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Concussion is “a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces.” Concussion results from acceleration and deceleration forces which may be caused either by a direct blow to the head, face, neck or elsewhere on the body with an 'impulsive' force transmitted to the head.

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Key studies English (10) French All (10)

Key Study: Validation and refinement of a clinical decision rule for the use of computed tomography in children with minor head injury in the emergency department

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Osmond MH, Klassen TP, Wells GA, Davidson J, Correll R, Boutis K, Joubert G, ...

Methods: This multicentre cohort study in 9 Canadian pediatric emergency departments prospectively enrolled children with blunt head trauma presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15 and loss of consciousness, amnesia, disorientation, persistent vomiting or irritability. Physicians completed standardized assessment forms before CT, including clinical predictors of the rule. The primary outcome was neurosurgical intervention and the secondary outcome was brain injury on CT. We calculated test characteristics of the rule and used recursive partitioning to further refine the rule.

Key Study: Clinical Risk Score for Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms Among Children With Acute Concussion in the ED

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Zemek R, Barrowman N, Freedman SB, Gravel J, Gagnon I, McGahern C, Aglipay M,...

Objective: To derive and validate a clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children presenting to the emergency department.

Key Study: Effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms

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Brown NJ, Mannix RC, O'Brien MJ, Gostine D, Collins MW, Meehan WP III

Objective: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms.

Key Study: Comparison of PECARN, CATCH, and CHALICE rules for children with minor head injury: a prospective cohort study

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Easter JS, Bakes K, Dhaliwal J, Miller M, Caruso E, Haukoos JS

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules and physician judgment for identifying clinically important traumatic brain injuries in children with minor head injuries presenting to the emergency department.

Key Study: Predicting postconcussion syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents who present to the emergency department

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Babcock L, Byczkowski T, Wade SL, Ho M, Mookerjee S, Bazarian JJ

Objective: To determine the acute predictors associated with the development of postconcussion syndrome (PCS) in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury.

Key Study: Time interval between concussions and symptom duration

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Eisenberg MA, Andrea J, Meehan W, Mannix R

Objective: To test the hypothesis that children with a previous history of concussion have a longer duration of symptoms after a repeat concussion than those without such a history.

Key Study: Mild traumatic brain injury: a description of how children and youths between 16 and 18 years of age perform leisure activities after 1 year

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Jonsson C, Andersson EE

Objective: To describe how children and youths perform leisure activities, 1 year after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI).

Key Study: Identifying neurocognitive deficits in adolescents following concussion

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Thomas DG, Collins MW, Saladino RA, Frank V, Raab J, Zuckerbraun NS

This study of concussed adolescents sought to determine if a computer-based neurocognitive assessment (Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT]) performed on patients who present to the emergency department (ED) immediately following head injury would correlate with assessments performed 3 to 10 days postinjury and if ED neurocognitive testing would detect differences in concussion severity that clinical grading scales could not.

Key Study: Identifying the specific needs of adolescents after a mild traumatic brain injury: a service provider perspective

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Swaine BR, Gagnon I, Champagne F, Lefebvre H, Friedman D, Atkinson J, Feldman D

Objectives: To identify the specific service needs of adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and those of their parents through the perspective of expert service providers as well as to compare it to the perspective of adolescents and their parents obtained in a prior study.

Key Study: Visuomotor response time in children with a mild traumatic brain injury

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Gagnon I, Swaine B, Friedman D, Forget R

Objective: To compare the visuomotor response times of children after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with those of noninjured children matched for age, sex, and premorbid level of physical activity.

Key Study: Validation and refinement of a clinical decision rule for the use of computed tomography in children with minor head injury in the emergency department

Visit

Osmond MH, Klassen TP, Wells GA, Davidson J, Correll R, Boutis K, Joubert G, ...

Methods: This multicentre cohort study in 9 Canadian pediatric emergency departments prospectively enrolled children with blunt head trauma presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15 and loss of consciousness, amnesia, disorientation, persistent vomiting or irritability. Physicians completed standardized assessment forms before CT, including clinical predictors of the rule. The primary outcome was neurosurgical intervention and the secondary outcome was brain injury on CT. We calculated test characteristics of the rule and used recursive partitioning to further refine the rule.

Key Study: Clinical Risk Score for Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms Among Children With Acute Concussion in the ED

Visit

Zemek R, Barrowman N, Freedman SB, Gravel J, Gagnon I, McGahern C, Aglipay M,...

Objective: To derive and validate a clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children presenting to the emergency department.

Key Study: Effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms

Visit

Brown NJ, Mannix RC, O'Brien MJ, Gostine D, Collins MW, Meehan WP III

Objective: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms.

Key Study: Comparison of PECARN, CATCH, and CHALICE rules for children with minor head injury: a prospective cohort study

Visit

Easter JS, Bakes K, Dhaliwal J, Miller M, Caruso E, Haukoos JS

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical decision rules and physician judgment for identifying clinically important traumatic brain injuries in children with minor head injuries presenting to the emergency department.

Key Study: Predicting postconcussion syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents who present to the emergency department

Visit

Babcock L, Byczkowski T, Wade SL, Ho M, Mookerjee S, Bazarian JJ

Objective: To determine the acute predictors associated with the development of postconcussion syndrome (PCS) in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury.

Key Study: Time interval between concussions and symptom duration

Visit

Eisenberg MA, Andrea J, Meehan W, Mannix R

Objective: To test the hypothesis that children with a previous history of concussion have a longer duration of symptoms after a repeat concussion than those without such a history.

Key Study: Mild traumatic brain injury: a description of how children and youths between 16 and 18 years of age perform leisure activities after 1 year

Visit

Jonsson C, Andersson EE

Objective: To describe how children and youths perform leisure activities, 1 year after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI).

Key Study: Identifying neurocognitive deficits in adolescents following concussion

Visit

Thomas DG, Collins MW, Saladino RA, Frank V, Raab J, Zuckerbraun NS

This study of concussed adolescents sought to determine if a computer-based neurocognitive assessment (Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT]) performed on patients who present to the emergency department (ED) immediately following head injury would correlate with assessments performed 3 to 10 days postinjury and if ED neurocognitive testing would detect differences in concussion severity that clinical grading scales could not.

Key Study: Identifying the specific needs of adolescents after a mild traumatic brain injury: a service provider perspective

Visit

Swaine BR, Gagnon I, Champagne F, Lefebvre H, Friedman D, Atkinson J, Feldman D

Objectives: To identify the specific service needs of adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and those of their parents through the perspective of expert service providers as well as to compare it to the perspective of adolescents and their parents obtained in a prior study.

Key Study: Visuomotor response time in children with a mild traumatic brain injury

Visit

Gagnon I, Swaine B, Friedman D, Forget R

Objective: To compare the visuomotor response times of children after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with those of noninjured children matched for age, sex, and premorbid level of physical activity.

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