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Acute Otitis Media English (9) French All (9)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute Otitis Media

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The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

Guideline on the assessment and management of acute otitis media in children

Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) NICE Guideline

Objective: This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute otitis media (ear infection). aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and management of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media (Ear Infection)

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Intermountain Healthcare

Objective: This CPM provides best-practice recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (AOM), including guidance for appropriate use of antibiotics.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL): Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and pediatric ENT infections. Short version

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Truffert, E. et al.

Objective: To present the guidelines of the French Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery concerning the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in pediatric ENT infections.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute otitis media - Emergency management in children

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Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

Children's Health Queensland Statewide Paediatric Guideline for emergency management of acute otitis media in children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of otitis media with effusion in children. Socit franc aise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines

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Blanc, F. et al.

Objective: The Socit franaise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines concern the management of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children under the age of 12 years. They are based on extensive review of MEDLINE and Cochrane Library publications in English or French from 1996 to 2016 concerning the methods of diagnosis and assessment of otitis media with effusion, as well as the efficacy of tympanostomy tubes and medical and surgical treatments of OME.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older

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Le Saux N, Robinson JL, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ...

Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on the management of acute otitis media in children aged 6 months and older.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Danish guidelines on management of otitis media in preschool children

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Heidemann CH, Lous J, Berg J, Christensen JJ, Hkonsen SJ, Jakobsen M, Johanse...

The Danish Health and Medicines Authority and the Danish Society of Otorhinolaryngology guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media and surgical treatment of recurrent AOM and chronic OME in preschool children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media

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Lieberthal AS, Carroll AE, Chonmaitree T, Ganiats TG, Hoberman A, Jackson MA,...

Evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Academy of Family Physicians.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute Otitis Media

Visit

The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

Guideline on the assessment and management of acute otitis media in children

Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

Download

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) NICE Guideline

Objective: This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute otitis media (ear infection). aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and management of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media (Ear Infection)

Visit

Intermountain Healthcare

Objective: This CPM provides best-practice recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (AOM), including guidance for appropriate use of antibiotics.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL): Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and pediatric ENT infections. Short version

Download

Truffert, E. et al.

Objective: To present the guidelines of the French Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery concerning the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in pediatric ENT infections.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute otitis media - Emergency management in children

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Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

Children's Health Queensland Statewide Paediatric Guideline for emergency management of acute otitis media in children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of otitis media with effusion in children. Socit franc aise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines

Visit

Blanc, F. et al.

Objective: The Socit franaise dORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale clinical practice guidelines concern the management of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children under the age of 12 years. They are based on extensive review of MEDLINE and Cochrane Library publications in English or French from 1996 to 2016 concerning the methods of diagnosis and assessment of otitis media with effusion, as well as the efficacy of tympanostomy tubes and medical and surgical treatments of OME.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older

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Le Saux N, Robinson JL, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ...

Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on the management of acute otitis media in children aged 6 months and older.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Danish guidelines on management of otitis media in preschool children

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Heidemann CH, Lous J, Berg J, Christensen JJ, Hkonsen SJ, Jakobsen M, Johanse...

The Danish Health and Medicines Authority and the Danish Society of Otorhinolaryngology guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media and surgical treatment of recurrent AOM and chronic OME in preschool children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media

Visit

Lieberthal AS, Carroll AE, Chonmaitree T, Ganiats TG, Hoberman A, Jackson MA,...

Evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Academy of Family Physicians.

Anaphylaxis English (9) French All (9)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Time to revisit the definition and clinical criteria for anaphylaxis?

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Turner PJ, Worm M, Ansotegui IJ, et al.

The objective of this was to overview and discuss current definitions of anaphylaxis.

Clinical Practice Guideline: CSACI position statement: Newer generation H1-antihistamines are safer than first-generation H1-antihistamines and should be the first-line antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

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Fein MN, Fischer DA, OKeefe AW, Sussman GL

The objective of this was to overview the effects of new and old h1 antihistamines.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Anaphylaxis in Schools & Other Settings, 3rd Edition Revised

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Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

This manual has been developed for primarily non-medical people. It consists of an updated Consensus Statement and an Appendices section from the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The Consensus Statement provides recommendations for the management of anaphylaxis in the community, which are based on the most current research. The Appendices section provides resources that will help individuals at risk of anaphylaxis, educators, caregivers, and parents understand the basics of anaphylaxis.

Position Statement: CSACI position statement - epinephrine auto-injectors and children < 15 kg

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Halbrich M, Mack DP, Carr S, Watson W, Kim H

This position statement addresses a number of questions regarding epinephrine administration/prescribing suggestions for the infant under 15kg who is at risk for anaphylaxis, including: What are possible consequences of administering a larger than recommended dose of epinephrine? Are there other ways to prescribe the recommended dose of epinephrine? What are the consequences of not administering epinephrine? What does the Canadian Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology suggest for the infant less than 15kg?

Clinical Practice Guideline: Anaphylaxis--a practice parameter update 2015

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Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Randolph C, Oppenheimer J, Bernstein D, Bernstein J,...

The objective of this parameter is to update these previous versions and ultimately to improve the care of patients by providing the practicing physician with an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and management of anaphylactic events.

Clinical Practice Guideline: 2015 update of the evidence base: World Allergy Organization anaphylaxis guidelines

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Simons FE, Ebisawa M, Sanchez-Borges M, Thong BY, Worm M, Tanno LK, Lockey RF...

The World Allergy Organization (WAO) Guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis provide a unique global perspective on this increasingly common, potentially life-threatening disease. Recommendations made in the original WAO Anaphylaxis Guidelines remain clinically valid and relevant, and are a widely accessed and frequently cited resource. In this 2015 update of the evidence supporting recommendations in the Guidelines, new information based on anaphylaxis publications from January 2014 through mid- 2015 is summarized.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Emergency department diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis: a practice parameter

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Campbell RL, Li JT, Nicklas RA, Sadosty AT, Members of the Joint Task Force P...

The recommendations made in this document about the management of anaphylaxis apply to anaphylaxis that occurs in an ED setting. Some of these recommendations might be different if anaphylaxis occurs in an office setting.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Anaphylaxis: Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

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Muraro A, Roberts G, Worm M, Bil MB, Brockow K, Fernndez Rivas M, Santos AF, ...

Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis.

Clinical Practice Guideline: World Allergy Organization guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis

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Simons FE, Ardusso LR, Bil MB, El-Gamal YM, Ledford DK, Ring J, Sanchez-Borge...

The illustrated World Allergy Organization (WAO) Anaphylaxis Guidelines were created in response to absence of global guidelines for anaphylaxis. They incorporate contributions from more than 100 allergy/immunology specialists on 6 continents. Recommendations are based on the best evidence available, supported by references published to the end of December 2010. The Guidelines review patient risk factors for severe or fatal anaphylaxis, co-factors that amplify anaphylaxis, and anaphylaxis in vulnerable patients, including pregnant women, infants, the elderly, and those with cardiovascular disease. They focus on the supreme importance of making a prompt clinical diagnosis and on the basic initial treatment that is urgently needed and should be possible even in a low resource environment.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Time to revisit the definition and clinical criteria for anaphylaxis?

Visit

Turner PJ, Worm M, Ansotegui IJ, et al.

The objective of this was to overview and discuss current definitions of anaphylaxis.

Clinical Practice Guideline: CSACI position statement: Newer generation H1-antihistamines are safer than first-generation H1-antihistamines and should be the first-line antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

Visit

Fein MN, Fischer DA, OKeefe AW, Sussman GL

The objective of this was to overview the effects of new and old h1 antihistamines.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Anaphylaxis in Schools & Other Settings, 3rd Edition Revised

Visit

Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

This manual has been developed for primarily non-medical people. It consists of an updated Consensus Statement and an Appendices section from the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The Consensus Statement provides recommendations for the management of anaphylaxis in the community, which are based on the most current research. The Appendices section provides resources that will help individuals at risk of anaphylaxis, educators, caregivers, and parents understand the basics of anaphylaxis.

Position Statement: CSACI position statement - epinephrine auto-injectors and children < 15 kg

Visit

Halbrich M, Mack DP, Carr S, Watson W, Kim H

This position statement addresses a number of questions regarding epinephrine administration/prescribing suggestions for the infant under 15kg who is at risk for anaphylaxis, including: What are possible consequences of administering a larger than recommended dose of epinephrine? Are there other ways to prescribe the recommended dose of epinephrine? What are the consequences of not administering epinephrine? What does the Canadian Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology suggest for the infant less than 15kg?

Clinical Practice Guideline: Anaphylaxis--a practice parameter update 2015

Visit

Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Randolph C, Oppenheimer J, Bernstein D, Bernstein J,...

The objective of this parameter is to update these previous versions and ultimately to improve the care of patients by providing the practicing physician with an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and management of anaphylactic events.

Clinical Practice Guideline: 2015 update of the evidence base: World Allergy Organization anaphylaxis guidelines

Visit

Simons FE, Ebisawa M, Sanchez-Borges M, Thong BY, Worm M, Tanno LK, Lockey RF...

The World Allergy Organization (WAO) Guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis provide a unique global perspective on this increasingly common, potentially life-threatening disease. Recommendations made in the original WAO Anaphylaxis Guidelines remain clinically valid and relevant, and are a widely accessed and frequently cited resource. In this 2015 update of the evidence supporting recommendations in the Guidelines, new information based on anaphylaxis publications from January 2014 through mid- 2015 is summarized.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Emergency department diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis: a practice parameter

Visit

Campbell RL, Li JT, Nicklas RA, Sadosty AT, Members of the Joint Task Force P...

The recommendations made in this document about the management of anaphylaxis apply to anaphylaxis that occurs in an ED setting. Some of these recommendations might be different if anaphylaxis occurs in an office setting.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Anaphylaxis: Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Visit

Muraro A, Roberts G, Worm M, Bil MB, Brockow K, Fernndez Rivas M, Santos AF, ...

Anaphylaxis is a clinical emergency, and all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute and ongoing management. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Taskforce on Anaphylaxis. They aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for the recognition, risk factor assessment, and the management of patients who are at risk of, are experiencing, or have experienced anaphylaxis.

Clinical Practice Guideline: World Allergy Organization guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis

Visit

Simons FE, Ardusso LR, Bil MB, El-Gamal YM, Ledford DK, Ring J, Sanchez-Borge...

The illustrated World Allergy Organization (WAO) Anaphylaxis Guidelines were created in response to absence of global guidelines for anaphylaxis. They incorporate contributions from more than 100 allergy/immunology specialists on 6 continents. Recommendations are based on the best evidence available, supported by references published to the end of December 2010. The Guidelines review patient risk factors for severe or fatal anaphylaxis, co-factors that amplify anaphylaxis, and anaphylaxis in vulnerable patients, including pregnant women, infants, the elderly, and those with cardiovascular disease. They focus on the supreme importance of making a prompt clinical diagnosis and on the basic initial treatment that is urgently needed and should be possible even in a low resource environment.

