ongoing management of patients at risk of severe food allergy.

Systematic Review: H2-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock: a systematic review

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Nurmatov UB, Rhatigan E, Simons FE, Sheikh A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of H2-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis

Visit

Choo KJ, Simons FE, Sheikh A

We sought to assess the benefits and harms of glucocorticoid treatment during episodes of anaphylaxis.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community

Visit

Sheikh A, Simons FE, Barbour V, Worth A

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors in relieving respiratory, cardiovascular, and other symptoms during episodes of anaphylaxis that occur in the community.

Cochrane Systematic Review: H1-antihistamines for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without shock

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Sheikh A, ten Broek VM, Brown SG, Simons FE

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harm of H1-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Asthma English (9) French All (9)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for treating acute asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Shan, Z, Rong, Y, Yang, W, Wang, D, Yao, P, Xie, J, Liu, L,

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate on treating adults and children with acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dexamethasone for acute asthma exacerbations in children: a meta-analysis (2014)

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Keeney, GE, Gray, MP, Morrison, AK, Levas, MN, Kessler, EA, Hill, GD, Gorelic...

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether intramuscular or oral dexamethasone is equivalent or superior to a 5-day course of oral prednisone or prednisolone. The primary outcome of interest was return visits or hospital readmissions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

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Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

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Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

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Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA Jr, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children (2012)

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Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for educating children who are at risk of asthma-related emergency department attendance (2009)

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Boyd, M, Lasserson, TJ, McKean, MC, Gibson, PG, Ducharme, FM, Haby, M,

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and update the previous review as to whether asthma education leads to improved health outcomes in children who have attended the emergency room for asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, JA, Bourdon, C, Bota, GW, Camargo, CA Jr,

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department. Seven trials were included (5 adult, 2 pediatric).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

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Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for treating acute asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Visit

Shan, Z, Rong, Y, Yang, W, Wang, D, Yao, P, Xie, J, Liu, L,

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate on treating adults and children with acute asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Dexamethasone for acute asthma exacerbations in children: a meta-analysis (2014)

Visit

Keeney, GE, Gray, MP, Morrison, AK, Levas, MN, Kessler, EA, Hill, GD, Gorelic...

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether intramuscular or oral dexamethasone is equivalent or superior to a 5-day course of oral prednisone or prednisolone. The primary outcome of interest was return visits or hospital readmissions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma (2013)

Visit

Cates, CJ, Welsh, EJ, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To assess the effects of holding chambers (spacers) compared to nebulisers for the delivery of beta(2)-agonists for acute asthma. This review includes a total of 1897 children and 729 adults in 39 trials. Thirty-three trials were conducted in the emergency room and equivalent community settings, and six trials were on inpatients with acute asthma (207 children and 28 adults).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children (2013)

Visit

Griffiths, B, Ducharme, FM,

Objectives: To determine whether the addition of inhaled anticholinergics to SABAs provides clinical improvement and affects the incidence of adverse effects in children with acute asthma exacerbations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Inhaled steroids for acute asthma following emergency department discharge (2012)

Visit

Edmonds, ML, Milan, SJ, Brenner, BE, Camargo, CA Jr, Rowe, BH,

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of ICS on outcomes in the treatment of acute asthma following discharge from the ED. To quantify the effectiveness of ICS therapy on acute asthma following ED discharge, when used in addition to, or as a substitute for, systemic corticosteroids.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children (2012)

Visit

Jat, KR, Chawla, D,

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care for management of severe acute asthma in children who had not responded to standard therapy.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for educating children who are at risk of asthma-related emergency department attendance (2009)

Visit

Boyd, M, Lasserson, TJ, McKean, MC, Gibson, PG, Ducharme, FM, Haby, M,

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and update the previous review as to whether asthma education leads to improved health outcomes in children who have attended the emergency room for asthma.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department (2000)

Visit

Rowe, BH, Bretzlaff, JA, Bourdon, C, Bota, GW, Camargo, CA Jr,

Objectives: To examine the effect of additional intravenous magnesium sulfate in patients with acute asthma managed in the emergency department. Seven trials were included (5 adult, 2 pediatric).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Early emergency department treatment of acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids (2000)

Visit

Rowe, BH, Spooner, C, Ducharme, FM, Bretzlaff, JA, Bota, GW,

Objectives: To determine the benefit of treating patients with acute asthma with systemic corticosteroids within an hour of presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Bacterial Meningitis English (10) French All (10)

Review: Emergency Medicine Myths: Computed Tomography of the Head Prior to Lumbar Puncture in Adults with Suspected Bacterial Meningitis - Due Diligence or Antiquated Practice?

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April MD, Long B, Koyfman A

Objective: To review the evidence regarding the utility of obtaining head CT prior to lumbar puncture in adults with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections in the Emergency Department

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Dorsett M, Liang SY

Objective: This review discusses the clinical signs and symptoms that should lead emergency physicians to consider CNS infection, paying particular attention to the sensitivity and specificity of different clinical findings at the bedside. Subsequently, the diagnostic workup and management of patients for whom there is high clinical suspicion for CNS infection is discussed.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis

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Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis

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Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, Prasad K, Van de Beek D

Objective: To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis.

Review: Early lumbar puncture in adult bacterial meningitis--rationale for revised guidelines

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Glimker M, Johansson B, Bell M, Ericsson M, Blckberg J, Brink M, Lindquist L,...

Objective: Revised Swedish guidelines regarding early lumbar puncture (LP) are presented, and the background documentation and reasons for omitting impaired consciousness, new onset seizures, and immunocompromised state as contraindications to LP are discussed.

Systematic Review: Does this child have bacterial meningitis? A systematic review of clinical prediction rules for children with suspected bacterial meningitis

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Kulik DM, Uleryk EM, Maguire JL

Objective: Our aim was to systematically identify and review the quality and performance of published clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for children with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of bacterial meningitis score validation studies

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Nigrovic LE, Malley R, Kuppermann N

Objective: The study objective of the present work was to calculate the performance of the Bacterial Meningitis Score by performing a meta-analysis of all published validation studies.

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid lactate for differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis: a meta-analysis

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Sakushima K, Hayashino Y, Kawaguchi T, Jackson JL, Fukuhara S

Objective: Our study's purpose was to assess the utility of CSF lactate in differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis.

Systematic Review: Clinical features suggestive of meningitis in children: a systematic review of prospective data

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Curtis S, Stobart K, Vandermeer B, Simel DL, Klassen T

Objective: To seek evidence supporting accuracy of clinical features of pediatric bacterial meningitis.

Review: Lumbar puncture and brain herniation in acute bacterial meningitis: a review

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Joffe AR

Objective: There has been controversy regarding the risk of cerebral herniation caused by a lumbar puncture (LP) in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). This review discusses in detail the issues involved in this controversy.

Review: Emergency Medicine Myths: Computed Tomography of the Head Prior to Lumbar Puncture in Adults with Suspected Bacterial Meningitis - Due Diligence or Antiquated Practice?

Visit

April MD, Long B, Koyfman A

Objective: To review the evidence regarding the utility of obtaining head CT prior to lumbar puncture in adults with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections in the Emergency Department

Visit

Dorsett M, Liang SY

Objective: This review discusses the clinical signs and symptoms that should lead emergency physicians to consider CNS infection, paying particular attention to the sensitivity and specificity of different clinical findings at the bedside. Subsequently, the diagnostic workup and management of patients for whom there is high clinical suspicion for CNS infection is discussed.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis

Visit

Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis

Visit

Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, Prasad K, Van de Beek D

Objective: To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis.

Review: Early lumbar puncture in adult bacterial meningitis--rationale for revised guidelines

Visit

Glimker M, Johansson B, Bell M, Ericsson M, Blckberg J, Brink M, Lindquist L,...

Objective: Revised Swedish guidelines regarding early lumbar puncture (LP) are presented, and the background documentation and reasons for omitting impaired consciousness, new onset seizures, and immunocompromised state as contraindications to LP are discussed.

Systematic Review: Does this child have bacterial meningitis? A systematic review of clinical prediction rules for children with suspected bacterial meningitis

Visit

Kulik DM, Uleryk EM, Maguire JL

Objective: Our aim was to systematically identify and review the quality and performance of published clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for children with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of bacterial meningitis score validation studies

Visit

Nigrovic LE, Malley R, Kuppermann N

Objective: The study objective of the present work was to calculate the performance of the Bacterial Meningitis Score by performing a meta-analysis of all published validation studies.

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid lactate for differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis: a meta-analysis

Visit

Sakushima K, Hayashino Y, Kawaguchi T, Jackson JL, Fukuhara S

Objective: Our study's purpose was to assess the utility of CSF lactate in differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis.

Systematic Review: Clinical features suggestive of meningitis in children: a systematic review of prospective data

Visit

Curtis S, Stobart K, Vandermeer B, Simel DL, Klassen T

Objective: To seek evidence supporting accuracy of clinical features of pediatric bacterial meningitis.

Review: Lumbar puncture and brain herniation in acute bacterial meningitis: a review

Visit

Joffe AR

Objective: There has been controversy regarding the risk of cerebral herniation caused by a lumbar puncture (LP) in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). This review discusses in detail the issues involved in this controversy.

