Pediatric head trauma is one of the most common reasons for consultation in the ED, and can be mild, moderate or severe. The most common causes of head trauma in children and youth presenting to Canadian EDs include falls, sports-related injuries, being hit on the head by an object or by colliding with an obstacle, or injuries involving bicycles and motor vehicles. Annual rates range from 130 to 200 cases per 100,000 population, leading to at least 20,000 emergency department visits in Canadian pediatric hospitals per year.



Summaries of systematic reviews

Summary: Haemostatic drugs for traumatic brain injury


Perel P, Roberts I, Shakur H, Thinkhamrop B, Phuenpathom N, Yutthakasemsunt S

We searched for randomised clinical trials looking at theeffectivenessof haemostatic drugs for reducingmortalityand disability in patients with traumatic brain injury.

Summary: Corticosteroids to treat brain injury


Alderson P, Roberts I

Thereviewauthors searched the medical literature to determine how effective and safe corticosteroids are for treating brain injury.

Summary: Hypothermia (body temperature cooling) for traumatic head injury


Sydenham E, Roberts I, Alderson P

Thisreviewincludes twenty-three randomised controlled trials involving 1614 patients with traumatic head injury. In eachtrial, the patients were randomly divided into two groups: one group remained at normal body temperature, and the other group was cooled to a maximum of 35 degrees Celsius (or 95 degrees Fahrenheit) for at least 12 consecutive hours. Information on death, disability, and pneumonia were evaluated for each trial.

Summary: Wearing a helmet dramatically reduces the risk of head and facial injuries for bicyclists involved in a crash, even if it involves a motor vehicle


Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson R

Thereviewfound that wearing a helmet reduced theriskof head or brain injury by approximately two-thirds or more, regardless of whether the crash involved a motor vehicle.