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Summaries of systematic reviews English (9) French All (9)

Cochrane Summary: Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children

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Shaikh N, Borrell JL, Evron J, Leeflang MM

In some children with urinary tract infection (UTI), the infection is localized to the bladder (lower urinary tract). In others, bacteria ascend from the bladder to the kidney (upper urinary tract). Only children with upper urinary tract involvement are at risk for developing permanent kidney damage. If non-invasive biomarkers could accurately differentiate children with lower urinary tract disease from children with upper urinary tract disease, treatment and follow-up could potentially be individualized. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of three widely available blood tests (procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) in differentiating upper from lower urinary tract disease. We found 24 relevant studies of which 17 provided data for our primary outcome. Six studies (434 children) provided data for the procalcitonin test; 13 studies (1638 children) provided data for the C-reactive protein test, and six studies (1737 children) provided data for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. We found all three tests to be sensitive (summary sensitivity values ranged from 86% to 95%), but not very specific (summary specificity values ranged from 38% to 71%). None of the tests were accurate enough to allow clinicians to confidently differentiate upper from lower urinary tract disease.

Cochrane Summary: Are oral antibiotics as effective as a combination of injected and oral antibiotics for kidney infections in children?

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Strohmeier Y, Hodson EM, Willis NS, Webster AC, Craig JC

We wanted to find out if oral antibiotics were as effective as combined oral and injected antibiotics to treat children for kidney infection. This review updates our previous investigations published in 2003, 2005 and 2007. This review included evidence from 27 studies that involved 4452 children. The last literature search date was April 2014. This update included evidence from three new studies and from one study that was previously excluded. Review results suggested that children aged over one month with acute pyelonephritis can be treated effectively with oral antibiotics (cefixime, ceftibuten or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) or with short courses (two to four days) of intravenous (IV) therapy followed by oral therapy. If IV therapy with aminoglycosides is needed, single daily dosing is safe and effective.

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for covert bacteriuria in children

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Fitzgerald A, Mori R, Lakhanpaul M

Covert bacteriuria occurs when bacteria are found in urine either during routine screening or incidentally during other investigations. Unlike urinary tract infections, children with covert bacteriuria do not appear to have symptoms at the time of diagnosis. There is uncertainty about whether antibiotic treatment can help to clear infection, reduce recurrence, or prevent kidney damage. Any harmful effects of providing treatment also need to be identified and understood. We identified three studies reporting the results on 460 girls. There was insufficient evidence about the harms and benefits of treatments to draw reliable conclusions, but it appears that antibiotic treatment is not likely to benefit children in the long term.

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for lower urinary tract infection in children

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Fitzgerald A, Mori R, Lakhanpaul M, Tullus K

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants and children. The most commonly presenting infection of the urinary tract is known as cystitis and in the majority of cases can be easily treated with a course of antibiotic therapy with no further complications. This review identified 16 studies investigating antibiotics for UTI in children. Results suggest that 10-day antibiotic treatment is more likely to eliminate bacteria from the urine than single-dose treatments; there was not enough data to draw conclusions about other treatment durations, or effectiveness of particular antibiotics. Although antibiotic treatment is effective for children with UTI, there are insufficient data to recommend any specific regimen.

Cochrane Summary: Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children

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Williams G, Craig JC

Bladder and kidney infections (urinary tract infection - UTI) are common in children, especially girls. They cause an uncomfortable illness that can include vomiting, fever and tiredness. In some children kidney damage may occur, as can repeat illnesses. With repeated infections the risk of kidney damage increases. Some doctors prescribe long-term antibiotics to try to prevent infections recurring, but this may cause the child to be unwell in other ways, e.g. vomiting. This review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) found evidence that long-term antibiotics did reduce the risk of more symptomatic infections but the benefit is small and must be weighed against the likelihood that future infections may be with bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotic given.