Bronchiolitis English (7) French All (7)

Systematic Review: Nebulized hypertonic saline for acute bronchiolitis: A systematic review

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Klassen TP, Wainwright C.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age

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Farley R, Spurling GK, Eriksson L, Del Mar CB

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age compared to placebo or other interventions.

Systematic Review: Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis

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Gadomski AM, Scribani MB

Objective: to assess the effects of bronchodilators on clinical outcomes in infants (0 to 12 months) with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children

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Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson ...

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Epinephrine for bronchiolitis

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Hartling L, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Johnson DW, Plint AC, Klassen...

Objective: to examine the efficacy and safety of epinephrine in children less than two with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, Milne A, Johnson D, Plint A, Klassen TP, V...

Objectives: to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of bronchodilators and steroids, alone or combined, for the acute management of bronchiolitis in children aged less than 2 years.

Systematic Review: Nebulized hypertonic saline for acute bronchiolitis: A systematic review

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Klassen TP, Wainwright C.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age

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Farley R, Spurling GK, Eriksson L, Del Mar CB

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age compared to placebo or other interventions.

Systematic Review: Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis

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Gadomski AM, Scribani MB

Objective: to assess the effects of bronchodilators on clinical outcomes in infants (0 to 12 months) with acute bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children

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Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Plint AC, Patel H, Johnson ...

Objective: to review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants

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Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, Klassen TP

Objective: to assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic ( 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Epinephrine for bronchiolitis

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Hartling L, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Johnson DW, Plint AC, Klassen...

Objective: to examine the efficacy and safety of epinephrine in children less than two with acute viral bronchiolitis.

Systematic Review: Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis

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Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, Milne A, Johnson D, Plint A, Klassen TP, V...

Objectives: to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of bronchodilators and steroids, alone or combined, for the acute management of bronchiolitis in children aged less than 2 years.

Burns English (12) French All (12)

Systematic Review: Comparative study of Silver Sulfadiazine with other materials for healing and infection prevention in burns: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Nmia HH, Carvalho VF, Isaac C, Souza F, Gemperli R, Paggiaro AO

Objective: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the effect of Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) with other new dressings, with or without silver, on healing and infection prevention in burns.

Review: Burn Care for Children

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Sheridan RL

Objective: To provide an understanding of the practice of outpatient small burn care, and to present the concepts of inpatient burn care and long-term burn aftercare.

Review: Emergency management of burns: part 1

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Stiles K

Objective: The aim of this article is to give an overview of burns trauma, and to describe the initial assessment and management of patients with these injuries in emergency departments (EDs). Part 1 of 2.

Review: Emergency management of burns: part 2

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Stiles K

Objective: The aim of the two articles is to enhance emergency clinicians knowledge and confidence in burn management, and to build awareness of the life-changing implications of the initial clinical interventions in burn care. Part 2 of 2.

Review: Emergency Care of Pediatric Burns

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Strobel AM, Fey R

Objective: To review emergency care, management and prevention of pediatric burns.

Systematic Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical outcomes associated with nanocrystalline silver use compared to alternative silver delivery systems in the management of superficial and deep partial thickness burns

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Nherera LM, Trueman P, Roberts CD, Berg L

Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the clinical effectiveness of nanocrystalline silver compared to alternative silver delivery systems (silver sulphadiazine [SSD] and silver nitrate) in adults and children with superficial and deep partial thickness burns.

Review: Pediatric burn resuscitation: past, present, and future

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Romanowski KS, Palmieri TL

Objective: To discuss the history of fluid resuscitation, current resuscitation practices, and future directions of resuscitation for the pediatric burn population.

Review: Pediatric Burn Resuscitation

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Palmieri TL

Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation for initial assessment and management in burned children.

Review: Optimizing emergency management to reduce morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients

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Haines E, Fairbrother H

Objective: This article reviews methods for accurate classification and management of the full range of burns seen in pediatric patients.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection

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Barajas-Nava LA, Lpez-Alcalde J, Roqu i Figuls M, Sol I, Bonfill Cosp X

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of burn wound infection.

Review: Use of Acticoat dressings in burns: what is the evidence?

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Khundkar R, Malic C, Burge T

Objective: To determine the level of evidence available in the literature in view of recent increased usage of Acticoat dressings in burns.

Review: Critical care of the burn patient: the first 48 hours

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Latenser BA

Objective: The goal of this concise review is to provide an overview of some of the most important resuscitation and monitoring issues and approaches that are unique to burn patients compared with the general intensive care unit population.

Systematic Review: Comparative study of Silver Sulfadiazine with other materials for healing and infection prevention in burns: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Nmia HH, Carvalho VF, Isaac C, Souza F, Gemperli R, Paggiaro AO

Objective: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the effect of Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) with other new dressings, with or without silver, on healing and infection prevention in burns.

Review: Burn Care for Children

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Sheridan RL

Objective: To provide an understanding of the practice of outpatient small burn care, and to present the concepts of inpatient burn care and long-term burn aftercare.

Review: Emergency management of burns: part 1

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Stiles K

Objective: The aim of this article is to give an overview of burns trauma, and to describe the initial assessment and management of patients with these injuries in emergency departments (EDs). Part 1 of 2.

Review: Emergency management of burns: part 2

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Stiles K

Objective: The aim of the two articles is to enhance emergency clinicians knowledge and confidence in burn management, and to build awareness of the life-changing implications of the initial clinical interventions in burn care. Part 2 of 2.

Review: Emergency Care of Pediatric Burns

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Strobel AM, Fey R

Objective: To review emergency care, management and prevention of pediatric burns.

Systematic Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical outcomes associated with nanocrystalline silver use compared to alternative silver delivery systems in the management of superficial and deep partial thickness burns

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Nherera LM, Trueman P, Roberts CD, Berg L

Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the clinical effectiveness of nanocrystalline silver compared to alternative silver delivery systems (silver sulphadiazine [SSD] and silver nitrate) in adults and children with superficial and deep partial thickness burns.

Review: Pediatric burn resuscitation: past, present, and future

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Romanowski KS, Palmieri TL

Objective: To discuss the history of fluid resuscitation, current resuscitation practices, and future directions of resuscitation for the pediatric burn population.

Review: Pediatric Burn Resuscitation

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Palmieri TL

Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation for initial assessment and management in burned children.

Review: Optimizing emergency management to reduce morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients

Visit

Haines E, Fairbrother H

Objective: This article reviews methods for accurate classification and management of the full range of burns seen in pediatric patients.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection

Visit

Barajas-Nava LA, Lpez-Alcalde J, Roqu i Figuls M, Sol I, Bonfill Cosp X

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of burn wound infection.

Review: Use of Acticoat dressings in burns: what is the evidence?

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Khundkar R, Malic C, Burge T

Objective: To determine the level of evidence available in the literature in view of recent increased usage of Acticoat dressings in burns.

Review: Critical care of the burn patient: the first 48 hours

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Latenser BA

Objective: The goal of this concise review is to provide an overview of some of the most important resuscitation and monitoring issues and approaches that are unique to burn patients compared with the general intensive care unit population.

Concussion English (7) French All (7)

Systematic Review: Predictors of clinical recovery from concussion: a systematic review

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Iverson GL, Gardner AJ, Terry DP, Ponsford JL, Sills AK, Broshek DK, Solomon GS

This is a systematic review of factors that might be associated with, or influence, clinical recovery from sport-related concussion

Systematic Review: Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review

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Schneider KJ, Leddy JJ, Guskiewicz KM, Seifert T, McCrea M, Silverberg ND, Fe...

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC).

Systematic Review: Psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury in children: results of a systematic review by the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis

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Keightley ML, Ct P, Rumney P, Hung R, Carroll LJ, Cancelliere C, Cassidy JD

Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in children.

Systematic Review: Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review

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Zemek RL, Farion KJ, Sampson M, McGahern C

Objective: To identify predictors of persistent concussion symptoms (PCS) in children following concussion.

Systematic Review: Interventions provided in the acute phase for mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

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Gravel J, D'Angelo A, Carrire B, Crevier L, Beauchamp MH, Chauny JM, Wassef M...

This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acute settings for patients who experience mild traumatic brain injury.

Systematic Review: Clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury: a systematic review

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Pickering A, Harnan S, Fitzgerald P, Pandor A, Goodacre S

This study aimed to identify clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury and compare their diagnostic accuracy for detection of intracranial injury (ICI) and injury requiring neurosurgical intervention (NSI).

Systematic Review: Which symptom assessments and approaches are uniquely appropriate for paediatric concussion?

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Gioia GA, Schneider JC, Vaughan CG, Isquith PK

Objectives: To (a) identify post-concussion symptom scales appropriate for children and adolescents in sports; (b) review evidence for reliability and validity; and (c) recommend future directions for scale development.

Systematic Review: Predictors of clinical recovery from concussion: a systematic review

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Iverson GL, Gardner AJ, Terry DP, Ponsford JL, Sills AK, Broshek DK, Solomon GS

This is a systematic review of factors that might be associated with, or influence, clinical recovery from sport-related concussion

Systematic Review: Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review

Visit

Schneider KJ, Leddy JJ, Guskiewicz KM, Seifert T, McCrea M, Silverberg ND, Fe...

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC).