Asthma English (1) French (2) All (3)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric Emergency Department Asthma Clinical Pathway (2014)

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Expert Content Working Group of the Ontario Lung Association,

The P-EDACP is for patients aged 1 to 17 years presenting with wheeze and/or cough who have a history of asthma and/or prior history of wheezing. Additional tools include medication guidelines and pre-printed physicians orders (PPO) for each of the four severity levels, a patient education checklist, and discharge instructions with integrated prescription.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guide Clinique Asthme (2014)

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Trottier, ED, Gauvin, F, Pettersen, G, Marquis, C, Ducharme, F, Lucas, N, Béd...

This French language webpage created by the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, provides guidelines, pathways and order sheets for treating acute asthma in emergency departments.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Asthme: Algorithme status asthmaticus (2014)

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Trottier, ED, Gauvin, F, Pettersen, G, Marquis, C, Ducharme, F, Lucas, N, Béd...

This French language pathway created by the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, provides guidance on treating pediatric patients with severe status asthmaticus.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric Emergency Department Asthma Clinical Pathway (2014)

Visit

Expert Content Working Group of the Ontario Lung Association,

The P-EDACP is for patients aged 1 to 17 years presenting with wheeze and/or cough who have a history of asthma and/or prior history of wheezing. Additional tools include medication guidelines and pre-printed physicians orders (PPO) for each of the four severity levels, a patient education checklist, and discharge instructions with integrated prescription.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guide Clinique Asthme (2014)

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Trottier, ED, Gauvin, F, Pettersen, G, Marquis, C, Ducharme, F, Lucas, N, Béd...

This French language webpage created by the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, provides guidelines, pathways and order sheets for treating acute asthma in emergency departments.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Asthme: Algorithme status asthmaticus (2014)

Visit

Trottier, ED, Gauvin, F, Pettersen, G, Marquis, C, Ducharme, F, Lucas, N, Béd...

This French language pathway created by the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, provides guidance on treating pediatric patients with severe status asthmaticus.

Bacterial Meningitis English (3) French All (3)

Meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s: recognition, diagnosis and management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Guideline covering recognising, diagnosing and managing bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in babies, children and young people under 16.

Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age

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Le Saux N; Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ImmunizationC...

Statement reviewing the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period and provide guidelines for the empirical management of suspected bacterial meningitis in Canadian children.

Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis

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Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, Kaufman BA, Roos KL, Scheld WM, Whitley RJ

Practice guidelines to provide clinicians with recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

Meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s: recognition, diagnosis and management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Guideline covering recognising, diagnosing and managing bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in babies, children and young people under 16.

Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age

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Le Saux N; Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ImmunizationC...

Statement reviewing the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period and provide guidelines for the empirical management of suspected bacterial meningitis in Canadian children.

Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis

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Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, Kaufman BA, Roos KL, Scheld WM, Whitley RJ

Practice guidelines to provide clinicians with recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

Bronchiolitis English (4) French All (4)

Clinical Guideline: Australasian bronchiolitis guideline

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PREDICT Network: OBrien S, Borland ML, Cotterell E, Armstrong D, Babl Franz, ...

Objective: to align and improve the consistency of the management of bronchiolitis, an evidence-based guideline was developed for the Australasian population.

Clinical Guideline: Bronchiolitis in children: diagnosis and management

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NICE guideline (NG9)

Objective: to help healthcare professionals diagnose bronchiolitis and identify if children should be cared for at home or in hospital. It describes treatments and interventions that can be used to help with the symptoms of bronchiolitis.

Clinical Guideline: Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis

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Ralston SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HC, Alverson BK, Baley JE, Gadomski AM, J...

This guideline is a revision of the clinical practice guideline, Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis, published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2006. The guideline applies to children from 1 through 23 months of age. Other exclusions are noted. Each key action statement indicates level of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and level of recommendation.

Clinical Guideline: Bronchiolitis: Recommendations for diagnosis, monitoring and management of children one to 24 months of age

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Canadian Paediatric Society

The goals of this statement are to build on the comprehensive peer-reviewed AAP statement by incorporating new evidence published over the past eight years, while providing the clinician with recommendations to help guide diagnosis, monitoring and management of previously healthy children one to 24 months of age who present with signs of bronchiolitis.

Clinical Guideline: Australasian bronchiolitis guideline

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PREDICT Network: OBrien S, Borland ML, Cotterell E, Armstrong D, Babl Franz, ...

Objective: to align and improve the consistency of the management of bronchiolitis, an evidence-based guideline was developed for the Australasian population.

Clinical Guideline: Bronchiolitis in children: diagnosis and management

Download

NICE guideline (NG9)

Objective: to help healthcare professionals diagnose bronchiolitis and identify if children should be cared for at home or in hospital. It describes treatments and interventions that can be used to help with the symptoms of bronchiolitis.

Clinical Guideline: Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis

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Ralston SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HC, Alverson BK, Baley JE, Gadomski AM, J...

This guideline is a revision of the clinical practice guideline, Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis, published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2006. The guideline applies to children from 1 through 23 months of age. Other exclusions are noted. Each key action statement indicates level of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and level of recommendation.

Clinical Guideline: Bronchiolitis: Recommendations for diagnosis, monitoring and management of children one to 24 months of age

Visit

Canadian Paediatric Society

The goals of this statement are to build on the comprehensive peer-reviewed AAP statement by incorporating new evidence published over the past eight years, while providing the clinician with recommendations to help guide diagnosis, monitoring and management of previously healthy children one to 24 months of age who present with signs of bronchiolitis.

Burns English (2) French All (2)

Burns / management of burn wounds

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The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

Guideline for the management of burn wounds.

ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care

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ISBI Practice Guidelines Committee; Steering Subcommittee; Advisory Subcommittee

ISBI 2014-2016 Practice guidelines for burn care.

Burns / management of burn wounds

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The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

Guideline for the management of burn wounds.

ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care

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ISBI Practice Guidelines Committee; Steering Subcommittee; Advisory Subcommittee

ISBI 2014-2016 Practice guidelines for burn care.

COVID19 English (4) French All (4)

Guideline: COVID in children with diabetes

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International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD)

The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018 for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state provide comprehensive guidance for management of DKA in young people. Intravenous infusion of insulin for treating DKA may necessitate intensive care unit admission in hospitals in some parts of the world. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ICU services may need to be prioritised for care of affected individuals

Consensus statement: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts consensus statement.

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Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, et al.

This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.

Info page: What Does the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mean for Families?

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Thompson LA, Rasmussen SA

Objective: To prepare families for COVID-19 in the US.

Info page: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-2019) Information for Pediatric Healthcare Providers.

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US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

To inform pediatric healthcare providers of information available on children with COVID-19.

Guideline: COVID in children with diabetes

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International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD)

The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018 for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state provide comprehensive guidance for management of DKA in young people. Intravenous infusion of insulin for treating DKA may necessitate intensive care unit admission in hospitals in some parts of the world. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ICU services may need to be prioritised for care of affected individuals

Consensus statement: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts consensus statement.

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Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, et al.

This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. The present consensus statement summarizes current strategies on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection in children.

Info page: What Does the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mean for Families?

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Thompson LA, Rasmussen SA

Objective: To prepare families for COVID-19 in the US.

Info page: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-2019) Information for Pediatric Healthcare Providers.

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US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

To inform pediatric healthcare providers of information available on children with COVID-19.

Cannabis Intoxication English (1) French All (1)

Clincal Practice Guildeline: Addressing Pediatric Cannabis Exposure

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American College of Medical Toxicology

The purpose of this was to outline recommendations for clincians treating pediatric patients with actue cannabis intoxication.

Clincal Practice Guildeline: Addressing Pediatric Cannabis Exposure

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American College of Medical Toxicology

The purpose of this was to outline recommendations for clincians treating pediatric patients with actue cannabis intoxication.

Concussion English (7) French All (7)

Living Guideline For Pediatric Concussion Care

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FoundationLiving Guideline for Pediatric Concussion Care (PedsConcussion)

Guideline: Telemedicine and Virtual Concussion Care

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Living Guideline for Pediatric Concussion Care (PedsConcussion)

Guideline: Considerations for Telemedicine and Virtual Care Algorithm

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FoundationLiving Guideline for Pediatric Concussion Care (PedsConcussion)

Concussions and Head Injuries in Children: Care Instructions

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Resources on Concussion in a Virtual Environment (Recover)

RECOVER (Resources on Concussion in a Virtual Environment) was a study being conducted by researchers at Alberta Health Services, the University of Calgary and the University of Alberta. To improve outcomes for children with concussion who are seen in emergency departments, the study developed tools to help physicians and nurses provide better care and to help families to learn more about, assess, and monitor concussion.

Guidelines: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among Children

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Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, et al.

Based on a previous systematic review of the literature, this guideline includes 19 sets of recommendations on diagnosis, prognosis, and management/treatment of pediatric mTBI. Each recommendation was assigned a level of obligation (ie, must, should, or may) based on confidence in the evidence.

Consensus Statement: Consensus statement on concussion in sport-the 5(th) international conference on concussion in sport held in Berlin, October 2016

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McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Dvorak J, Aubry M, Bailes J, Broglio S, Cantu RC, Cas...

The 2017 Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) consensus statement is designed to build on the principles outlined in the previous statements and to develop further conceptual understanding of sport-related concussion (SRC) using an expert consensus-based approach.

Guidelines: Standards for Post-Concussion Care: from diagnosis to the interdisciplinary concussion clinic

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The Concussion Advisory Subcommittee of the Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation

A pathway of post-concussion care was developed that would be applicable across the province to patients while accounting for the vast regional differences.

Living Guideline For Pediatric Concussion Care

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FoundationLiving Guideline for Pediatric Concussion Care (PedsConcussion)

Guideline: Telemedicine and Virtual Concussion Care

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Living Guideline for Pediatric Concussion Care (PedsConcussion)

Guideline: Considerations for Telemedicine and Virtual Care Algorithm

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FoundationLiving Guideline for Pediatric Concussion Care (PedsConcussion)

Concussions and Head Injuries in Children: Care Instructions

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Resources on Concussion in a Virtual Environment (Recover)

RECOVER (Resources on Concussion in a Virtual Environment) was a study being conducted by researchers at Alberta Health Services, the University of Calgary and the University of Alberta. To improve outcomes for children with concussion who are seen in emergency departments, the study developed tools to help physicians and nurses provide better care and to help families to learn more about, assess, and monitor concussion.

Guidelines: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among Children

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Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, et al.

Based on a previous systematic review of the literature, this guideline includes 19 sets of recommendations on diagnosis, prognosis, and management/treatment of pediatric mTBI. Each recommendation was assigned a level of obligation (ie, must, should, or may) based on confidence in the evidence.

Consensus Statement: Consensus statement on concussion in sport-the 5(th) international conference on concussion in sport held in Berlin, October 2016

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McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Dvorak J, Aubry M, Bailes J, Broglio S, Cantu RC, Cas...

The 2017 Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) consensus statement is designed to build on the principles outlined in the previous statements and to develop further conceptual understanding of sport-related concussion (SRC) using an expert consensus-based approach.

Guidelines: Standards for Post-Concussion Care: from diagnosis to the interdisciplinary concussion clinic

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The Concussion Advisory Subcommittee of the Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation

A pathway of post-concussion care was developed that would be applicable across the province to patients while accounting for the vast regional differences.