DARE Quality-assessed Reviews: Absolute and relative accuracy of rapid urine tests for urinary tract infection in children: a meta-analysis

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Williams GJ, Macaskill P, Chan SF, Turner RM, Hodson E, Craig JC

This review assessed rapid urine tests for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children and concluded that no one test could identify all urinary tract infections without urine culture, but Gram-stain microscopy was the best single test. Dipstick tests should be considered positive if either leucocyte esterase or nitrite was positive. These conclusions are likely to be reliable.

DARE Quality-assessed Reviews: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever

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Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

The review assessed the accuracy of C-reactiveproteinfor diagnosingbacterial infectionsin febrile children and used robust reviewing and meta-analytic methods. The authors' conclusion that C-reactive protein provided moderate and independent information for ruling-in and ruling-out seriousbacterial infection, but cannot be used alone to exclude bacterial infection, is likely to be reliable.

DARE Quality-assessed Reviews: Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review

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Whiting P, Westwood M, Watt I, Cooper J, Kleijnen J

This review concluded that for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI), dipstick negative for both leucocyte esterase and nitrite or negative microscopic analysis for pyuria of a clean voided urine, bag or nappy/pad specimen may be used to rule out UTI, and that combinations of positive tests could similarly be used to rule in UTI. These conclusions are likely to be reliable.

Cochrane Summary: Short courses of antibiotics (2-4 days) are as effective as longer treatment for bladder infections in children

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Michael M, Hodson EM, Craig JC, Martin S, Moyer VA

Bladder and kidney infections (urinary tract infections - UTI) are common in children. Bladder infections cause pain on passing urine and frequency of urination. Some children keep getting repeat bouts. Standard courses of antibiotics (7-10 days) are used to clear the infection. Shorter courses may reduce adverse effects and costs, but there has been concern that they might reduce the chances of clearing the infection and increase the risk of recurrence. A review of studies found that short courses of antibiotics (2-4 days) used for bladder infections are as effective as standard courses at clearing UTI, with no increase in recurrence.

Cochrane Summary: Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children

Visit

Shaikh N, Borrell JL, Evron J, Leeflang MM

In some children with urinary tract infection (UTI), the infection is localized to the bladder (lower urinary tract). In others, bacteria ascend from the bladder to the kidney (upper urinary tract). Only children with upper urinary tract involvement are at risk for developing permanent kidney damage. If non-invasive biomarkers could accurately differentiate children with lower urinary tract disease from children with upper urinary tract disease, treatment and follow-up could potentially be individualized. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of three widely available blood tests (procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) in differentiating upper from lower urinary tract disease. We found 24 relevant studies of which 17 provided data for our primary outcome. Six studies (434 children) provided data for the procalcitonin test; 13 studies (1638 children) provided data for the C-reactive protein test, and six studies (1737 children) provided data for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. We found all three tests to be sensitive (summary sensitivity values ranged from 86% to 95%), but not very specific (summary specificity values ranged from 38% to 71%). None of the tests were accurate enough to allow clinicians to confidently differentiate upper from lower urinary tract disease.

Cochrane Summary: Are oral antibiotics as effective as a combination of injected and oral antibiotics for kidney infections in children?

Visit

Strohmeier Y, Hodson EM, Willis NS, Webster AC, Craig JC

We wanted to find out if oral antibiotics were as effective as combined oral and injected antibiotics to treat children for kidney infection. This review updates our previous investigations published in 2003, 2005 and 2007. This review included evidence from 27 studies that involved 4452 children. The last literature search date was April 2014. This update included evidence from three new studies and from one study that was previously excluded. Review results suggested that children aged over one month with acute pyelonephritis can be treated effectively with oral antibiotics (cefixime, ceftibuten or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) or with short courses (two to four days) of intravenous (IV) therapy followed by oral therapy. If IV therapy with aminoglycosides is needed, single daily dosing is safe and effective.