Systematic Review: Psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury in children: results of a systematic review by the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis

Visit

Keightley ML, Ct P, Rumney P, Hung R, Carroll LJ, Cancelliere C, Cassidy JD

Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in children.

Systematic Review: Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review

Visit

Zemek RL, Farion KJ, Sampson M, McGahern C

Objective: To identify predictors of persistent concussion symptoms (PCS) in children following concussion.

Systematic Review: Interventions provided in the acute phase for mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

Visit

Gravel J, D'Angelo A, Carrire B, Crevier L, Beauchamp MH, Chauny JM, Wassef M...

This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of interventions initiated in acute settings for patients who experience mild traumatic brain injury.

Systematic Review: Clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury: a systematic review

Visit

Pickering A, Harnan S, Fitzgerald P, Pandor A, Goodacre S

This study aimed to identify clinical decision rules for children with minor head injury and compare their diagnostic accuracy for detection of intracranial injury (ICI) and injury requiring neurosurgical intervention (NSI).

Systematic Review: Which symptom assessments and approaches are uniquely appropriate for paediatric concussion?

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Gioia GA, Schneider JC, Vaughan CG, Isquith PK

Objectives: To (a) identify post-concussion symptom scales appropriate for children and adolescents in sports; (b) review evidence for reliability and validity; and (c) recommend future directions for scale development.

Congenital Heart Defect English (1) French All (1)

Systematic Review: Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Thangaratinam S, Brown K, Zamora J, Khan KS, Ewer AK

Objective: To assess the performance of pulse oximetry as a screening method for the detection of critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies.

Systematic Review: Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Thangaratinam S, Brown K, Zamora J, Khan KS, Ewer AK

Objective: To assess the performance of pulse oximetry as a screening method for the detection of critical congenital heart defects in asymptomatic newborn babies.

Constipation English (10) French All (10)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation

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Gordon M, MacDonald JK, Parker CE, Akobeng AK, Thomas AG

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic and stimulant laxatives used to treat functional childhood constipation.

Systematic Review: Is There A Role for Pre-, Pro- and Synbiotics in the Treatment of Functional Constipation in Children?

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Koppen IJ, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation.

Review: Management of Functional Constipation in Children: Therapy in Practice

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Koppen IJ, Lammers LA, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

This review discusses the evaluation and management of functional constipation in the pediatric population and provides a summary of drug treatment options.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children: fibre and probiotics

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Tabbers MM, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of fibre for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of probiotics for children with chronic constipation?

Review: Irritable bowel syndrome in children: pathogenesis, diagnosis and evidence-based treatment

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Sandhu BK, Paul SP

This review covers the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Behavioural and cognitive interventions with or without other treatments for the management of faecal incontinence in children

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Brazzelli M, Griffiths PV, Cody JD, Tappin D

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of behavioural and/or cognitive interventions for the management of faecal incontinence in children.

Systematic Review: Nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation: systematic review

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Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

The objectives of this systematic review were to summarize the evidence and assess the reported quality of studies concerning nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation, including fiber, fluid, physical movement, prebiotics, probiotics, behavioral therapy, multidisciplinary treatment, and forms of alternative medicine.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children

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Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of treatments for clearing the bowel in children with faecal impaction?

Review: Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric constipation

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Greenwald BJ

The purpose of this review was to discuss the diagnosis and management of pediatric constipation by nurse practitioners in primary care.

Systematic Review: Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures

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Pijpers MA, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA, Berger MY

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate and summarise the quantity and quality of the current evidence for the effect of laxatives and dietary measures on functional childhood constipation.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation

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Gordon M, MacDonald JK, Parker CE, Akobeng AK, Thomas AG

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic and stimulant laxatives used to treat functional childhood constipation.

Systematic Review: Is There A Role for Pre-, Pro- and Synbiotics in the Treatment of Functional Constipation in Children?

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Koppen IJ, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of pre-, pro- and synbiotics in the treatment of pediatric functional constipation.

Review: Management of Functional Constipation in Children: Therapy in Practice

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Koppen IJ, Lammers LA, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM

This review discusses the evaluation and management of functional constipation in the pediatric population and provides a summary of drug treatment options.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children: fibre and probiotics

Visit

Tabbers MM, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of fibre for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of probiotics for children with chronic constipation?

Review: Irritable bowel syndrome in children: pathogenesis, diagnosis and evidence-based treatment

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Sandhu BK, Paul SP

This review covers the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Behavioural and cognitive interventions with or without other treatments for the management of faecal incontinence in children

Visit

Brazzelli M, Griffiths PV, Cody JD, Tappin D

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of behavioural and/or cognitive interventions for the management of faecal incontinence in children.

Systematic Review: Nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation: systematic review

Visit

Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

The objectives of this systematic review were to summarize the evidence and assess the reported quality of studies concerning nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation, including fiber, fluid, physical movement, prebiotics, probiotics, behavioral therapy, multidisciplinary treatment, and forms of alternative medicine.

Systematic Review: Constipation in children

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Tabbers MM, Boluyt N, Berger MY, Benninga MA

This systematic review aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for children with chronic constipation? What are the effects of treatments for clearing the bowel in children with faecal impaction?

Review: Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric constipation

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Greenwald BJ

The purpose of this review was to discuss the diagnosis and management of pediatric constipation by nurse practitioners in primary care.

Systematic Review: Currently recommended treatments of childhood constipation are not evidence based: a systematic literature review on the effect of laxative treatment and dietary measures

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Pijpers MA, Tabbers MM, Benninga MA, Berger MY

The objective of this systematic review was to investigate and summarise the quantity and quality of the current evidence for the effect of laxatives and dietary measures on functional childhood constipation.

Croup English (5) French All (5)

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for croup in children

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Gates A, Gates M, Vandermeer B, Johnson C, Hartling L, Johnson DW, Klassen TP,

Objective: To examine the effects of glucocorticoids for the treatment of croup in children aged 0 to 18 years. Published: 2018.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox for croup in children

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Moraa I, Sturman N, McGuire TM, van Driel ML,

Objective: To examine the effect of heliox compared to oxygen or other active interventions, placebo, or no treatment, on relieving signs and symptoms in children with croup as determined by a croup score and rates of admission and intubation.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children

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Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Vandermeer, B, Klassen, TP, Johnson, DW,

Objective: To assess the efficacy (measured by croup scores, rate of intubation and health care utilization such as rate of hospitalization) and safety (frequency and severity of side effects) of nebulized epinephrine versus placebo in children with croup, evaluated in an emergency department (ED) or hospital setting.

Review: Croup in children

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Bjornson CL, Johnson DW,

Objective:This review will address the diagnosis and management of croup in children, specifically focusing on clinical assessment of disease severity to guide management decisions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Humidified air inhalation for treating croup

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Moore, M, Little, P,

Objective: To assess the efficacy of humidified air in the treatment of croup.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Glucocorticoids for croup in children

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Gates A, Gates M, Vandermeer B, Johnson C, Hartling L, Johnson DW, Klassen TP,

Objective: To examine the effects of glucocorticoids for the treatment of croup in children aged 0 to 18 years. Published: 2018.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Heliox for croup in children

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Moraa I, Sturman N, McGuire TM, van Driel ML,

Objective: To examine the effect of heliox compared to oxygen or other active interventions, placebo, or no treatment, on relieving signs and symptoms in children with croup as determined by a croup score and rates of admission and intubation.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children

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Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Vandermeer, B, Klassen, TP, Johnson, DW,

Objective: To assess the efficacy (measured by croup scores, rate of intubation and health care utilization such as rate of hospitalization) and safety (frequency and severity of side effects) of nebulized epinephrine versus placebo in children with croup, evaluated in an emergency department (ED) or hospital setting.

Review: Croup in children

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Bjornson CL, Johnson DW,

Objective:This review will address the diagnosis and management of croup in children, specifically focusing on clinical assessment of disease severity to guide management decisions.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Humidified air inhalation for treating croup

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Moore, M, Little, P,

Objective: To assess the efficacy of humidified air in the treatment of croup.

Diabetic ketoacidosis English (3) French All (3)

Systematic Review: Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis

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Chua HR, Schneider A, and Bellomo R

Objective: This study was designed to examine the efficacy and risk of bicarbonate administration in the emergent treatment of severe acidemia in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Systematic Review: Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults

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Usher-Smith JA, Thompson MJ, Sharp SJ, and Walter FM

Objective: To identify the factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults.

Critically Appraised Topic: Evidence-based emergency medicine/critically appraised topic. Is fluid therapy associated with cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis?

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Hom J, and Sinert R

Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type I diabetes mellitus, and cerebral edema is the leading cause of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis death. Excessive intravenous fluid administration has been implicated as a cause of cerebral edema. We perform an evidence-based emergency medicine review assessing the association of intravenous fluid hydration and cerebral edema.

Systematic Review: Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis

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Chua HR, Schneider A, and Bellomo R

Objective: This study was designed to examine the efficacy and risk of bicarbonate administration in the emergent treatment of severe acidemia in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Systematic Review: Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults

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Usher-Smith JA, Thompson MJ, Sharp SJ, and Walter FM

Objective: To identify the factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults.

Critically Appraised Topic: Evidence-based emergency medicine/critically appraised topic. Is fluid therapy associated with cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis?