Congenital Heart Defect English (1) French All (1)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Resuscitation of blue baby and the use of prostaglandins

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Linney M, Gnapragassam J, Wilson P, Rodd I

This document relates to the acute management of infants presenting acutely with collapse and/or cyanosis suggestive of congenital heart defect.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Resuscitation of blue baby and the use of prostaglandins

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Linney M, Gnapragassam J, Wilson P, Rodd I

This document relates to the acute management of infants presenting acutely with collapse and/or cyanosis suggestive of congenital heart defect.

Constipation English (9) French All (9)

Guidelines: Constipation

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Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

These clinical practice guidelines cover the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of constipation in children.

Guidelines: Constipation

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Kids Health WA

These emergency department guidelines cover the background, assessment and management of constipation in children.

Guidelines: Constipation in Children and Young People: Diagnosis and Management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This guideline covers diagnosing and managing constipation in children and young people up to 18. It provides strategies to support the early identification and timely, effective treatment of constipation which will help improve outcomes for patients. It does not cover constipation caused by a specific condition.

Guidelines: Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Neonate/Toddler

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Benninga MA, Faure C, Hyman PE, St James Roberts I, Schechter NL, Nurko S

This article provides a description, assessment, and analysis of each functional gastrointestinal intestinal disorder that affects the neonate/toddler age group.

Guidelines: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: History, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features and Rome IV

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Drossman DA

This summary article about the Rome IV diagnostic criteria describes the the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders, distinguishes them from motility and structural disorders, discusses the changes from the Rome III criteria, reviews the Rome committee process, provides a biopsychological pathophysiological conceptualization of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and offers an approach to patient care.

Guidelines: Functional Disorders: Children and Adolescents

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Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, Shulman RJ, Staiano A, van Tilburg M

The Rome criteria provide symptom-based guidelines by which child and adolescent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) can be diagnosed.

Guidelines: Constipation and Encopresis in Childhood

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Colombo JM,Wassom MC,Rosen JM

Objectives: Know that constipation is a common problem in childhood with a diverse clinical presentation. Understand that functional constipation is a symptom-based diagnosis that does not require extensive testing. Recognize that most children who present with fecal incontinence or encopresis have associated constipation. Describe the treatment of constipation and encopresis, which should include a medical-behavioral approach that focuses on maintaining soft and regular bowel movements and improving toileting behavior.

Guidelines: Evaluation and Treatment of Functional Constipation in Infants and Children: Evidence-based Recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN

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Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, Faure C, Langendam MW, Nurko S, Staiano A...

This evidence-based guideline provides recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of children withfunctionalconstipation to standardize and improve their quality of care. In addition, 2 algorithms were developed, one for the infants under 6 months of age and the other for older infants and children.

Guidelines: Managing Functional Constipation in Children

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Rowan-Legg A; Canadian Paediatric Society, Community Paediatrics Committee

These guidelines are published in English and French, and cover the description, etiology, diagnosis and management, including long-term treatments and behavioural modifications and education, for functional constipation in children.

Guidelines: Constipation

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Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

These clinical practice guidelines cover the description, etiology, diagnosis and management of constipation in children.

Guidelines: Constipation

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Kids Health WA

These emergency department guidelines cover the background, assessment and management of constipation in children.

Guidelines: Constipation in Children and Young People: Diagnosis and Management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This guideline covers diagnosing and managing constipation in children and young people up to 18. It provides strategies to support the early identification and timely, effective treatment of constipation which will help improve outcomes for patients. It does not cover constipation caused by a specific condition.

Guidelines: Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Neonate/Toddler

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Benninga MA, Faure C, Hyman PE, St James Roberts I, Schechter NL, Nurko S

This article provides a description, assessment, and analysis of each functional gastrointestinal intestinal disorder that affects the neonate/toddler age group.

Guidelines: Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: History, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features and Rome IV

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Drossman DA

This summary article about the Rome IV diagnostic criteria describes the the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders, distinguishes them from motility and structural disorders, discusses the changes from the Rome III criteria, reviews the Rome committee process, provides a biopsychological pathophysiological conceptualization of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and offers an approach to patient care.

Guidelines: Functional Disorders: Children and Adolescents

Visit

Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, Shulman RJ, Staiano A, van Tilburg M

The Rome criteria provide symptom-based guidelines by which child and adolescent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) can be diagnosed.

Guidelines: Constipation and Encopresis in Childhood

Visit

Colombo JM,Wassom MC,Rosen JM

Objectives: Know that constipation is a common problem in childhood with a diverse clinical presentation. Understand that functional constipation is a symptom-based diagnosis that does not require extensive testing. Recognize that most children who present with fecal incontinence or encopresis have associated constipation. Describe the treatment of constipation and encopresis, which should include a medical-behavioral approach that focuses on maintaining soft and regular bowel movements and improving toileting behavior.

Guidelines: Evaluation and Treatment of Functional Constipation in Infants and Children: Evidence-based Recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN

Visit

Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, Faure C, Langendam MW, Nurko S, Staiano A...

This evidence-based guideline provides recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of children withfunctionalconstipation to standardize and improve their quality of care. In addition, 2 algorithms were developed, one for the infants under 6 months of age and the other for older infants and children.

Guidelines: Managing Functional Constipation in Children

Visit

Rowan-Legg A; Canadian Paediatric Society, Community Paediatrics Committee

These guidelines are published in English and French, and cover the description, etiology, diagnosis and management, including long-term treatments and behavioural modifications and education, for functional constipation in children.

Croup English (2) French All (2)

BMJ Best Practice: Croup

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Bjornson C, Johnson DW,

Summary of Practice Guidelines for Croup.

Acute management of croup in the emergency department

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Ortiz-Alvarez O,

Acute management of croup in the emergency department.

BMJ Best Practice: Croup

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Bjornson C, Johnson DW,

Summary of Practice Guidelines for Croup.

Acute management of croup in the emergency department

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Ortiz-Alvarez O,

Acute management of croup in the emergency department.

Diabetic ketoacidosis English (5) French All (5)

Guideline: COVID in children with diabetes

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International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD)

The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018 for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state provide comprehensive guidance for management of DKA in young people. Intravenous infusion of insulin for treating DKA may necessitate intensive care unit admission in hospitals in some parts of the world. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ICU services may need to be prioritised for care of affected individuals

Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children and young people: diagnosis and management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This guideline covers the diagnosis and management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young people aged under 18. The guideline recommends how to support children and young people and their families and carers to maintain tight control of blood glucose to reduce the long-term risks associated with diabetes.

ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guideline: Diabetic ketoacidosis in the time of COVID-19 and resource-limited settings-role of subcutaneous insulin

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Priyambada L, Wolfsdorf JI, Brink SJ, Fritsch M, Codner E, Donaghue KC, Craig...

The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes Clinical Practice Consensus Guideline 2018 for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state provide comprehensive guidance for management of DKA in young people. Intravenous (IV) infusion of insulin remains the treatment of choice for treating DKA; however, the policy of many hospitals around the world requires admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for IV insulin infusion. During the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic or other settings where intensive care resources are limited, ICU services may need to be prioritized or may not be appropriate due to risk of transmission of infection to young people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this guideline, which should be used in conjunction with the ISPAD 2018 guidelines, is to ensure that young individuals with DKA receive management according to best evidence in the context of limited ICU resources. Specifically, this guideline summarizes evidence for the role of subcutaneous insulin in treatment of uncomplicated mild to moderate DKA in young people and may be implemented if administration of IV insulin is not an option.

ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

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Wolfsdorf J, Glaser N, Agus M, Fritsch M, Hanas R, Rewers A, Sperling M, and...

Recommendations concerning fluid management have been modified to reflect recent findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial showing no difference in cerebral injury in patients rehydrated at different rates with either 0.45% or 0.9% saline.

Diabetes Canada 2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada: Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

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Wherrett D, Ho J, Huot C, et al

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease and one of the most common chronic conditions in children. Type 2 diabetes and other types of diabetes, including genetic defects of beta cell function, such as monogenic and neonatal diabetes, are being increasingly recognized in children and should be considered when clinical presentation is atypical for type 1 diabetes. This section addresses those areas of type 1 diabetes management that are specific to children.

Guideline: COVID in children with diabetes

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International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD)

The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018 for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state provide comprehensive guidance for management of DKA in young people. Intravenous infusion of insulin for treating DKA may necessitate intensive care unit admission in hospitals in some parts of the world. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ICU services may need to be prioritised for care of affected individuals

Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children and young people: diagnosis and management

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This guideline covers the diagnosis and management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young people aged under 18. The guideline recommends how to support children and young people and their families and carers to maintain tight control of blood glucose to reduce the long-term risks associated with diabetes.

ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guideline: Diabetic ketoacidosis in the time of COVID-19 and resource-limited settings-role of subcutaneous insulin

Visit

Priyambada L, Wolfsdorf JI, Brink SJ, Fritsch M, Codner E, Donaghue KC, Craig...

The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes Clinical Practice Consensus Guideline 2018 for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state provide comprehensive guidance for management of DKA in young people. Intravenous (IV) infusion of insulin remains the treatment of choice for treating DKA; however, the policy of many hospitals around the world requires admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for IV insulin infusion. During the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic or other settings where intensive care resources are limited, ICU services may need to be prioritized or may not be appropriate due to risk of transmission of infection to young people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this guideline, which should be used in conjunction with the ISPAD 2018 guidelines, is to ensure that young individuals with DKA receive management according to best evidence in the context of limited ICU resources. Specifically, this guideline summarizes evidence for the role of subcutaneous insulin in treatment of uncomplicated mild to moderate DKA in young people and may be implemented if administration of IV insulin is not an option.

ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

Visit

Wolfsdorf J, Glaser N, Agus M, Fritsch M, Hanas R, Rewers A, Sperling M, and...

Recommendations concerning fluid management have been modified to reflect recent findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial showing no difference in cerebral injury in patients rehydrated at different rates with either 0.45% or 0.9% saline.

Diabetes Canada 2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada: Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

Visit

Wherrett D, Ho J, Huot C, et al

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease and one of the most common chronic conditions in children. Type 2 diabetes and other types of diabetes, including genetic defects of beta cell function, such as monogenic and neonatal diabetes, are being increasingly recognized in children and should be considered when clinical presentation is atypical for type 1 diabetes. This section addresses those areas of type 1 diabetes management that are specific to children.

Fever English (10) French All (10)

Fever and temperature taking

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Canadian Pediatric Society

Clinical Pathway: Fever in Infants Less than 60 Days

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Clinical Care Guideline and Measures Review Committee

These pathways and algorithms are intended for febrile infants (0-60 days) and cover initial evaluations and therapeutics.

Clinical Pathway: Neonatal Fever

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Bishop J, Ackley H, Beardsley E, Fenstermacher S, Leu M, Pak D, Stanford S

These pathways and guidelines contain information on the assessment and management of febrile infants (0-30 days old, 31-60 days old) as inpatients and in the ED, with and without bronchiolitis.

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Febrile Infants

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Patrick K, Miller S, Vejzovic J, Wood K, Price N, Al-Gharabeith F, Pepper S

This guideline is to direct care for infants 7 to 60 days of age who present with a temperature of greater than or equal to 38.0C

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.

Visit

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children.