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for covert bacteriuria in children

Visit

Fitzgerald A, Mori R, Lakhanpaul M

Covert bacteriuria occurs when bacteria are found in urine either during routine screening or incidentally during other investigations. Unlike urinary tract infections, children with covert bacteriuria do not appear to have symptoms at the time of diagnosis. There is uncertainty about whether antibiotic treatment can help to clear infection, reduce recurrence, or prevent kidney damage. Any harmful effects of providing treatment also need to be identified and understood. We identified three studies reporting the results on 460 girls. There was insufficient evidence about the harms and benefits of treatments to draw reliable conclusions, but it appears that antibiotic treatment is not likely to benefit children in the long term.

Cochrane Summary: Antibiotics for lower urinary tract infection in children

Visit

Fitzgerald A, Mori R, Lakhanpaul M, Tullus K

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants and children. The most commonly presenting infection of the urinary tract is known as cystitis and in the majority of cases can be easily treated with a course of antibiotic therapy with no further complications. This review identified 16 studies investigating antibiotics for UTI in children. Results suggest that 10-day antibiotic treatment is more likely to eliminate bacteria from the urine than single-dose treatments; there was not enough data to draw conclusions about other treatment durations, or effectiveness of particular antibiotics. Although antibiotic treatment is effective for children with UTI, there are insufficient data to recommend any specific regimen.

Cochrane Summary: Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children

Visit

Williams G, Craig JC

Bladder and kidney infections (urinary tract infection - UTI) are common in children, especially girls. They cause an uncomfortable illness that can include vomiting, fever and tiredness. In some children kidney damage may occur, as can repeat illnesses. With repeated infections the risk of kidney damage increases. Some doctors prescribe long-term antibiotics to try to prevent infections recurring, but this may cause the child to be unwell in other ways, e.g. vomiting. This review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) found evidence that long-term antibiotics did reduce the risk of more symptomatic infections but the benefit is small and must be weighed against the likelihood that future infections may be with bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotic given.

DARE Quality-assessed Reviews: Absolute and relative accuracy of rapid urine tests for urinary tract infection in children: a meta-analysis

Visit

Williams GJ, Macaskill P, Chan SF, Turner RM, Hodson E, Craig JC

This review assessed rapid urine tests for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children and concluded that no one test could identify all urinary tract infections without urine culture, but Gram-stain microscopy was the best single test. Dipstick tests should be considered positive if either leucocyte esterase or nitrite was positive. These conclusions are likely to be reliable.

DARE Quality-assessed Reviews: Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and children with fever

Visit

Sanders S, Barnett A, Correa-Velez I, Coulthard M, Doust J

The review assessed the accuracy of C-reactiveproteinfor diagnosingbacterial infectionsin febrile children and used robust reviewing and meta-analytic methods. The authors' conclusion that C-reactive protein provided moderate and independent information for ruling-in and ruling-out seriousbacterial infection, but cannot be used alone to exclude bacterial infection, is likely to be reliable.

DARE Quality-assessed Reviews: Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review

Visit

Whiting P, Westwood M, Watt I, Cooper J, Kleijnen J

This review concluded that for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI), dipstick negative for both leucocyte esterase and nitrite or negative microscopic analysis for pyuria of a clean voided urine, bag or nappy/pad specimen may be used to rule out UTI, and that combinations of positive tests could similarly be used to rule in UTI. These conclusions are likely to be reliable.

Cochrane Summary: Short courses of antibiotics (2-4 days) are as effective as longer treatment for bladder infections in children

Visit

Michael M, Hodson EM, Craig JC, Martin S, Moyer VA

Bladder and kidney infections (urinary tract infections - UTI) are common in children. Bladder infections cause pain on passing urine and frequency of urination. Some children keep getting repeat bouts. Standard courses of antibiotics (7-10 days) are used to clear the infection. Shorter courses may reduce adverse effects and costs, but there has been concern that they might reduce the chances of clearing the infection and increase the risk of recurrence. A review of studies found that short courses of antibiotics (2-4 days) used for bladder infections are as effective as standard courses at clearing UTI, with no increase in recurrence.

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