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Hom J, and Sinert R

Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type I diabetes mellitus, and cerebral edema is the leading cause of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis death. Excessive intravenous fluid administration has been implicated as a cause of cerebral edema. We perform an evidence-based emergency medicine review assessing the association of intravenous fluid hydration and cerebral edema.

Febrile Status Epilepticus English (3) French All (3)

Review: Febrile seizures: emergency medicine perspective

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Kimia AA, Bachur RG, Torres A, Harper MB

This review describes current evidence on the evaluation of febrile seizures in the acute setting, the need for further outpatient assessment, and predictors regarding long-term outcomes of these patients

Review: Management of febrile convulsion in children

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Paul SP, Rogers E, Wilkinson R, Paul B

This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs.

Systematic Review: Risk of bacterial meningitis in young children with a first seizure in the context of fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Najaf-Zadeh A, Dubos F, Hue V, Pruvost I, Bennour A, Martinot A

This systematic review assesses the risk of bacterial meningitis among various subgroups of young children with a first seizure in the context of fever, and the utility of routine lumbar puncture in children with an apparent first febrile seizure.

Review: Febrile seizures: emergency medicine perspective

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Kimia AA, Bachur RG, Torres A, Harper MB

This review describes current evidence on the evaluation of febrile seizures in the acute setting, the need for further outpatient assessment, and predictors regarding long-term outcomes of these patients

Review: Management of febrile convulsion in children

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Paul SP, Rogers E, Wilkinson R, Paul B

This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs.

Systematic Review: Risk of bacterial meningitis in young children with a first seizure in the context of fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Najaf-Zadeh A, Dubos F, Hue V, Pruvost I, Bennour A, Martinot A

This systematic review assesses the risk of bacterial meningitis among various subgroups of young children with a first seizure in the context of fever, and the utility of routine lumbar puncture in children with an apparent first febrile seizure.

Fever in Young Infants English (11) French All (11)

Review: During the Emergency Department Evaluation of a Well-Appearing Neonate with Fever, Should Empiric Acyclovir Be Initiated?

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Bruno E, Pillus D, Cheng D, Vilke G, Pokrajac N

This review aimed to identify when to initiate testing and treatment for herpes simplex virus infection.

Review: Facing the ongoing challenge of the febrile young infant

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DePorre AG, Aronson PL, McCulloh RJ

The authors highlight the historical context of febrile infant management, review important definitions and terminology, discuss the most clinically relevant viral and bacterial causes of fever in the young infant, describe current risk stratification tools guiding medicaldecision making, and outline research and clinical practice improvement priorities for improving the management of the febrile young infant.

Review: Management of the Febrile Young Infant: Update for the 21st Century

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Woll C, Neuman MI, Aronson PL

Newer laboratory investigations such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have favorable test characteristics compared with traditional laboratory studies such as a white blood cell count. These novel biomarkers have not gained widespread acceptance because of lack of robust prospectively collected data, varying thresholds to define positivity, and differing inclusion criteria across studies. However, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, when combined with other patient characteristics in the step-by-step approach, have a high sensitivity for detection of serious bacterial infection.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis to Determine Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Outpatient Neonates With RSV Infection

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Bonadio W, Huang F, Nateson S, Okpalaji C, Kodsi A, Sokolovsky S, Homel P

This study aimed to analyze a large group of febrile neonates 28 days or younger who received outpatient sepsis evaluation and nasopharyngeal aspirate antigen testing (NPAT) for respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection to determine whether there is a clinically significant association between viral study results and risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI: bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis).

Systematic Review: Diagnostic utility of biomarkers for neonatal sepsis--a systematic review

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Hedegaard SS, Wisborg K, Hvas AM

The objective of the study was to systematically evaluate existing evidence of the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for prediction of sepsis in neonates.

Review: Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

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James SH, Kimberlin DW

This review describes diagnostic and therapeutic advances for infants with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2).

Systematic Review: Use of serum procalcitonin in evaluation of febrile infants: a meta-analysis of 2317 patients

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England JT, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC

The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine: 1) the ability of serum procalcitonin concentrations to identify febrile infants < 91 days of age at high and low risk for serious bacterial infections, and 2) to compare its utility with available clinical prediction rules.

Systematic Review: Diagnosis and management of febrile infants (0-3 months)

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Hui C, Neto G, Tsertsvadze A, Yazdi F, Tricco AC, Tsouros S, Skidmore B, Dani...

Objectives: To review the evidence for diagnostic accuracy of screening for serious bacterial illness (SBI) and invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in febrile infants 3 months or younger; ascertain harms and benefits of various management strategies; compare prevalence of SBI and HSV between different clinical settings; determine how well the presence of viral infection predicts against SBI; and review evidence on parental compliance to return for followup assessments (infants less than 6 months).

Review: Management of the non-toxic-appearing acutely febrile child: a 21st century approach

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Jhaveri R, Byington CL, Klein JO, Shapiro ED

This review discusses challenges and new approaches to assessment and management of febrile children with suspected serious bacterial infections.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever

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Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and children presenting with fever.

Systematic Review: Temperature measured at the axilla compared with rectum in children and young people: systematic review

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Craig JV, Lancaster GA, Williamson PR, Smyth RL

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the agreement between temperature measured at the axilla and rectum in children and young people.

Review: During the Emergency Department Evaluation of a Well-Appearing Neonate with Fever, Should Empiric Acyclovir Be Initiated?

Visit

Bruno E, Pillus D, Cheng D, Vilke G, Pokrajac N

This review aimed to identify when to initiate testing and treatment for herpes simplex virus infection.

Review: Facing the ongoing challenge of the febrile young infant

Visit

DePorre AG, Aronson PL, McCulloh RJ

The authors highlight the historical context of febrile infant management, review important definitions and terminology, discuss the most clinically relevant viral and bacterial causes of fever in the young infant, describe current risk stratification tools guiding medicaldecision making, and outline research and clinical practice improvement priorities for improving the management of the febrile young infant.

Review: Management of the Febrile Young Infant: Update for the 21st Century

Visit

Woll C, Neuman MI, Aronson PL

Newer laboratory investigations such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have favorable test characteristics compared with traditional laboratory studies such as a white blood cell count. These novel biomarkers have not gained widespread acceptance because of lack of robust prospectively collected data, varying thresholds to define positivity, and differing inclusion criteria across studies. However, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, when combined with other patient characteristics in the step-by-step approach, have a high sensitivity for detection of serious bacterial infection.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis to Determine Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Outpatient Neonates With RSV Infection

Visit

Bonadio W, Huang F, Nateson S, Okpalaji C, Kodsi A, Sokolovsky S, Homel P

This study aimed to analyze a large group of febrile neonates 28 days or younger who received outpatient sepsis evaluation and nasopharyngeal aspirate antigen testing (NPAT) for respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection to determine whether there is a clinically significant association between viral study results and risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI: bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, bacterial enteritis).

Systematic Review: Diagnostic utility of biomarkers for neonatal sepsis--a systematic review

Visit

Hedegaard SS, Wisborg K, Hvas AM

The objective of the study was to systematically evaluate existing evidence of the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for prediction of sepsis in neonates.

Review: Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

Visit

James SH, Kimberlin DW

This review describes diagnostic and therapeutic advances for infants with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2).

Systematic Review: Use of serum procalcitonin in evaluation of febrile infants: a meta-analysis of 2317 patients

Visit

England JT, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC

The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine: 1) the ability of serum procalcitonin concentrations to identify febrile infants < 91 days of age at high and low risk for serious bacterial infections, and 2) to compare its utility with available clinical prediction rules.

Systematic Review: Diagnosis and management of febrile infants (0-3 months)

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Hui C, Neto G, Tsertsvadze A, Yazdi F, Tricco AC, Tsouros S, Skidmore B, Dani...

Objectives: To review the evidence for diagnostic accuracy of screening for serious bacterial illness (SBI) and invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in febrile infants 3 months or younger; ascertain harms and benefits of various management strategies; compare prevalence of SBI and HSV between different clinical settings; determine how well the presence of viral infection predicts against SBI; and review evidence on parental compliance to return for followup assessments (infants less than 6 months).

Review: Management of the non-toxic-appearing acutely febrile child: a 21st century approach

Visit

Jhaveri R, Byington CL, Klein JO, Shapiro ED

This review discusses challenges and new approaches to assessment and management of febrile children with suspected serious bacterial infections.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever

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Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and children presenting with fever.

Systematic Review: Temperature measured at the axilla compared with rectum in children and young people: systematic review

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Craig JV, Lancaster GA, Williamson PR, Smyth RL

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the agreement between temperature measured at the axilla and rectum in children and young people.

Fractures English (3) French All (3)

Systematic Review: Common pediatric fractures treated with minimal intervention

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Boutis, K

This article will review the evidence that recommends that management of some of the most common upper and lower pediatric extremity fractures be treated with minimal interventions, such as removable splints and follow-up with a primary care provider.

Systematic Review: Sedation and analgesia for pediatric fracture reduction in the emergency department: a systematic review

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Migita RT, Klein EJ, Garrison MM

This review assessed the safety and efficacy of various forms of analgesia and sedation for fracture reduction in pediatric patients in the emergency department, as observed in randomized controlled trials in pediatric populations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

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Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I, & Gillespie, WJ

Objective: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Systematic Review: Common pediatric fractures treated with minimal intervention

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Boutis, K

This article will review the evidence that recommends that management of some of the most common upper and lower pediatric extremity fractures be treated with minimal interventions, such as removable splints and follow-up with a primary care provider.