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Clinical Policy for Well-Appearing Infants and Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age Presenting to the Emergency Department With Fever

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American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee (Writ...

This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians addresses key issues for well-appearing infants and children younger than 2 years presenting to the emergency department with fever.

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children

Visit

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

To review new scientific evidence to update the Italian guidelines for managing fever in children as drafted by the panel of the Italian Pediatric Society.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.

Visit

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Demps...

The cause of fever in a child can often be determined from history, physical examination, and laboratory tests; infections account for the majority of cases. Yet in 20%, no apparent cause can be found, designated as fever without source (FWS). The yield of chest radiography in children with FWS is low, and it is usually not appropriate. However, in children with respiratory signs, high fever (>39C), or marked leukocytosis (20,000/mm(3)), chest radiography is usually appropriate, as it has a higher yield in detecting clinically occult pneumonia. In newborns with FWS, there is higher risk for serious bacterial infection, and the routine use of chest radiography is controversial. In children with neutropenia, fever is a major concern. In some clinical circumstances, such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, chest CT scan may be appropriate even if the results of chest radiography are negative or nonspecific, as it has higher sensitivity and can demonstrate specific findings (such as lung nodule and "halo sign") that can guide management. In a child with prolonged fever of unknown origin despite extensive medical workup (fever of unknown origin), diagnosis is usually dependent on clinical and laboratory studies, and imaging tests have low yield. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Fever in under 5s

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This quality standard covers the assessment and early management of fever with no obvious cause in babies and children (from birth to 5 years).

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.

Visit

Davis T.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for feverish illness in children (assessment and initial management in children younger than 5years) was partially updated in May 2013.1 Not all sections were reviewed, but the following were: the signs and symptoms of serious illness; the predictive value of tachycardia; the use of inflammatory markers; and the role of paracetamol and ibuprofen. The aim of the guideline is to optimise the management of young children with fever, and in particular to guide health professionals to recognise the signs of serious infection. The update made new recommendations based on current evidence. This guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. They worked with the Guideline Development Group to review the evidence and write the recommendations.

Fever and temperature taking

Visit

Canadian Pediatric Society

Clinical Pathway: Fever in Infants Less than 60 Days

Visit

Clinical Care Guideline and Measures Review Committee

These pathways and algorithms are intended for febrile infants (0-60 days) and cover initial evaluations and therapeutics.

Clinical Pathway: Neonatal Fever

Visit

Bishop J, Ackley H, Beardsley E, Fenstermacher S, Leu M, Pak D, Stanford S

These pathways and guidelines contain information on the assessment and management of febrile infants (0-30 days old, 31-60 days old) as inpatients and in the ED, with and without bronchiolitis.

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Febrile Infants

Visit

Patrick K, Miller S, Vejzovic J, Wood K, Price N, Al-Gharabeith F, Pepper S

This guideline is to direct care for infants 7 to 60 days of age who present with a temperature of greater than or equal to 38.0C

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.

Visit

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children.

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Clinical Policy for Well-Appearing Infants and Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age Presenting to the Emergency Department With Fever

Visit

American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee (Writ...

This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians addresses key issues for well-appearing infants and children younger than 2 years presenting to the emergency department with fever.

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children

Visit

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

To review new scientific evidence to update the Italian guidelines for managing fever in children as drafted by the panel of the Italian Pediatric Society.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.

Visit

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Demps...

The cause of fever in a child can often be determined from history, physical examination, and laboratory tests; infections account for the majority of cases. Yet in 20%, no apparent cause can be found, designated as fever without source (FWS). The yield of chest radiography in children with FWS is low, and it is usually not appropriate. However, in children with respiratory signs, high fever (>39C), or marked leukocytosis (20,000/mm(3)), chest radiography is usually appropriate, as it has a higher yield in detecting clinically occult pneumonia. In newborns with FWS, there is higher risk for serious bacterial infection, and the routine use of chest radiography is controversial. In children with neutropenia, fever is a major concern. In some clinical circumstances, such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, chest CT scan may be appropriate even if the results of chest radiography are negative or nonspecific, as it has higher sensitivity and can demonstrate specific findings (such as lung nodule and "halo sign") that can guide management. In a child with prolonged fever of unknown origin despite extensive medical workup (fever of unknown origin), diagnosis is usually dependent on clinical and laboratory studies, and imaging tests have low yield. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Fever in under 5s

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This quality standard covers the assessment and early management of fever with no obvious cause in babies and children (from birth to 5 years).

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.

Visit

Davis T.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for feverish illness in children (assessment and initial management in children younger than 5years) was partially updated in May 2013.1 Not all sections were reviewed, but the following were: the signs and symptoms of serious illness; the predictive value of tachycardia; the use of inflammatory markers; and the role of paracetamol and ibuprofen. The aim of the guideline is to optimise the management of young children with fever, and in particular to guide health professionals to recognise the signs of serious infection. The update made new recommendations based on current evidence. This guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. They worked with the Guideline Development Group to review the evidence and write the recommendations.

Fever 3 months to 12 years English (5) French All (5)

Fever and temperature taking

Visit

Canadian Pediatric Society

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.

Visit

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children.

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children

Visit

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

To review new scientific evidence to update the Italian guidelines for managing fever in children as drafted by the panel of the Italian Pediatric Society.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.

Visit

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Demps...

The cause of fever in a child can often be determined from history, physical examination, and laboratory tests; infections account for the majority of cases. Yet in 20%, no apparent cause can be found, designated as fever without source (FWS). The yield of chest radiography in children with FWS is low, and it is usually not appropriate. However, in children with respiratory signs, high fever (>39C), or marked leukocytosis (20,000/mm(3)), chest radiography is usually appropriate, as it has a higher yield in detecting clinically occult pneumonia. In newborns with FWS, there is higher risk for serious bacterial infection, and the routine use of chest radiography is controversial. In children with neutropenia, fever is a major concern. In some clinical circumstances, such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, chest CT scan may be appropriate even if the results of chest radiography are negative or nonspecific, as it has higher sensitivity and can demonstrate specific findings (such as lung nodule and "halo sign") that can guide management. In a child with prolonged fever of unknown origin despite extensive medical workup (fever of unknown origin), diagnosis is usually dependent on clinical and laboratory studies, and imaging tests have low yield. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel.

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.

Visit

Davis T.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for feverish illness in children (assessment and initial management in children younger than 5years) was partially updated in May 2013.1 Not all sections were reviewed, but the following were: the signs and symptoms of serious illness; the predictive value of tachycardia; the use of inflammatory markers; and the role of paracetamol and ibuprofen. The aim of the guideline is to optimise the management of young children with fever, and in particular to guide health professionals to recognise the signs of serious infection. The update made new recommendations based on current evidence. This guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. They worked with the Guideline Development Group to review the evidence and write the recommendations.

Fever and temperature taking

Visit

Canadian Pediatric Society

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.

Visit

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children.

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children

Visit

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

To review new scientific evidence to update the Italian guidelines for managing fever in children as drafted by the panel of the Italian Pediatric Society.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.

Visit

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Demps...

The cause of fever in a child can often be determined from history, physical examination, and laboratory tests; infections account for the majority of cases. Yet in 20%, no apparent cause can be found, designated as fever without source (FWS). The yield of chest radiography in children with FWS is low, and it is usually not appropriate. However, in children with respiratory signs, high fever (>39C), or marked leukocytosis (20,000/mm(3)), chest radiography is usually appropriate, as it has a higher yield in detecting clinically occult pneumonia. In newborns with FWS, there is higher risk for serious bacterial infection, and the routine use of chest radiography is controversial. In children with neutropenia, fever is a major concern. In some clinical circumstances, such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, chest CT scan may be appropriate even if the results of chest radiography are negative or nonspecific, as it has higher sensitivity and can demonstrate specific findings (such as lung nodule and "halo sign") that can guide management. In a child with prolonged fever of unknown origin despite extensive medical workup (fever of unknown origin), diagnosis is usually dependent on clinical and laboratory studies, and imaging tests have low yield. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel.

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.

Visit

Davis T.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for feverish illness in children (assessment and initial management in children younger than 5years) was partially updated in May 2013.1 Not all sections were reviewed, but the following were: the signs and symptoms of serious illness; the predictive value of tachycardia; the use of inflammatory markers; and the role of paracetamol and ibuprofen. The aim of the guideline is to optimise the management of young children with fever, and in particular to guide health professionals to recognise the signs of serious infection. The update made new recommendations based on current evidence. This guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. They worked with the Guideline Development Group to review the evidence and write the recommendations.

Fever in Young Infants English (5) French All (5)

Clinical Pathway: Fever in Infants Less than 60 Days

Visit

Clinical Care Guideline and Measures Review Committee

These pathways and algorithms are intended for febrile infants (0-60 days) and cover initial evaluations and therapeutics.

Clinical Pathway: Neonatal Fever

Visit

Bishop J, Ackley H, Beardsley E, Fenstermacher S, Leu M, Pak D, Stanford S

These pathways and guidelines contain information on the assessment and management of febrile infants (0-30 days old, 31-60 days old) as inpatients and in the ED, with and without bronchiolitis.

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Febrile Infants

Visit

Patrick K, Miller S, Vejzovic J, Wood K, Price N, Al-Gharabeith F, Pepper S

This guideline is to direct care for infants 7 to 60 days of age who present with a temperature of greater than or equal to 38.0C

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Clinical Policy for Well-Appearing Infants and Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age Presenting to the Emergency Department With Fever

Visit

American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee (Writ...

This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians addresses key issues for well-appearing infants and children younger than 2 years presenting to the emergency department with fever.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Fever in under 5s

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This quality standard covers the assessment and early management of fever with no obvious cause in babies and children (from birth to 5 years).

Clinical Pathway: Fever in Infants Less than 60 Days

Visit

Clinical Care Guideline and Measures Review Committee

These pathways and algorithms are intended for febrile infants (0-60 days) and cover initial evaluations and therapeutics.

Clinical Pathway: Neonatal Fever

Visit

Bishop J, Ackley H, Beardsley E, Fenstermacher S, Leu M, Pak D, Stanford S

These pathways and guidelines contain information on the assessment and management of febrile infants (0-30 days old, 31-60 days old) as inpatients and in the ED, with and without bronchiolitis.

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Febrile Infants

Visit

Patrick K, Miller S, Vejzovic J, Wood K, Price N, Al-Gharabeith F, Pepper S

This guideline is to direct care for infants 7 to 60 days of age who present with a temperature of greater than or equal to 38.0C

Clinical Practice Guidelines: Clinical Policy for Well-Appearing Infants and Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age Presenting to the Emergency Department With Fever

Visit

American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee (Writ...

This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians addresses key issues for well-appearing infants and children younger than 2 years presenting to the emergency department with fever.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Fever in under 5s

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This quality standard covers the assessment and early management of fever with no obvious cause in babies and children (from birth to 5 years).

Fractures English (5) French All (5)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines

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Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of paediatric fracture types, emergency department management, and information for fracture clinics.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Peripheral neurovascular checklist

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SicKids Division of Orthopaedic Surgery

Peripheral Neurovascular Checklist.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of fractures in adolescents

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Parikh, SN, Wells, L, Mehlman, CT & Scherl, SA

Summary of classifications, imaging, and treatments of fractures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: AboutKidsHealth: Tools for measuring pain

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Stinson, J

Objectives: To assess the level of pain felt by children through the use of pain scales and other measurement tools such as behavioural and composite measures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Splinting ABCs: upper and lower extremity splinting in the emergency department

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Sarwark, JF, Maizels, M, Adler, MD & Nicholson, D

This guideline describes preparation and application of plaster and fiberglass short arm splints and short leg splints. Materials and set up for each type of splint are discussed in detail and the advantages and disadvantages of using fiberglass splints are outlined.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines

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Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of paediatric fracture types, emergency department management, and information for fracture clinics.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Peripheral neurovascular checklist

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SicKids Division of Orthopaedic Surgery

Peripheral Neurovascular Checklist.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of fractures in adolescents

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Parikh, SN, Wells, L, Mehlman, CT & Scherl, SA

Summary of classifications, imaging, and treatments of fractures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: AboutKidsHealth: Tools for measuring pain

Visit

Stinson, J

Objectives: To assess the level of pain felt by children through the use of pain scales and other measurement tools such as behavioural and composite measures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Splinting ABCs: upper and lower extremity splinting in the emergency department

Visit

Sarwark, JF, Maizels, M, Adler, MD & Nicholson, D

This guideline describes preparation and application of plaster and fiberglass short arm splints and short leg splints. Materials and set up for each type of splint are discussed in detail and the advantages and disadvantages of using fiberglass splints are outlined.

Gastroenteritis English (8) French All (8)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Gastroenteritis

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The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

These guidelines contain information about assessment, diagnosis and management of pediatric gastroenteritis.

Clinical Practice Guideline: European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: up

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Guarino A, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, Lo Vecchio A, Shamir R, Szajewska H, Europ...

These guidelines update and extend evidence-based indications for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis in Europe.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Use of probiotics for management of acute gastroenteritis: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics

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Szajewska H, Guarino A, Hojsak I, Indrio F, Kolacek S, Shamir R, Vandenplas Y...

This document provides recommendations for the use of probiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in previously healthy infants and children based on a systematic review of previously completed systematic reviews and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published subsequently to these reviews.

Clinical Pathway: Alberta Health Services Acute Childhood Vomiting & Diarrhea Pathway

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Alberta Health Services

This pathway, developed for Alberta Health Services, is intended for children between 3 months and 10 years of age with vomiting and/or diarrhea with or without accompanying nausea, fever or abdominal pain.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Prevention and management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children aged 2 months to 18 years

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Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center,

Developed by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Published: December 2011.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Emergency department use of oral ondansetron for acute gastroenteritis-related vomiting in infants and children

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Cheng A

This article examines evidence for the use of oral ondansetron for acute gastroenteritis-related vomiting in infants and children, and provides a recommendation for treatment based on the evidence-based review.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diarrhoea and vomiting caused by gastroenteritis in under 5s: diagnosis and management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This guideline covers diagnosing, managing and referring infants and young children younger than 5 years who present with acute diarrhoea (lasting up to 14 days) with or without vomiting.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Managing acute gastroenteritis among children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy

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King CK, Glass R, Bresee JS, Duggan C, Centers for Disease Control and Preven...

This report reviews the historical background and scientific basis of oral rehydration therapy and provides a framework for assessing and treating infants and children who have acute diarrhea.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Gastroenteritis

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The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

These guidelines contain information about assessment, diagnosis and management of pediatric gastroenteritis.

Clinical Practice Guideline: European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: up

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Guarino A, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, Lo Vecchio A, Shamir R, Szajewska H, Europ...

These guidelines update and extend evidence-based indications for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis in Europe.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Use of probiotics for management of acute gastroenteritis: a position paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics

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Szajewska H, Guarino A, Hojsak I, Indrio F, Kolacek S, Shamir R, Vandenplas Y...

This document provides recommendations for the use of probiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in previously healthy infants and children based on a systematic review of previously completed systematic reviews and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published subsequently to these reviews.

Clinical Pathway: Alberta Health Services Acute Childhood Vomiting & Diarrhea Pathway

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Alberta Health Services

This pathway, developed for Alberta Health Services, is intended for children between 3 months and 10 years of age with vomiting and/or diarrhea with or without accompanying nausea, fever or abdominal pain.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Prevention and management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children aged 2 months to 18 years

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Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center,

Developed by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Published: December 2011.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Emergency department use of oral ondansetron for acute gastroenteritis-related vomiting in infants and children

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Cheng A

This article examines evidence for the use of oral ondansetron for acute gastroenteritis-related vomiting in infants and children, and provides a recommendation for treatment based on the evidence-based review.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Diarrhoea and vomiting caused by gastroenteritis in under 5s: diagnosis and management

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This guideline covers diagnosing, managing and referring infants and young children younger than 5 years who present with acute diarrhoea (lasting up to 14 days) with or without vomiting.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Managing acute gastroenteritis among children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy

Visit

King CK, Glass R, Bresee JS, Duggan C, Centers for Disease Control and Preven...

This report reviews the historical background and scientific basis of oral rehydration therapy and provides a framework for assessing and treating infants and children who have acute diarrhea.

High Flow Nasal Cannula English (4) French All (4)

Guideline:Nasal High Flow Therapy

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Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

The aim of this guideline is to ensure safe and effective use of Nasal High Flow (NHF) therapy for children with acute respiratory illness through: Appropriate placement in inpatient areas with trained staff. Support for decision making in relation to initiation, continuation and weaning of therapy and escalation of concerns.

Use of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in infants and children

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L Chauvin-Kimoff, A DeCaen,Canadian Paediatric Society

Heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) therapy provides warmed, humidified oxygen to infants and children in respiratory distress at flow rates that deliver higher oxygen concentrations and some positive airway pressure compared with standard low-flow therapy. Increased use and experience is informing practice and establishing the benefits of HHHFNC use in a variety of clinical conditions. The focus of this practice point is to describe best practices for HHHFNC in (non-neonatal) paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe respiratory distress and to offer a safe, practical approach to oxygen delivery and support.

Australasian bronchiolitis bedside clinical guideline

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Sharon O'Brien et al on behalf of PREDICT Network Australasia

This guideline has been developed to provide an evidence-based clinical framework for the management of infants (012 months) with bronchiolitis treated in Australasian emergency departments (EDs) or general paediatric wards. Application of these guidelines for children over 12 months may be relevant but there is less diagnostic certainty in the 1224 month age group. (All references to age within this guideline refer to chronological age unless stated otherwise).

Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Guideline for Metropolitan Paediatric Wards and EDs

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NSW Government

This Guideline presents the current best evidence for Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen. Its purpose is to inform practice for clinicians in Metropolitan Level 4 Paediatric Units and Metropolitan Emergency Departments caring for infants and children who may benefit from Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen therapy.

Guideline:Nasal High Flow Therapy

Visit

Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service

The aim of this guideline is to ensure safe and effective use of Nasal High Flow (NHF) therapy for children with acute respiratory illness through: Appropriate placement in inpatient areas with trained staff. Support for decision making in relation to initiation, continuation and weaning of therapy and escalation of concerns.

Use of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in infants and children

Visit

L Chauvin-Kimoff, A DeCaen,Canadian Paediatric Society

Heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) therapy provides warmed, humidified oxygen to infants and children in respiratory distress at flow rates that deliver higher oxygen concentrations and some positive airway pressure compared with standard low-flow therapy. Increased use and experience is informing practice and establishing the benefits of HHHFNC use in a variety of clinical conditions. The focus of this practice point is to describe best practices for HHHFNC in (non-neonatal) paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe respiratory distress and to offer a safe, practical approach to oxygen delivery and support.

Australasian bronchiolitis bedside clinical guideline

Visit

Sharon O'Brien et al on behalf of PREDICT Network Australasia

This guideline has been developed to provide an evidence-based clinical framework for the management of infants (012 months) with bronchiolitis treated in Australasian emergency departments (EDs) or general paediatric wards. Application of these guidelines for children over 12 months may be relevant but there is less diagnostic certainty in the 1224 month age group. (All references to age within this guideline refer to chronological age unless stated otherwise).

Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Guideline for Metropolitan Paediatric Wards and EDs

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NSW Government

This Guideline presents the current best evidence for Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen. Its purpose is to inform practice for clinicians in Metropolitan Level 4 Paediatric Units and Metropolitan Emergency Departments caring for infants and children who may benefit from Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen therapy.

Intussusception English (5) French All (5)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants

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Le Saux N, Canadian Paediatric Society

These guidelines provide recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccine for infants in Canada, and summarize information on the disease, epidemiology, as well as the safety and efficacy of vaccines currently authorized for the prevention of rotavirus disease in Canada.

Clinical Practice Guideline: A Practice Guideline for Postreduction Management of Intussusception of Children in the Emergency Department.

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Kwon H, Lee JH, Jeong JH, Yang HR, Kwak YH, Kim DK, et al.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a practice guideline of postreduction management of intussusception in children on the length of stay (LOS) from reduction in the pediatric emergency department (PED) and on the incidence of recurrence.

Clinical Practice Guideline: European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases consensus recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in Europe: update 2014

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Vesikari T, Van Damme P, Giaquinto C, Dagan R, Guarino A, Szajewska H, Usonis...

This guideline aims to provide policy makers of European countries with the information and tools to assist in decision making on rotavirus vaccination policy with the new consensus recommendations.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Japanese guidelines for the management of intussusception in children, 2011

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Ito Y, Kusakawa I, Murata Y, Ukiyama E, Kawase H, Kamagata S, Ueno S, Osamura...

This guideline aims to help clinicians promptly diagnose intussusception, initiate appropriate treatment as early as possible, and to protect intussuscepted children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Data Form: Appendix from article, "Risk of intussusception after monovalent rotavirus vaccination"

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Weihmiller SN, Buonomo C, Bachur R,

This checklist assists in the detection of intussusception risk following monovalent rotavirus vaccination.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants

Visit

Le Saux N, Canadian Paediatric Society

These guidelines provide recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccine for infants in Canada, and summarize information on the disease, epidemiology, as well as the safety and efficacy of vaccines currently authorized for the prevention of rotavirus disease in Canada.

Clinical Practice Guideline: A Practice Guideline for Postreduction Management of Intussusception of Children in the Emergency Department.

Visit

Kwon H, Lee JH, Jeong JH, Yang HR, Kwak YH, Kim DK, et al.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a practice guideline of postreduction management of intussusception in children on the length of stay (LOS) from reduction in the pediatric emergency department (PED) and on the incidence of recurrence.

Clinical Practice Guideline: European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases consensus recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in Europe: update 2014

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Vesikari T, Van Damme P, Giaquinto C, Dagan R, Guarino A, Szajewska H, Usonis...

This guideline aims to provide policy makers of European countries with the information and tools to assist in decision making on rotavirus vaccination policy with the new consensus recommendations.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Japanese guidelines for the management of intussusception in children, 2011

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Ito Y, Kusakawa I, Murata Y, Ukiyama E, Kawase H, Kamagata S, Ueno S, Osamura...