Systematic Review: Sedation and analgesia for pediatric fracture reduction in the emergency department: a systematic review

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Migita RT, Klein EJ, Garrison MM

This review assessed the safety and efficacy of various forms of analgesia and sedation for fracture reduction in pediatric patients in the emergency department, as observed in randomized controlled trials in pediatric populations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

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Gosselin, RA, Roberts, I, & Gillespie, WJ

Objective: To quantify the evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in the initial treatment of open fractures of the limbs.

Gastroenteritis English (13) French All (13)

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of three clinical dehydration scales: a systematic review

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Falszewska A, Szajewska H, Dziechciarz P

Objective: To systematically assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Clinical Dehydration Scale, the WHO Scale and the Gorelick Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Comparative effectiveness and safety of interventions for acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

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Florez ID, Veroniki AA, Al Khalifah R, Yepes-Nuez JJ, Sierra JM, Vernooij RWM...

Objective: To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of the pharmacological and nutritional interventions for reducing the duration of acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children.

Systematic Review: Rapid intravenous rehydration of children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Iro MA, Sell T, Brown N, Maitland K

Objective: To compare rapid and slower intravenous rehydration rates for children with acute gastroenteritis.

Review: Antimicrobial treatment of diarrhea/acute gastroenteritis in children

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Cohen R, Raymond J, Gendrel D

The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Azithromycin is the preferred antibiotic for infections due to Shigella and Campylobacter. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are recommended for salmonellosis when antibiotic treatment is indicated.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

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Goldenberg JZ, Yap C, Lytvyn L, Lo CK, Beardsley J, Mertz D, Johnston BC

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

Systematic Review: Iatrogenic Dysnatremias in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

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Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Freedman SB

Objectives: To evaluate the association between acquired dysnatremias and intravenous rehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Hartling L, Tarr PI, Schnadower D, Freedman SB; A...

Objectives: To determine the relationship between hydration status, the development and severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome, and adverse outcomes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-infected individuals.

Systematic Review: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Antibiotics, and Risk of Developing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Meta-analysis

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Freedman SB, Xie J, Neufeld MS, Hamilton WL, Hartling L, Tarr PI; Alberta Pro...

This review assessed if antibiotic administration to individuals with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection is associated with development of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Systematic Review: Gastroenteritis Therapies in Developed Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Freedman SB, Pasichnyk D, Black KJ, Fitzpatrick E, Gouin S, Milne A, Hartling...

This systematic review evaluates oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antiemetics, probiotics or intravenous fluids for children with gastroenteritis.

Review: Ondansetron and probiotics in the management of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in developed countries

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Schnadower D, Finkelstein Y, Freedman SB

The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of adjunctive therapies, ondansetron and probiotics, in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Diagnosing clinically significant dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis using noninvasive methods: a meta-analysis

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Freedman SB, Vandermeer B, Milne A, Hartling L; Pediatric Emergency Research ...

Objective: To determine the most accurate, noninvasive method of assessing dehydration.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents

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Fedorowicz Z, Jagannath VA, Carter B

This systematic review assesses the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis induced vomiting in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children

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Hartling L, Bellemare S, Wiebe N, Russell K, Klassen TP, Craig W

This systematic review compares oral with intravenous therapy for treating dehydration due to acute gastroenteritis in children.

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of three clinical dehydration scales: a systematic review

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Falszewska A, Szajewska H, Dziechciarz P

Objective: To systematically assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Clinical Dehydration Scale, the WHO Scale and the Gorelick Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Comparative effectiveness and safety of interventions for acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

Visit

Florez ID, Veroniki AA, Al Khalifah R, Yepes-Nuez JJ, Sierra JM, Vernooij RWM...

Objective: To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of the pharmacological and nutritional interventions for reducing the duration of acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children.

Systematic Review: Rapid intravenous rehydration of children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Visit

Iro MA, Sell T, Brown N, Maitland K

Objective: To compare rapid and slower intravenous rehydration rates for children with acute gastroenteritis.

Review: Antimicrobial treatment of diarrhea/acute gastroenteritis in children

Visit

Cohen R, Raymond J, Gendrel D

The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Azithromycin is the preferred antibiotic for infections due to Shigella and Campylobacter. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are recommended for salmonellosis when antibiotic treatment is indicated.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

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Goldenberg JZ, Yap C, Lytvyn L, Lo CK, Beardsley J, Mertz D, Johnston BC

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children

Systematic Review: Iatrogenic Dysnatremias in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

Visit

Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Freedman SB

Objectives: To evaluate the association between acquired dysnatremias and intravenous rehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Visit

Grisaru S, Xie J, Samuel S, Hartling L, Tarr PI, Schnadower D, Freedman SB; A...

Objectives: To determine the relationship between hydration status, the development and severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome, and adverse outcomes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-infected individuals.

Systematic Review: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection, Antibiotics, and Risk of Developing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Meta-analysis

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Freedman SB, Xie J, Neufeld MS, Hamilton WL, Hartling L, Tarr PI; Alberta Pro...

This review assessed if antibiotic administration to individuals with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection is associated with development of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Systematic Review: Gastroenteritis Therapies in Developed Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Visit

Freedman SB, Pasichnyk D, Black KJ, Fitzpatrick E, Gouin S, Milne A, Hartling...

This systematic review evaluates oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antiemetics, probiotics or intravenous fluids for children with gastroenteritis.

Review: Ondansetron and probiotics in the management of pediatric acute gastroenteritis in developed countries

Visit

Schnadower D, Finkelstein Y, Freedman SB

The purpose of this review is to present the latest evidence regarding the use of adjunctive therapies, ondansetron and probiotics, in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Systematic Review: Diagnosing clinically significant dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis using noninvasive methods: a meta-analysis

Visit

Freedman SB, Vandermeer B, Milne A, Hartling L; Pediatric Emergency Research ...

Objective: To determine the most accurate, noninvasive method of assessing dehydration.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents

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Fedorowicz Z, Jagannath VA, Carter B

This systematic review assesses the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis induced vomiting in children and adolescents.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children

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Hartling L, Bellemare S, Wiebe N, Russell K, Klassen TP, Craig W

This systematic review compares oral with intravenous therapy for treating dehydration due to acute gastroenteritis in children.

Intussusception English (14) French All (14)

Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

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Gluckman, S, Karpelowsky, J, Webster, AC & McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness of Imaging Modalities for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intussusception: A Critically Appraised Topic

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Carroll AG, Kavanagh RG, Ni Leidhin C, Cullinan NM, Lavelle LP, Malone DE

The purpose of this study was to critically appraise and compare the diagnostic performance of imaging modalities that are used for the diagnosis of intussusception and methods used in the treatment of ileocolic intussusception.

Systematic Review: Comparison of safety and efficacy of image-guided enema reduction techniques for paediatric intussusception: A review of the literature

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Chew R, Ditchfield M, Paul E, Goergen SK

The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of fluroscopically guided pneumatic reduction (FGPR) compared to ultrasound (US) guided intussusception reduction (USGIR) techniques for paediatric intussusception treatment.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

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Gluckman S, Karpelowsky J, Webster AC, McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Risk of intussusception following rotavirus vaccination: An evidence based meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies

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Kassim P, Eslick GD

A meta-analysis was performed to summarise available evidence and to give an overall risk of developing intussusception from case-control and cohort studies for all rotavirus vaccines that have been manufactured up to date.

Systematic Review: Risk of Intussusception After Rotavirus Vaccination

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Koch J, Harder T, von Kries R, Wichmann O

This study reviewed the literature for self-controlled case series studies on the risk of intussusception after RV vaccination.

Systematic Review: What Measures Improve Reduction of Intussusception in Pediatric Patients?

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Long B, April MD

This study reviewed randomized clinical trials comparing contrast media, imaging modalities, pharmacologic adjuvants, protocols for delayed repeated enema, surgical approaches, or other curative techniques for intussusception management.

Systematic Review: Systematic review shows that pathological lead points are important and frequent in intussusception and are not limited to infants

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Fiegel H, Gfroerer S, Rolle U

A systematic literature review was performed from 1998 to 2016 to evaluate the incidence and types of pathalogical lead points in paediatric intussusception.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of Air Versus Liquid Enema for Intussusception Reduction in Children

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Sadigh G, Zou KH, Razavi SA, Khan R, Applegate KE

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of air versus liquid enema reduction in the treatment of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Recurrence rates after intussusception enema reduction: a meta-analysis

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Gray MP, Li SH, Hoffmann RG, Gorelick MH,

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate overall, 24-hour, and 48-hour recurrence rates after enema reduction in children.

Systematic Review: An institutional analysis and systematic review with meta-analysis of pneumatic versus hydrostatic reduction for pediatric intussusception

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Beres AL, Baird R,

This paper conducts a review and a critical appraisal to find the optimal intussusception reduction technique to maximize success while minimizing morbidity.