This guideline aims to help clinicians promptly diagnose intussusception, initiate appropriate treatment as early as possible, and to protect intussuscepted children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Data Form: Appendix from article, "Risk of intussusception after monovalent rotavirus vaccination"

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Weihmiller SN, Buonomo C, Bachur R,

This checklist assists in the detection of intussusception risk following monovalent rotavirus vaccination.

Lower Extremity Fractures English (10) French All (10)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Hip and proximal femur

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Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary and classification of hip and proximal femur fractures.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Femoral shaft (diaphysis)

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Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of femoral shaft fractures, ED management, and follow-up.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Tibial shaft (diaphysis)

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Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of tibial shaft fracture, ED management, and follow-up.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Ankle (distal tibial and fibula physeal)

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Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of distal tibia and-or fibula physeal fractures, ED management, and follow-up.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures

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Jevsevar DS & Shea K

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures (PDFF).

Clinical Practice Guideline: Apophyseal Avulsion Fractures of the Pelvis and Lower Extremity

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Mckinney, B & Roth, C

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology and etiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of apophyseal avulsion fractures of the Pelvis and lower extremity.

Clinical Practice Guideline: AAOS clinical practice guideline: the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures

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Kocher, MS, Sink, EL, Blasier, RD, Luhmann, SJ, Mehlman, CT, Scher, DM, Mathe...

This is a summary of the recommendations in the AAOS clinical practice guideline, The Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Tibial Shaft Fractures

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Hoernschemeyer, DG, Khazzam, M & Hoffinger, SA

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology and etiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of tibial shaft fractures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pediatric Femoral Shaft Fractures

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Anglen, JO & Flynn, JM

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Ankle Fractures in Adolescents

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Rieger, KJ, Hyman, J & Vitale, M

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology and etiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of ankle fractures in adolescents.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Hip and proximal femur

Visit

Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary and classification of hip and proximal femur fractures.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Femoral shaft (diaphysis)

Visit

Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of femoral shaft fractures, ED management, and follow-up.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Tibial shaft (diaphysis)

Visit

Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of tibial shaft fracture, ED management, and follow-up.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Paediatric fracture guidelines - Ankle (distal tibial and fibula physeal)

Visit

Victorian Paediatric Orthopaedic Network

Summary of distal tibia and-or fibula physeal fractures, ED management, and follow-up.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures

Visit

Jevsevar DS & Shea K

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures (PDFF).

Clinical Practice Guideline: Apophyseal Avulsion Fractures of the Pelvis and Lower Extremity

Visit

Mckinney, B & Roth, C

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology and etiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of apophyseal avulsion fractures of the Pelvis and lower extremity.

Clinical Practice Guideline: AAOS clinical practice guideline: the treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures

Visit

Kocher, MS, Sink, EL, Blasier, RD, Luhmann, SJ, Mehlman, CT, Scher, DM, Mathe...

This is a summary of the recommendations in the AAOS clinical practice guideline, The Treatment of Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Tibial Shaft Fractures

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Hoernschemeyer, DG, Khazzam, M & Hoffinger, SA

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology and etiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of tibial shaft fractures.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pediatric Femoral Shaft Fractures

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Anglen, JO & Flynn, JM

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Ankle Fractures in Adolescents

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Rieger, KJ, Hyman, J & Vitale, M

This is an AAOS clinical guideline on the pathophysiology and etiology, classification, diagnosis, and management of ankle fractures in adolescents.

Lyme Disease English (2) French All (2)

Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

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Halperin JJ, Shapiro ED, Logigian E, Belman AL, Dotevall L, Wormser GP, Krupp...

Provides evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of nervous system Lyme disease and post-Lyme syndrome. Three questions were addressed: 1) Which antimicrobial agents are effective? 2) Are different regimens preferred for different manifestations of nervous system Lyme disease? 3) What duration of therapy is needed?

The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, Kr...

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis.

Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

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Halperin JJ, Shapiro ED, Logigian E, Belman AL, Dotevall L, Wormser GP, Krupp...

Provides evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of nervous system Lyme disease and post-Lyme syndrome. Three questions were addressed: 1) Which antimicrobial agents are effective? 2) Are different regimens preferred for different manifestations of nervous system Lyme disease? 3) What duration of therapy is needed?

The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Visit

Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, Kr...

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis.

Management of children with aggression in the ED English (3) French All (3)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients

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Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients

Visit

Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Management of children with developmental disabilities in the ED English (8) French All (8)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism Spectrum Disorder: Updated Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

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American Academy of Pediatrics

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting one in 59 children in the United States and other industrialized nations. In addition to behavior issues, ASD is associated with seizures, gastrointestinal concerns, sleep difficulties, and mental health issues that can profoundly impact the quality of life of children and their families. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published updated guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

Position Statement: Post-diagnostic management and follow-up care for autism spectrum disorder

Visit

Ip A, Zwaigenbaum L, Brian J

Paediatricians and other primary care providers are well positioned to provide or coordinate ongoing medical and psychosocial care and support services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This statement provides recommendations and information on a range of interventions and resources, to help paediatric care providers optimize care for children with ASD and support their families. The management of ASD includes treating medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, behavioural and developmental interventions, and providing supportive social care services to enhance quality of life for affected children and families.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Visit

Subramanyam AA, Mukherjee A, Dave M, Chavda K.

These guidelines have been framed after an amalgamation of expert guidelines across the globe, and existing practices in India, as outlined by experts in the field. Due to the lack of systematic research in the field of autism in India, the evidence of the said practices is not documented, which becomes a limitation of these guidelines. The good part is that India has an indigenous tool for assessment, which has been recommended by the Government of India, which we have attached as an Appendix 1.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

Visit

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

Visit

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism and developmental disability: Management of distress/agitation

Visit

Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

The aim of this guideline is to provide clinical practice tips for the inpatient management of anxiety, and agitation in young people with developmental disabilities (including autism) who may require medical or surgical care.

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients

Visit

Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Guidelines: Guidelines for Managing the Client with Intellectual Disabilites in the Emergency Room

Visit

University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

These guidelines outline ways to optimize the clinical encounter, provide a framework for understanding & assessing the complex medical and mental health issues that arise for persons with intellectual disabilities, and provide a systematic way to evaluate the best approach to treatment and triage.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism Spectrum Disorder: Updated Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

Visit

American Academy of Pediatrics

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting one in 59 children in the United States and other industrialized nations. In addition to behavior issues, ASD is associated with seizures, gastrointestinal concerns, sleep difficulties, and mental health issues that can profoundly impact the quality of life of children and their families. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published updated guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

Position Statement: Post-diagnostic management and follow-up care for autism spectrum disorder

Visit

Ip A, Zwaigenbaum L, Brian J

Paediatricians and other primary care providers are well positioned to provide or coordinate ongoing medical and psychosocial care and support services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This statement provides recommendations and information on a range of interventions and resources, to help paediatric care providers optimize care for children with ASD and support their families. The management of ASD includes treating medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, behavioural and developmental interventions, and providing supportive social care services to enhance quality of life for affected children and families.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Visit

Subramanyam AA, Mukherjee A, Dave M, Chavda K.

These guidelines have been framed after an amalgamation of expert guidelines across the globe, and existing practices in India, as outlined by experts in the field. Due to the lack of systematic research in the field of autism in India, the evidence of the said practices is not documented, which becomes a limitation of these guidelines. The good part is that India has an indigenous tool for assessment, which has been recommended by the Government of India, which we have attached as an Appendix 1.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

Visit

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

Visit

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism and developmental disability: Management of distress/agitation

Visit

Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

The aim of this guideline is to provide clinical practice tips for the inpatient management of anxiety, and agitation in young people with developmental disabilities (including autism) who may require medical or surgical care.

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients

Visit

Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Guidelines: Guidelines for Managing the Client with Intellectual Disabilites in the Emergency Room

Visit

University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

These guidelines outline ways to optimize the clinical encounter, provide a framework for understanding & assessing the complex medical and mental health issues that arise for persons with intellectual disabilities, and provide a systematic way to evaluate the best approach to treatment and triage.

Management of children with special needs in the ED English (8) French All (8)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism Spectrum Disorder: Updated Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

Visit

American Academy of Pediatrics

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting one in 59 children in the United States and other industrialized nations. In addition to behavior issues, ASD is associated with seizures, gastrointestinal concerns, sleep difficulties, and mental health issues that can profoundly impact the quality of life of children and their families. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published updated guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

Position Statement: Post-diagnostic management and follow-up care for autism spectrum disorder

Visit

Ip A, Zwaigenbaum L, Brian J

Paediatricians and other primary care providers are well positioned to provide or coordinate ongoing medical and psychosocial care and support services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This statement provides recommendations and information on a range of interventions and resources, to help paediatric care providers optimize care for children with ASD and support their families. The management of ASD includes treating medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, behavioural and developmental interventions, and providing supportive social care services to enhance quality of life for affected children and families.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Visit

Subramanyam AA, Mukherjee A, Dave M, Chavda K.

These guidelines have been framed after an amalgamation of expert guidelines across the globe, and existing practices in India, as outlined by experts in the field. Due to the lack of systematic research in the field of autism in India, the evidence of the said practices is not documented, which becomes a limitation of these guidelines. The good part is that India has an indigenous tool for assessment, which has been recommended by the Government of India, which we have attached as an Appendix 1.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

Visit

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

Visit

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism and developmental disability: Management of distress/agitation

Visit

Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

The aim of this guideline is to provide clinical practice tips for the inpatient management of anxiety, and agitation in young people with developmental disabilities (including autism) who may require medical or surgical care.

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients

Visit

Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Guidelines: Guidelines for Managing the Client with Intellectual Disabilites in the Emergency Room

Visit

University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

These guidelines outline ways to optimize the clinical encounter, provide a framework for understanding & assessing the complex medical and mental health issues that arise for persons with intellectual disabilities, and provide a systematic way to evaluate the best approach to treatment and triage.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism Spectrum Disorder: Updated Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

Visit

American Academy of Pediatrics

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting one in 59 children in the United States and other industrialized nations. In addition to behavior issues, ASD is associated with seizures, gastrointestinal concerns, sleep difficulties, and mental health issues that can profoundly impact the quality of life of children and their families. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published updated guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

Position Statement: Post-diagnostic management and follow-up care for autism spectrum disorder

Visit

Ip A, Zwaigenbaum L, Brian J

Paediatricians and other primary care providers are well positioned to provide or coordinate ongoing medical and psychosocial care and support services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This statement provides recommendations and information on a range of interventions and resources, to help paediatric care providers optimize care for children with ASD and support their families. The management of ASD includes treating medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, behavioural and developmental interventions, and providing supportive social care services to enhance quality of life for affected children and families.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Visit

Subramanyam AA, Mukherjee A, Dave M, Chavda K.

These guidelines have been framed after an amalgamation of expert guidelines across the globe, and existing practices in India, as outlined by experts in the field. Due to the lack of systematic research in the field of autism in India, the evidence of the said practices is not documented, which becomes a limitation of these guidelines. The good part is that India has an indigenous tool for assessment, which has been recommended by the Government of India, which we have attached as an Appendix 1.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children and Adolescents With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part I: Common Clinical Challenges of Patients With Mental Health and/or Behavioral Emergencies

Visit

Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 1 of the report discusses the common clinical issues that may be encountered in caring for children and adolescents presenting to the emergency department or primary care setting with a mental health condition or emergency.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation and Management of Children With Acute Mental Health or Behavioral Problems. Part II: Recognition of Clinically Challenging Mental Health Related Conditions Presenting With Medical or Uncertain Symptoms

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Chun TH, Mace SE, Katz ER, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediat...

Part 2 of the report discusses the challenges a pediatric clinician may face when evaluating patients with a mental health condition, which may be contributing to or a complicating factor for a medical or indeterminate clinical presentation.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Autism and developmental disability: Management of distress/agitation

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Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

The aim of this guideline is to provide clinical practice tips for the inpatient management of anxiety, and agitation in young people with developmental disabilities (including autism) who may require medical or surgical care.

Guidelines: Agitation Treatment for Pediatric Emergency Patients

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Hilt RJ, Woodward TA, Henderson SW, Jellinek MS

Guideline based on a review of the existing literature & review of expert opinions for the management of agitated children in an emergency department setting.

Guidelines: Guidelines for Managing the Client with Intellectual Disabilites in the Emergency Room

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University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

These guidelines outline ways to optimize the clinical encounter, provide a framework for understanding & assessing the complex medical and mental health issues that arise for persons with intellectual disabilities, and provide a systematic way to evaluate the best approach to treatment and triage.

Meningitis English (5) French All (5)

Meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s: recognition, diagnosis and management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Guideline covering recognising, diagnosing and managing bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in babies, children and young people under 16.

Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age

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Le Saux N; Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ImmunizationC...

Statement reviewing the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period and provide guidelines for the empirical management of suspected bacterial meningitis in Canadian children.

Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

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Halperin JJ, Shapiro ED, Logigian E, Belman AL, Dotevall L, Wormser GP, Krupp...

Provides evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of nervous system Lyme disease and post-Lyme syndrome. Three questions were addressed: 1) Which antimicrobial agents are effective? 2) Are different regimens preferred for different manifestations of nervous system Lyme disease? 3) What duration of therapy is needed?

The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, Kr...

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis.

Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis

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Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, Kaufman BA, Roos KL, Scheld WM, Whitley RJ

Practice guidelines to provide clinicians with recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

Meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s: recognition, diagnosis and management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Guideline covering recognising, diagnosing and managing bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in babies, children and young people under 16.

Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age

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Le Saux N; Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and ImmunizationC...

Statement reviewing the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period and provide guidelines for the empirical management of suspected bacterial meningitis in Canadian children.

Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

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Halperin JJ, Shapiro ED, Logigian E, Belman AL, Dotevall L, Wormser GP, Krupp...

Provides evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of nervous system Lyme disease and post-Lyme syndrome. Three questions were addressed: 1) Which antimicrobial agents are effective? 2) Are different regimens preferred for different manifestations of nervous system Lyme disease? 3) What duration of therapy is needed?

The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, Kr...

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis.

Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis

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Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, Kaufman BA, Roos KL, Scheld WM, Whitley RJ

Practice guidelines to provide clinicians with recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis.

Pain Treatment English (7) French All (7)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Effective Management of Pain and Anxiety for the Pediatric Patient in the Emergency Department.

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Young VB

A summary of what to expect with pediatric patients experiencing pain and anxiety.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of acute pediatric pain in the emergency department.

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Ruest S,Anderson A.

This article provides a summary of recommendations for the multimodal and multidisciplinary approach to acute pediatric pain management and highlights recent research on this topic.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Codeine:Time to Say "No".

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American Academy of Pediatrics

Suggests not using codeine for pediatric patients for pain management

Clinical Practice Guideline: Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems

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Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine an...

Control of pain and stress for children is a vital component of emergency medical care. Timely administration of analgesia affects the entire emergency medical experience and can have a lasting effect on a childs and familys reaction to current and future medical care. A systematic approach to pain management and anxiolysis, including staff education and protocol development, can provide comfort to children in the emergency setting and improve staff and family satisfaction.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Optimizing the treatment of pain in patients with acute presentations

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American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN), Emergency Nurses Associ...

Management of pain is an essential nursing and physician responsibility. This joint position statement describes recommendations for improving pain management in health care settings.

Clincial Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children

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Royal College of Nursing

The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) has previously produced a guideline on the Assessment of acute pain in children (2000). This guideline examined when pain in children should be assessed and by whom, and the use of scales and other tools that can be used to facilitate the assessment of childrens pain.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children, and adolescents

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American Academy of Pediatrics

Pediatricians are responsible for eliminating or assuaging pain and suffering in children when possible. To accomplish this, pediatricians need to expand their knowledge, use appropriate assessment tools and techniques, anticipate painful experiences and intervene accordingly, use a multimodal approach to pain management, use a multidisciplinary approach when possible, involve families, and advocate for the use of effective pain management in children.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Effective Management of Pain and Anxiety for the Pediatric Patient in the Emergency Department.

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Young VB

A summary of what to expect with pediatric patients experiencing pain and anxiety.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of acute pediatric pain in the emergency department.

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Ruest S,Anderson A.

This article provides a summary of recommendations for the multimodal and multidisciplinary approach to acute pediatric pain management and highlights recent research on this topic.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Codeine:Time to Say "No".

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American Academy of Pediatrics

Suggests not using codeine for pediatric patients for pain management

Clinical Practice Guideline: Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems

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Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine an...

Control of pain and stress for children is a vital component of emergency medical care. Timely administration of analgesia affects the entire emergency medical experience and can have a lasting effect on a childs and familys reaction to current and future medical care. A systematic approach to pain management and anxiolysis, including staff education and protocol development, can provide comfort to children in the emergency setting and improve staff and family satisfaction.

Clincial Practice Guideline: Optimizing the treatment of pain in patients with acute presentations

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American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN), Emergency Nurses Associ...

Management of pain is an essential nursing and physician responsibility. This joint position statement describes recommendations for improving pain management in health care settings.

Clincial Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children

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Royal College of Nursing

The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) has previously produced a guideline on the Assessment of acute pain in children (2000). This guideline examined when pain in children should be assessed and by whom, and the use of scales and other tools that can be used to facilitate the assessment of childrens pain.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The assessment and management of acute pain in infants, children, and adolescents

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American Academy of Pediatrics

Pediatricians are responsible for eliminating or assuaging pain and suffering in children when possible. To accomplish this, pediatricians need to expand their knowledge, use appropriate assessment tools and techniques, anticipate painful experiences and intervene accordingly, use a multimodal approach to pain management, use a multidisciplinary approach when possible, involve families, and advocate for the use of effective pain management in children.

Procedural Pain English (9) French All (9)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Managing pain and distress in children undergoing brief diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

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Trottier ED,Dor-Bergeron MJ,Chauvin-Kimoff L,Baerg K,Ali S.

Purpose: This statement focuses on infants (excluding care provided in the NICU), children, and youth who are undergoing common, minor but painful medical procedures

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pain-Less Practice: Techniques to Reduce Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Acute Care

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Olsen, K, Weinberg, E

Purpose: This article introduces the concept of a PainLESS Practicean evidence-based, tiered approach to procedural pain and anxiety management in acute care

Clincal Practice Guideline: Prevention and Management of Procedural Pain in the Neonate: An Update

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Committee on Fetus and Newborn and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Purpose: This statement updates previous recommendations with new evidence on the prevention, assessment, and treatment of neonatal procedural pain.

Video: Managing Procedural Anxiety in Children

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Krauss BS, Krauss BA, Green SM.

This video describes the signs of acute anxiety in children and demonstrates approaches to interacting with children that minimize anxiety and maximize cooperation. Published: April 2016.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Good practice in postoperative and procedural pain management

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Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland

This themed issue starts with an outstanding review of the history of Pediatric Regional Anesthesia (PRA), written by an equally outstanding second-wave pioneer and promoter of this particular facet of pediatric anesthesia, Professor Emeritus Kester Brown.

Clincial Practive Guideline: Premedication for endotracheal intubation in the newborn infant

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KJ Barrington, Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee

Based on current evidence, an optimal protocol for premedication is to administer a vagolytic (intravenous [IV] atropine 20 g/kg), a rapid-acting analgesic (IV fentanyl 3 g/kg to 5 g/kg; slow infusion) and a short-duration muscle relaxant (IV succinylcholine 2 mg/kg). Intubations should be performed or supervised by trained staff, with close monitoring of the infant throughout.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evidenced-based clinical practice guideline for management of newborn pain

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Spence K, Henderson-Smart D, New K, Evans C, Whitelaw J, Woolnough R

Aim: To facilitate the uptake of evidence and to reduce the evidence practice gap for management of newborn pain through the development of a clinical practice guideline.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Reducing the pain of childhood vaccination: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline

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Taddio A, Appleton M, Bortolussi R, Chambers C, Dubey V, Halperin S, Hanrahan...

Our objective was to develop a clinical practice guideline, based on systematic reviews of the literature, as interpreted by experts, to assist clinicians in managing procedure-related pain and distress among children undergoing vaccine injections.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children

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Royal College of Nursing

The guideline is aimed at a range of professional groups, patients and carers who may be involved in the assessment and management of childrens pain. The primary aims of this guideline are to: identify reliable and valid measures of pain intensity appropriate for neonates and preverbal infants, and verbal and non-verbal children, through a systematic search and appraisal of the literature; describe these tools to help practitioners select from these in different clinical settings; and make recommendations regarding timing and triggers for formal pain assessment.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Managing pain and distress in children undergoing brief diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

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Trottier ED,Dor-Bergeron MJ,Chauvin-Kimoff L,Baerg K,Ali S.

Purpose: This statement focuses on infants (excluding care provided in the NICU), children, and youth who are undergoing common, minor but painful medical procedures

Clinical Practice Guideline: Pain-Less Practice: Techniques to Reduce Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Acute Care

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Olsen, K, Weinberg, E

Purpose: This article introduces the concept of a PainLESS Practicean evidence-based, tiered approach to procedural pain and anxiety management in acute care

Clincal Practice Guideline: Prevention and Management of Procedural Pain in the Neonate: An Update

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Committee on Fetus and Newborn and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Purpose: This statement updates previous recommendations with new evidence on the prevention, assessment, and treatment of neonatal procedural pain.

Video: Managing Procedural Anxiety in Children

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Krauss BS, Krauss BA, Green SM.

This video describes the signs of acute anxiety in children and demonstrates approaches to interacting with children that minimize anxiety and maximize cooperation. Published: April 2016.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Good practice in postoperative and procedural pain management

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Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland

This themed issue starts with an outstanding review of the history of Pediatric Regional Anesthesia (PRA), written by an equally outstanding second-wave pioneer and promoter of this particular facet of pediatric anesthesia, Professor Emeritus Kester Brown.

Clincial Practive Guideline: Premedication for endotracheal intubation in the newborn infant

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KJ Barrington, Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee

Based on current evidence, an optimal protocol for premedication is to administer a vagolytic (intravenous [IV] atropine 20 g/kg), a rapid-acting analgesic (IV fentanyl 3 g/kg to 5 g/kg; slow infusion) and a short-duration muscle relaxant (IV succinylcholine 2 mg/kg). Intubations should be performed or supervised by trained staff, with close monitoring of the infant throughout.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Evidenced-based clinical practice guideline for management of newborn pain

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Spence K, Henderson-Smart D, New K, Evans C, Whitelaw J, Woolnough R

Aim: To facilitate the uptake of evidence and to reduce the evidence practice gap for management of newborn pain through the development of a clinical practice guideline.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Reducing the pain of childhood vaccination: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline

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Taddio A, Appleton M, Bortolussi R, Chambers C, Dubey V, Halperin S, Hanrahan...