Systematic Review: Postoperative intussusceptions in children and infants: a systematic review

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Yang G, Wang X, Jiang W, Ma J, Zhao J, Liu W,

Objective: To evaluate the clinical features of postoperative intussusception through a literature review.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use

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Soares-Weiser K, Maclehose H, Bergman H, Ben-Aharon I, Nagpal S, Goldberg E, ...

Objective: To evaluate rotavirus vaccines approved for use (RV1, RV5, and LLR) for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea.

Comparative Effectiveness Review: Intussusception in children: cost-effectiveness of ultrasound vs diagnostic contrast enema

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Bucher BT, Hall BL, Warner BW, Keller MS,

Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of different imaging strategies for the diagnosis of pediatric intussusception using a decision analytic model.

Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

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Gluckman, S, Karpelowsky, J, Webster, AC & McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness of Imaging Modalities for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intussusception: A Critically Appraised Topic

Visit

Carroll AG, Kavanagh RG, Ni Leidhin C, Cullinan NM, Lavelle LP, Malone DE

The purpose of this study was to critically appraise and compare the diagnostic performance of imaging modalities that are used for the diagnosis of intussusception and methods used in the treatment of ileocolic intussusception.

Systematic Review: Comparison of safety and efficacy of image-guided enema reduction techniques for paediatric intussusception: A review of the literature

Visit

Chew R, Ditchfield M, Paul E, Goergen SK

The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of fluroscopically guided pneumatic reduction (FGPR) compared to ultrasound (US) guided intussusception reduction (USGIR) techniques for paediatric intussusception treatment.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Management for intussusception in children

Visit

Gluckman S, Karpelowsky J, Webster AC, McGee RG

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical approaches in the management of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Risk of intussusception following rotavirus vaccination: An evidence based meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies

Visit

Kassim P, Eslick GD

A meta-analysis was performed to summarise available evidence and to give an overall risk of developing intussusception from case-control and cohort studies for all rotavirus vaccines that have been manufactured up to date.

Systematic Review: Risk of Intussusception After Rotavirus Vaccination

Visit

Koch J, Harder T, von Kries R, Wichmann O

This study reviewed the literature for self-controlled case series studies on the risk of intussusception after RV vaccination.

Systematic Review: What Measures Improve Reduction of Intussusception in Pediatric Patients?

Visit

Long B, April MD

This study reviewed randomized clinical trials comparing contrast media, imaging modalities, pharmacologic adjuvants, protocols for delayed repeated enema, surgical approaches, or other curative techniques for intussusception management.

Systematic Review: Systematic review shows that pathological lead points are important and frequent in intussusception and are not limited to infants

Visit

Fiegel H, Gfroerer S, Rolle U

A systematic literature review was performed from 1998 to 2016 to evaluate the incidence and types of pathalogical lead points in paediatric intussusception.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of Air Versus Liquid Enema for Intussusception Reduction in Children

Visit

Sadigh G, Zou KH, Razavi SA, Khan R, Applegate KE

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of air versus liquid enema reduction in the treatment of intussusception in children.

Systematic Review: Recurrence rates after intussusception enema reduction: a meta-analysis

Visit

Gray MP, Li SH, Hoffmann RG, Gorelick MH,

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate overall, 24-hour, and 48-hour recurrence rates after enema reduction in children.

Systematic Review: An institutional analysis and systematic review with meta-analysis of pneumatic versus hydrostatic reduction for pediatric intussusception

Visit

Beres AL, Baird R,

This paper conducts a review and a critical appraisal to find the optimal intussusception reduction technique to maximize success while minimizing morbidity.

Systematic Review: Postoperative intussusceptions in children and infants: a systematic review

Visit

Yang G, Wang X, Jiang W, Ma J, Zhao J, Liu W,

Objective: To evaluate the clinical features of postoperative intussusception through a literature review.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use

Visit

Soares-Weiser K, Maclehose H, Bergman H, Ben-Aharon I, Nagpal S, Goldberg E, ...

Objective: To evaluate rotavirus vaccines approved for use (RV1, RV5, and LLR) for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea.

Comparative Effectiveness Review: Intussusception in children: cost-effectiveness of ultrasound vs diagnostic contrast enema

Visit

Bucher BT, Hall BL, Warner BW, Keller MS,

Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of different imaging strategies for the diagnosis of pediatric intussusception using a decision analytic model.

Lower Extremity Fractures English (3) French All (3)

Systematic Review: Use of point-of-care ultrasound in long bone fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Chartier, L B, Bosco, L, Lapointe-Shaw, L and Chenkin, J

This article offers a comprehensive review of the use of PoCUS for the diagnosis and reduction of LBFs.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents

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Madhuri, V, Dutt, V, Gahukamble, AD & Tharyan, P

Objective: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Accuracy of Ottawa Ankle Rules to exclude fractures of the ankle and midfoot in children: a meta-analysis

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Dowling, S, Spooner, CH, Liang, Y, Dryden, DM, Friesen, C, Klassen, TP & ...

Objective: To conduct a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) to exclude ankle and midfoot fractures in children and the extent to which x-ray use could be reduced without missing significant fractures.

Systematic Review: Use of point-of-care ultrasound in long bone fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Chartier, L B, Bosco, L, Lapointe-Shaw, L and Chenkin, J

This article offers a comprehensive review of the use of PoCUS for the diagnosis and reduction of LBFs.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents

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Madhuri, V, Dutt, V, Gahukamble, AD & Tharyan, P

Objective: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents.

Systematic Review: Accuracy of Ottawa Ankle Rules to exclude fractures of the ankle and midfoot in children: a meta-analysis

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Dowling, S, Spooner, CH, Liang, Y, Dryden, DM, Friesen, C, Klassen, TP & ...

Objective: To conduct a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) to exclude ankle and midfoot fractures in children and the extent to which x-ray use could be reduced without missing significant fractures.

Lyme Disease English (3) French All (3)

Review: Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations

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Applegren ND, Kraus CK

Objective: We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the neurological complications of Lyme disease

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Cadavid D, Auwaerter PG, Rumbaugh J, Gelderblom H

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB).

Review: Lyme disease: clinical diagnosis and treatment

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Hatchette TF, Davis I, Johnston BL

Objective: To review the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease for front-line clinicians.

Review: Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations

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Applegren ND, Kraus CK

Objective: We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the neurological complications of Lyme disease

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Cadavid D, Auwaerter PG, Rumbaugh J, Gelderblom H

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB).

Review: Lyme disease: clinical diagnosis and treatment

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Hatchette TF, Davis I, Johnston BL

Objective: To review the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease for front-line clinicians.

Management of children with aggression in the ED English (1) French All (1)

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Management of children with developmental disabilities in the ED English (5) French All (5)

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

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Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

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Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

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Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

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Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

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Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

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McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

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Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

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Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

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Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Management of children with special needs in the ED English (5) French All (5)

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

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Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

Visit

McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

Visit

Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

Visit

Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

Visit

Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Review: Understanding and Improving Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Emergency Department

Visit

Lusky Y, Lake JK, Durbin J, Perry A, Bullock H, Morris S, Lee JS

The aim of this review was to provide an overview of existing research on patterns and predictors of emergency department use among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, to summarize what is known about the care received and to describe interventions to improve emergency care.

Review: Management of agitation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department

Visit

McGonigle JJ, Venkat A, Beresford C, Campbell TP, Gabriels RL

This article describes the challenges that inidividuals with autism spectrum disorder face when receiving treatment in crisis and emergency settings.

Systematic Review: Children with autism spectrum disorder at a pediatric hospital: a systematic review of the literature

Visit

Johnson NL, Rodriguez D

This review describes the behaviors of hospitalized children with autism spectrum disorder that health care providers find challenging.

Review: Caring for the child with an autism spectrum disorder in the acute care setting

Visit

Scarpinato N, Bradley J, Kurbjun K, Bateman X, Holtzer B, Ely B

This article explores the challenges that patients with autism spectrum disorders face when hospitalized and provides assessment strategies and plan-of-care suggestions for nursing caregivers.

Review: Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures

Visit

Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE

This review developed strategies for providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders that incorporated theories and knowledge from disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management.

Meningitis English (15) French All (15)

Review: Emergency Medicine Myths: Computed Tomography of the Head Prior to Lumbar Puncture in Adults with Suspected Bacterial Meningitis - Due Diligence or Antiquated Practice?

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April MD, Long B, Koyfman A

Objective: To review the evidence regarding the utility of obtaining head CT prior to lumbar puncture in adults with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Review: Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations

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Applegren ND, Kraus CK

Objective: We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations.

Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections in the Emergency Department

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Dorsett M, Liang SY

Objective: This review discusses the clinical signs and symptoms that should lead emergency physicians to consider CNS infection, paying particular attention to the sensitivity and specificity of different clinical findings at the bedside. Subsequently, the diagnostic workup and management of patients for whom there is high clinical suspicion for CNS infection is discussed.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis

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Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the neurological complications of Lyme disease

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Cadavid D, Auwaerter PG, Rumbaugh J, Gelderblom H

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis

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Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, Prasad K, Van de Beek D

Objective: To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis.

Review: Lyme disease: clinical diagnosis and treatment

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Hatchette TF, Davis I, Johnston BL

Objective: To review the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease for front-line clinicians.

Systematic Review: Does this child have bacterial meningitis? A systematic review of clinical prediction rules for children with suspected bacterial meningitis

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Kulik DM, Uleryk EM, Maguire JL

Objective: Our aim was to systematically identify and review the quality and performance of published clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for children with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of bacterial meningitis score validation studies

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Nigrovic LE, Malley R, Kuppermann N

Objective: The study objective of the present work was to calculate the performance of the Bacterial Meningitis Score by performing a meta-analysis of all published validation studies.

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid lactate for differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis: a meta-analysis

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Sakushima K, Hayashino Y, Kawaguchi T, Jackson JL, Fukuhara S

Objective: Our study's purpose was to assess the utility of CSF lactate in differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis.

Systematic Review: Clinical features suggestive of meningitis in children: a systematic review of prospective data

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Curtis S, Stobart K, Vandermeer B, Simel DL, Klassen T

Objective: To seek evidence supporting accuracy of clinical features of pediatric bacterial meningitis.

Review: Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections in pediatric patients: current status and future needs

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James SH, Whitley RJ

Objective: To present an overview of the major clinical manifestations of HSV infections in the pediatric population.

Review: Emergency department management of meningitis and encephalitis

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Fitch MT, Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Talan DA

Objective: This article addresses considerations in clinical evaluation, need for CNS imaging before LP, interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid results, standards for and effects of timely antibiotic administration, and recommendations for specific antimicrobial therapy and corticosteroids.

Review: Viral meningitis

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Logan SA, MacMahon E

Objective: In this review we outline the changing epidemiology, discuss key clinical topics, and illustrate how identification of the specific viral cause is beneficial. Neonatal meningitis may be a component of perinatal infection and is not covered here.

Review: Lumbar puncture and brain herniation in acute bacterial meningitis: a review

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Joffe AR

Objective: There has been controversy regarding the risk of cerebral herniation caused by a lumbar puncture (LP) in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). This review discusses in detail the issues involved in this controversy.

Review: Emergency Medicine Myths: Computed Tomography of the Head Prior to Lumbar Puncture in Adults with Suspected Bacterial Meningitis - Due Diligence or Antiquated Practice?

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April MD, Long B, Koyfman A

Objective: To review the evidence regarding the utility of obtaining head CT prior to lumbar puncture in adults with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Review: Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations

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Applegren ND, Kraus CK

Objective: We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations.

Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections in the Emergency Department

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Dorsett M, Liang SY

Objective: This review discusses the clinical signs and symptoms that should lead emergency physicians to consider CNS infection, paying particular attention to the sensitivity and specificity of different clinical findings at the bedside. Subsequently, the diagnostic workup and management of patients for whom there is high clinical suspicion for CNS infection is discussed.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis

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Maconochie IK, Bhaumik S

Objective: To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Antibiotics for the neurological complications of Lyme disease

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Cadavid D, Auwaerter PG, Rumbaugh J, Gelderblom H

Objective: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB).

Cochrane Systematic Review: Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis

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Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, Prasad K, Van de Beek D

Objective: To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis.

Review: Lyme disease: clinical diagnosis and treatment

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Hatchette TF, Davis I, Johnston BL

Objective: To review the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease for front-line clinicians.

Systematic Review: Does this child have bacterial meningitis? A systematic review of clinical prediction rules for children with suspected bacterial meningitis

Visit

Kulik DM, Uleryk EM, Maguire JL

Objective: Our aim was to systematically identify and review the quality and performance of published clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for children with suspected bacterial meningitis.

Systematic Review: Meta-analysis of bacterial meningitis score validation studies

Visit

Nigrovic LE, Malley R, Kuppermann N

Objective: The study objective of the present work was to calculate the performance of the Bacterial Meningitis Score by performing a meta-analysis of all published validation studies.

Systematic Review: Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid lactate for differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis: a meta-analysis

Visit

Sakushima K, Hayashino Y, Kawaguchi T, Jackson JL, Fukuhara S

Objective: Our study's purpose was to assess the utility of CSF lactate in differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis.

Systematic Review: Clinical features suggestive of meningitis in children: a systematic review of prospective data

Visit

Curtis S, Stobart K, Vandermeer B, Simel DL, Klassen T

Objective: To seek evidence supporting accuracy of clinical features of pediatric bacterial meningitis.

Review: Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections in pediatric patients: current status and future needs

Visit

James SH, Whitley RJ

Objective: To present an overview of the major clinical manifestations of HSV infections in the pediatric population.

Review: Emergency department management of meningitis and encephalitis

Visit

Fitch MT, Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Talan DA

Objective: This article addresses considerations in clinical evaluation, need for CNS imaging before LP, interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid results, standards for and effects of timely antibiotic administration, and recommendations for specific antimicrobial therapy and corticosteroids.

Review: Viral meningitis

Visit

Logan SA, MacMahon E

Objective: In this review we outline the changing epidemiology, discuss key clinical topics, and illustrate how identification of the specific viral cause is beneficial. Neonatal meningitis may be a component of perinatal infection and is not covered here.

Review: Lumbar puncture and brain herniation in acute bacterial meningitis: a review

Visit

Joffe AR

Objective: There has been controversy regarding the risk of cerebral herniation caused by a lumbar puncture (LP) in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). This review discusses in detail the issues involved in this controversy.

Pain Treatment English (15) French All (15)

Systematic Review: Psychometric properties of the numerical rating scale to assess self-reported pain intensity in children and adolescents: A systematic review

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Castarlenas E, Jensen MP, von Baeyer CL, Miró J.

Objective: The Numerical Rating Scale-11 (NRS-11) is one of the most widely used scales to assess self-reported pain intensity in children, despite the limited information on its psychometric properties for assessing pain in pediatric populations. Recently, there has been an increase in published findings regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the NRS-11 as a measure of pain in youths. The purpose of this study was to review this research and summarize what is known regarding the reliability and validity of the NRS-11 as a self-report measure of pediatric pain intensity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intranasal fentanyl for the management of acute pain in children

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Murphy A, O'Sullivan R, Wakai A, Grant TS, Barrett MJ, Cronin J, McCoy SC, Ho...

Objective: We identified and evaluated all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials to assess the effects of intranasal fentanyl (INF) versus alternative analgesic interventions in children with acute pain, with respect to reduction in pain score, occurrence of adverse events, patient tolerability, use of "rescue analgesia," patient/parental satisfaction and patient mortality.

Systematic Review: Opioid analgesia for acute abdominal pain in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Poonai N, Paskar D, Konrad SL, Rieder M, Joubert G, Lim R, Golozar A, Uledi S...

Objectives: There are long-held concerns that analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain may obscure the physical examination and lead to missing a diagnosis of appendicitis. Despite evidence to the contrary, analgesia continues to be underutilized and suboptimally dosed in children with acute abdominal pain. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine if opioids provide analgesia without an increase in side effects and appendicitis-related complications.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nerve blocks for initial pain management of femoral fractures in children

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Black KJ, Bevan CA, Murphy NG, Howard JJ

Objectives: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of femoral nerve block (FNB) or fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for initial pain management of children with fractures of the femur (thigh bone) in the pre-hospital or in-hospital emergency setting, with or without systemic analgesia.

Other Review: Treating abdominal pain in children: what do we know?

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Ali S, Sli H

Abdominal pain is a common reason for emergency department visits in the United States. Failure to treat children's pain has long been considered substandard and unethical. Within the emergency department setting, pain has been repeatedly shown to be undertreated. Analgesic medications are suboptimally used for children with abdominal pain because of a wide variety of causes. To our knowledge, there is no standard of care for the treatment of such pain. As such, several recent studies have set out to determine the most appropriate methods to address this gap in knowledge. The proceeding article will attempt to review the literature as it pertains to severe acute abdominal pain, biliary colic, renal colic, and dysmenorrhea.

Systematic Review: A systematic review of faces scales for the self-report of pain intensity in children

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Tomlinson D, von Baeyer CL, Stinson JN, Sung L

Objectives: To summarize and systematically review faces pain scales most commonly used to obtain self-report of pain intensity in children for evaluation of reliability and validity and to compare the scales for preference and utility.

Systematic Review: Pain management and sedation for children in the emergency department

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Atkinson P, Chesters A, Heinz P

We provide an overview of published evidence to help clinicians assess, manage, and minimise pain in children presenting to hospital.

Systematic Review: Treatment of children with migraine in the emergency department: a qualitative systematic review

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Bailey B, McManus BC

Objective: To evaluate which treatment could be effective in the emergency department (ED) for children with migraine and status migrainosus, we carried out a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated treatment that could be used for those conditions.

Other Review: Does analgesia mask diagnosis of appendicitis among children?

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Bromberg R, Goldman RD

Question: Can analgesia be given safely to patients with suspected appendicitis prior to surgical evaluation without masking physical signs and symptoms?

Systematic Review: Systematic review of observational (behavioral) measures of pain for children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years

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von Baeyer CL, Spagrud LJ

Observational (behavioral) scales of pain for children aged 3 to 18 years were systematically reviewed to identify those recommended as outcome measures in clinical trials.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical analgesia for acute otitis media

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Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of topical analgesia for AOM.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for use in clinical trials in children and adolescents

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Stinson JN, Kavanagh T, Yamada J, Gill N, Stevens B

The aim of this study was to systematically review the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for children and adolescents for use in clinical trials evaluating pain treatments.