Our objective was to develop a clinical practice guideline, based on systematic reviews of the literature, as interpreted by experts, to assist clinicians in managing procedure-related pain and distress among children undergoing vaccine injections.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The recognition and assessment of acute pain in children

Visit

Royal College of Nursing

The guideline is aimed at a range of professional groups, patients and carers who may be involved in the assessment and management of childrens pain. The primary aims of this guideline are to: identify reliable and valid measures of pain intensity appropriate for neonates and preverbal infants, and verbal and non-verbal children, through a systematic search and appraisal of the literature; describe these tools to help practitioners select from these in different clinical settings; and make recommendations regarding timing and triggers for formal pain assessment.

Procedural Sedation English (6) French All (6)

Clinical Guideline: Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients Before, During, and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Update 2016

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Cot CJ, Wilson S, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatr...

This report was developed through a collaborative effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to offer pediatric providers updated information and guidance in delivering safe sedation to children.

Clinical Guideline: Clinical policy: procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department

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Godwin SA, Burton JH, Gerardo CJ, Hatten BW, Mace SE, Silvers SM, Fesmire FM,...

This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is the revision of a 2005 clinical policy evaluating critical questions related to procedural sedation in the emergency department.

Video: Procedural sedation and analgesia in children

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Krauss BS, Krauss BA, Green SM.

This video describe procedural sedation and analgesia for children. Published: April 2014.

Clinical Guideline: Clinical practice guideline for emergency department ketamine dissociative sedation: 2011 update

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Green SM, Roback MG, Kennedy RM, Krauss B

This update of an evidence-based clinical practice guideline critically discusses indications, contrindications, personnel requirements, monitoring, dosing, coadministered medications, recovery issues, and future research questions for ketamine dissociative sedation.

Clinical Guideline: Sedation in children and young people: Sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children and young people

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NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This clinical guideline covers the assessment, preparation, training and monitoring needed when using sedation in people under the age of 19. The aim is to help healthcare professionals decide when sedation is the most clinically and cost effective option for reducing pain and anxiety during operations for children and young people.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and after sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures: an update

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American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, Cot ...

This report was developed through a collaborative effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to offer pediatric providers updated information and guidance in delivering safe sedation to children.

Clinical Guideline: Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients Before, During, and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Update 2016

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Cot CJ, Wilson S, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatr...

This report was developed through a collaborative effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to offer pediatric providers updated information and guidance in delivering safe sedation to children.

Clinical Guideline: Clinical policy: procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department

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Godwin SA, Burton JH, Gerardo CJ, Hatten BW, Mace SE, Silvers SM, Fesmire FM,...

This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is the revision of a 2005 clinical policy evaluating critical questions related to procedural sedation in the emergency department.

Video: Procedural sedation and analgesia in children

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Krauss BS, Krauss BA, Green SM.

This video describe procedural sedation and analgesia for children. Published: April 2014.

Clinical Guideline: Clinical practice guideline for emergency department ketamine dissociative sedation: 2011 update

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Green SM, Roback MG, Kennedy RM, Krauss B

This update of an evidence-based clinical practice guideline critically discusses indications, contrindications, personnel requirements, monitoring, dosing, coadministered medications, recovery issues, and future research questions for ketamine dissociative sedation.

Clinical Guideline: Sedation in children and young people: Sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children and young people

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NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

This clinical guideline covers the assessment, preparation, training and monitoring needed when using sedation in people under the age of 19. The aim is to help healthcare professionals decide when sedation is the most clinically and cost effective option for reducing pain and anxiety during operations for children and young people.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and after sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures: an update

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American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, Cot ...

This report was developed through a collaborative effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to offer pediatric providers updated information and guidance in delivering safe sedation to children.

Sepsis English (3) French All (3)

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age (2014)

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Le Saux NCPS

Objective: This position statement outlines the rationale for current recommended empirical therapy using a third-generation cephalosporin and vancomycin for suspected bacterial meningitis. It also provides new recommendations for the use of adjuvant corticosteroids in this setting. Once antibiotic susceptibilities of the pathogen are known, antimicrobials should be reviewed and modified accordingly. Recommendations for treatment duration as well as audiology testing are included. The present statement replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on bacterial meningitis published in 2007 and revised in 2008. Published: 2014.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Updated American College of Critical Care Medicine--pediatric advanced life support guidelines for management of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: relevance to the emergency care clinician (2010)

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Kissoon NO, R. A.; Carcillo, J. A.

Objective: Shock is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children referred to emergency care. The recently updated American College of Critical Care Medicine guidelines for the management of newborns and children with septic shock emphasize the role of emergency care in improving survival and functional outcomes. Implementation of these guidelines of stepwise use of fluids, antibiotics, and, if necessary, inotropes within the first hour of admission to the emergency department can reduce mortality and neurological morbidity risks 2-fold. Published: 2010.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of the infant at increased risk for sepsis (2007)

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Canadian Paediatric Society

Canadian Pediatric Society position statement on management of infants at risk for sepsis. Published: 2007.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age (2014)

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Le Saux NCPS

Objective: This position statement outlines the rationale for current recommended empirical therapy using a third-generation cephalosporin and vancomycin for suspected bacterial meningitis. It also provides new recommendations for the use of adjuvant corticosteroids in this setting. Once antibiotic susceptibilities of the pathogen are known, antimicrobials should be reviewed and modified accordingly. Recommendations for treatment duration as well as audiology testing are included. The present statement replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on bacterial meningitis published in 2007 and revised in 2008. Published: 2014.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Updated American College of Critical Care Medicine--pediatric advanced life support guidelines for management of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: relevance to the emergency care clinician (2010)

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Kissoon NO, R. A.; Carcillo, J. A.

Objective: Shock is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children referred to emergency care. The recently updated American College of Critical Care Medicine guidelines for the management of newborns and children with septic shock emphasize the role of emergency care in improving survival and functional outcomes. Implementation of these guidelines of stepwise use of fluids, antibiotics, and, if necessary, inotropes within the first hour of admission to the emergency department can reduce mortality and neurological morbidity risks 2-fold. Published: 2010.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of the infant at increased risk for sepsis (2007)

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Canadian Paediatric Society

Canadian Pediatric Society position statement on management of infants at risk for sepsis. Published: 2007.

Severe Head Injury English (8) French All (8)

Clinical Practice Guideline: The management of pediatric severe traumatic brain injury: Italian Guidelines.

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Bussolin L, Falconi M, Leo MC, Parri N, DE Masi S, Rosati A, et al

The aim of the work was to update the "Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury" published in 2012, to reflect the new available evidence, and develop the Italian national guideline for the management of severe pediatric head injuries to reduce variation in practice and ensure optimal care to patients.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Australian and New Zealand guideline for mild to moderate head injuries in children

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Babl FE, Tavender E, Dalziel S. On behalf of the Guideline Working Group for ...

Children frequently present with head injuries to acute care settings. Led by PREDICT (Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative), a multidisciplinary working group developed the first Australian and New Zealand guideline for mild to moderate head injuries in children. Addressing 33 key clinical questions, it contains 71 recommendations, and an imaging/observation algorithm. The Guideline provides evidence-based, locally applicable, practical clinical guidance for the care of children with mild to moderate head injuries presenting to acute care settings.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Head injury: assessment and early management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), National Clincial G...

This guideline covers the assessment and early management of head injury in children, young people and adults. It promotes effective clinical assessment so that people receive the right care for the severity of their head injury, including referral directly to specialist care if needed.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Pediatric Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: 2019 Consensus and Guidelines-Based Algorithm for First and Second Tier Therapies.

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ochanek PM, Tasker RC, Bell MJ, Adelson PD, Carney N, Vavilala MS, et al

To produce a treatment algorithm for the ICU management of infants, children, and adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Italian guidelines on the assessment and management of pediatric head injury in the emergency department.

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Da Dalt L, Parri N, Amigoni A, Nocerino A, Selmin F, Manara R, et al.

We aim to formulate evidence-based recommendations to assist physicians decision-making in the assessment and management of children younger than 16 years presenting to the emergency department (ED) following a blunt head trauma with no suspicion of non-accidental injury.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of the paediatric patient with acute head trauma

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Farrell CA, Canadian Paediatric Society Acute Care Committee

The purpose of this statement is to describe issues related to head trauma in infants, children and youth, including clinical manifestations, initial management priorities, guidelines for imaging, and subsequent observation and treatment.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among Children.

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Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, Breiding MJ, Haegerich TM, Gioia GA, e...

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, in children is a rapidly growing public health concern because epidemiologic data indicate a marked increase in the number of emergency department visits for mTBI over the past decade. However, no evidence-based clinical guidelines have been developed to date for diagnosing and managing pediatric mTBI in the United States.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Multidisciplinary guidelines on the identification, investigation and management of suspected abusive head trauma

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Canadian Paediatric Society

The Multidisciplinary Guidelines on the Identification, Investigation and Management of Suspected Abusive Head Trauma have been prepared in order to provide community organizations with assistance in developing local protocols for managing cases of Abusive Head Trauma. The guidelines are intended to be generic enough that large or small communities can use them to help develop a resoinse appropriate to their specific circumstances.

Clinical Practice Guideline: The management of pediatric severe traumatic brain injury: Italian Guidelines.

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Bussolin L, Falconi M, Leo MC, Parri N, DE Masi S, Rosati A, et al

The aim of the work was to update the "Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury" published in 2012, to reflect the new available evidence, and develop the Italian national guideline for the management of severe pediatric head injuries to reduce variation in practice and ensure optimal care to patients.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Australian and New Zealand guideline for mild to moderate head injuries in children

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Babl FE, Tavender E, Dalziel S. On behalf of the Guideline Working Group for ...

Children frequently present with head injuries to acute care settings. Led by PREDICT (Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative), a multidisciplinary working group developed the first Australian and New Zealand guideline for mild to moderate head injuries in children. Addressing 33 key clinical questions, it contains 71 recommendations, and an imaging/observation algorithm. The Guideline provides evidence-based, locally applicable, practical clinical guidance for the care of children with mild to moderate head injuries presenting to acute care settings.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Head injury: assessment and early management

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), National Clincial G...

This guideline covers the assessment and early management of head injury in children, young people and adults. It promotes effective clinical assessment so that people receive the right care for the severity of their head injury, including referral directly to specialist care if needed.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Pediatric Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: 2019 Consensus and Guidelines-Based Algorithm for First and Second Tier Therapies.

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ochanek PM, Tasker RC, Bell MJ, Adelson PD, Carney N, Vavilala MS, et al

To produce a treatment algorithm for the ICU management of infants, children, and adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury.

Clinical Practice Guideline: Italian guidelines on the assessment and management of pediatric head injury in the emergency department.

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Da Dalt L, Parri N, Amigoni A, Nocerino A, Selmin F, Manara R, et al.