Other Review: Pediatric pain management in the emergency department

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Bauman BH, McManus JG

In this article, the authors review the history of ED pediatric pain management and sedation, discuss special considerations in pediatric pain assessment and management, review various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods of alleviating pain and anxiety, and present ideas to improve the culture of the pediatric ED, so that it can achieve the goal of becoming pain-free.

Sytematic Review: Symptomatic treatment of migraine in children: a systematic review of medication trials

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Damen L, Bruijn JK, Verhagen AP, Berger MY, Passchier J, Koes BW

Objective: Treatment of pediatric migraine includes an individually tailored regimen of both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic measures. The mainstay of symptomatic treatment in children with migraine is intermittent oral or suppository analgesics, but there is no coherent body of evidence on symptomatic treatment of childhood migraine available. The objective of this review is to describe and assess the evidence from randomized and clinical controlled trials concerning the efficacy and tolerability of symptomatic treatment of migraine in children.

Other Review: Analgesics for the treatment of pain in children

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Berde CB, Sethna NF

Studies over the past 15 years suggest that neonates, infants, and children can receive analgesia and anesthesia safely, with proper age-related adjustments in clinical practice and dosing. Although the emphasis in this review is on the pharmacologic management of pain, several nonpharmacologic approaches, including hypnosis and related cognitive behavioral approaches, have had good efficacy in children with acute or chronic pain.5,6 Making the hospital environment a less terrifying place may reduce anxiety and fear, which can themselves exacerbate pain.7 Conversely, nonpharmacologic approaches should not be used as an excuse to withhold appropriate analgesics.

Systematic Review: Psychometric properties of the numerical rating scale to assess self-reported pain intensity in children and adolescents: A systematic review

Visit

Castarlenas E, Jensen MP, von Baeyer CL, Miró J.

Objective: The Numerical Rating Scale-11 (NRS-11) is one of the most widely used scales to assess self-reported pain intensity in children, despite the limited information on its psychometric properties for assessing pain in pediatric populations. Recently, there has been an increase in published findings regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the NRS-11 as a measure of pain in youths. The purpose of this study was to review this research and summarize what is known regarding the reliability and validity of the NRS-11 as a self-report measure of pediatric pain intensity.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Intranasal fentanyl for the management of acute pain in children

Visit

Murphy A, O'Sullivan R, Wakai A, Grant TS, Barrett MJ, Cronin J, McCoy SC, Ho...

Objective: We identified and evaluated all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials to assess the effects of intranasal fentanyl (INF) versus alternative analgesic interventions in children with acute pain, with respect to reduction in pain score, occurrence of adverse events, patient tolerability, use of "rescue analgesia," patient/parental satisfaction and patient mortality.

Systematic Review: Opioid analgesia for acute abdominal pain in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Visit

Poonai N, Paskar D, Konrad SL, Rieder M, Joubert G, Lim R, Golozar A, Uledi S...

Objectives: There are long-held concerns that analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain may obscure the physical examination and lead to missing a diagnosis of appendicitis. Despite evidence to the contrary, analgesia continues to be underutilized and suboptimally dosed in children with acute abdominal pain. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine if opioids provide analgesia without an increase in side effects and appendicitis-related complications.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Nerve blocks for initial pain management of femoral fractures in children

Visit

Black KJ, Bevan CA, Murphy NG, Howard JJ

Objectives: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of femoral nerve block (FNB) or fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for initial pain management of children with fractures of the femur (thigh bone) in the pre-hospital or in-hospital emergency setting, with or without systemic analgesia.

Other Review: Treating abdominal pain in children: what do we know?

Visit

Ali S, Sli H

Abdominal pain is a common reason for emergency department visits in the United States. Failure to treat children's pain has long been considered substandard and unethical. Within the emergency department setting, pain has been repeatedly shown to be undertreated. Analgesic medications are suboptimally used for children with abdominal pain because of a wide variety of causes. To our knowledge, there is no standard of care for the treatment of such pain. As such, several recent studies have set out to determine the most appropriate methods to address this gap in knowledge. The proceeding article will attempt to review the literature as it pertains to severe acute abdominal pain, biliary colic, renal colic, and dysmenorrhea.

Systematic Review: A systematic review of faces scales for the self-report of pain intensity in children

Visit

Tomlinson D, von Baeyer CL, Stinson JN, Sung L

Objectives: To summarize and systematically review faces pain scales most commonly used to obtain self-report of pain intensity in children for evaluation of reliability and validity and to compare the scales for preference and utility.

Systematic Review: Pain management and sedation for children in the emergency department

Visit

Atkinson P, Chesters A, Heinz P

We provide an overview of published evidence to help clinicians assess, manage, and minimise pain in children presenting to hospital.

Systematic Review: Treatment of children with migraine in the emergency department: a qualitative systematic review

Visit

Bailey B, McManus BC

Objective: To evaluate which treatment could be effective in the emergency department (ED) for children with migraine and status migrainosus, we carried out a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated treatment that could be used for those conditions.

Other Review: Does analgesia mask diagnosis of appendicitis among children?

Visit

Bromberg R, Goldman RD

Question: Can analgesia be given safely to patients with suspected appendicitis prior to surgical evaluation without masking physical signs and symptoms?

Systematic Review: Systematic review of observational (behavioral) measures of pain for children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years

Visit

von Baeyer CL, Spagrud LJ

Observational (behavioral) scales of pain for children aged 3 to 18 years were systematically reviewed to identify those recommended as outcome measures in clinical trials.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical analgesia for acute otitis media

Visit

Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of topical analgesia for AOM.

Systematic Review: Systematic review of the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for use in clinical trials in children and adolescents

Visit

Stinson JN, Kavanagh T, Yamada J, Gill N, Stevens B

The aim of this study was to systematically review the psychometric properties, interpretability and feasibility of self-report pain intensity measures for children and adolescents for use in clinical trials evaluating pain treatments.

Other Review: Pediatric pain management in the emergency department

Visit

Bauman BH, McManus JG

In this article, the authors review the history of ED pediatric pain management and sedation, discuss special considerations in pediatric pain assessment and management, review various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods of alleviating pain and anxiety, and present ideas to improve the culture of the pediatric ED, so that it can achieve the goal of becoming pain-free.

Sytematic Review: Symptomatic treatment of migraine in children: a systematic review of medication trials

Visit

Damen L, Bruijn JK, Verhagen AP, Berger MY, Passchier J, Koes BW

Objective: Treatment of pediatric migraine includes an individually tailored regimen of both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic measures. The mainstay of symptomatic treatment in children with migraine is intermittent oral or suppository analgesics, but there is no coherent body of evidence on symptomatic treatment of childhood migraine available. The objective of this review is to describe and assess the evidence from randomized and clinical controlled trials concerning the efficacy and tolerability of symptomatic treatment of migraine in children.

Other Review: Analgesics for the treatment of pain in children

Visit

Berde CB, Sethna NF

Studies over the past 15 years suggest that neonates, infants, and children can receive analgesia and anesthesia safely, with proper age-related adjustments in clinical practice and dosing. Although the emphasis in this review is on the pharmacologic management of pain, several nonpharmacologic approaches, including hypnosis and related cognitive behavioral approaches, have had good efficacy in children with acute or chronic pain.5,6 Making the hospital environment a less terrifying place may reduce anxiety and fear, which can themselves exacerbate pain.7 Conversely, nonpharmacologic approaches should not be used as an excuse to withhold appropriate analgesics.

Procedural Pain English (16) French All (16)

Systematic Review: A systematic review of vapocoolants for reducing pain from venipuncture and venous cannulation in children and adults

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Hogan ME, Smart S, Shah V, Taddio A

Our aim was to systematically review the literature regarding the analgesic effectiveness of vapocoolants in children and adults.

Systematic Review: Pediatric clinical practice guidelines for acute procedural pain: a systematic review

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Lee GY, Yamada J, Kyololo O, Shorkey A, Stevens B

Objective: To systematically review the quality of existing practice guidelines for acute procedural pain in children and provide recommendations for their use.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures

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Stevens B, Yamada J, Lee GY, Ohlsson A

Objective: To determine the efficacy, effect of dose and safety of oral sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents

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Uman LS, Birnie KA, Noel M, Parker JA, Chambers CT, McGrath PJ, Kisely SR

Objectives: To provide an update to our 2006 review assessing the efficacy of psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

Review: Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems

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Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine an...

Control of pain and stress for children is a vital component of emergency medical care. Timely administration of analgesia affects the entire emergency medical experience and can have a lasting effect on a child's and family's reaction to current and future medical care. A systematic approach to pain management and anxiolysis, including staff education and protocol development, can provide comfort to children in the emergency setting and improve staff and family satisfaction.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age

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Kassab M, Foster JP, Foureur M, Fowler C

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions for needle-related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age compared with no treatment, placebo, other sweet-tasting solutions, or pharmacological or other non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates

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Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS

Objectives: The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of breastfeeding or supplemental breast milk in reducing procedural pain in neonates. The secondary objective was to conduct subgroup analyses based on the type of control intervention, gestational age and the amount of supplemental breast milk given.

Cochrane Systematic Review: Topical anaesthetics for repair of dermal laceration