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Fever 3 months to 12 years

BROWSE INFORMATION REPOSITORY
Clinical guidelines 

Fever and temperature taking  (2020)

Fever and temperature taking

Visit

Canadian Pediatric Society

Canadian Pediatric Society

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.  (2017)

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.

Visit

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children.

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children  (2016)

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children

Visit

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

To review new scientific evidence to update the Italian guidelines for managing fever in children as drafted by the panel of the Italian Pediatric Society.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.  (2016)

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.

Visit

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Dempsey ME, Dillman JR, Garber M, et al.

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Demps...

The cause of fever in a child can often be determined from history, physical examination, and laboratory tests; infections account for the majority of cases. Yet in 20%, no apparent cause can be found, designated as fever without source (FWS). The yield of chest radiography in children with FWS is low, and it is usually not appropriate. However, in children with respiratory signs, high fever (>39C), or marked leukocytosis (20,000/mm(3)), chest radiography is usually appropriate, as it has a higher yield in detecting clinically occult pneumonia. In newborns with FWS, there is higher risk for serious bacterial infection, and the routine use of chest radiography is controversial. In children with neutropenia, fever is a major concern. In some clinical circumstances, such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, chest CT scan may be appropriate even if the results of chest radiography are negative or nonspecific, as it has higher sensitivity and can demonstrate specific findings (such as lung nodule and "halo sign") that can guide management. In a child with prolonged fever of unknown origin despite extensive medical workup (fever of unknown origin), diagnosis is usually dependent on clinical and laboratory studies, and imaging tests have low yield. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel.

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.  (2013)

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.

Visit

Davis T.

Davis T.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for feverish illness in children (assessment and initial management in children younger than 5years) was partially updated in May 2013.1 Not all sections were reviewed, but the following were: the signs and symptoms of serious illness; the predictive value of tachycardia; the use of inflammatory markers; and the role of paracetamol and ibuprofen. The aim of the guideline is to optimise the management of young children with fever, and in particular to guide health professionals to recognise the signs of serious infection. The update made new recommendations based on current evidence. This guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. They worked with the Guideline Development Group to review the evidence and write the recommendations.

Fever and temperature taking  (2020)

Fever and temperature taking

Visit

Canadian Pediatric Society

Canadian Pediatric Society

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.  (2017)

Guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children: systematic review of the literature and quality appraisal with AGREE II.

Visit

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

Chiappini E, Bortone B, Galli L, de Martino M.

To identify and evaluate guidelines for the symptomatic management of fever in children.

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children  (2016)

2016 Update of the Italian Pediatric Society Guidelines for Management of Fever in Children

Visit

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

Chiappini E, Venturini E, Remaschi G, Principi N, Longhi R, Tovo PA, et al.

To review new scientific evidence to update the Italian guidelines for managing fever in children as drafted by the panel of the Italian Pediatric Society.

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.  (2016)

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Fever Without Source or Unknown Origin-Child.

Visit

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Dempsey ME, Dillman JR, Garber M, et al.

Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging, Westra SJ, Karmazyn BK, Alazraki AL, Demps...

The cause of fever in a child can often be determined from history, physical examination, and laboratory tests; infections account for the majority of cases. Yet in 20%, no apparent cause can be found, designated as fever without source (FWS). The yield of chest radiography in children with FWS is low, and it is usually not appropriate. However, in children with respiratory signs, high fever (>39C), or marked leukocytosis (20,000/mm(3)), chest radiography is usually appropriate, as it has a higher yield in detecting clinically occult pneumonia. In newborns with FWS, there is higher risk for serious bacterial infection, and the routine use of chest radiography is controversial. In children with neutropenia, fever is a major concern. In some clinical circumstances, such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, chest CT scan may be appropriate even if the results of chest radiography are negative or nonspecific, as it has higher sensitivity and can demonstrate specific findings (such as lung nodule and "halo sign") that can guide management. In a child with prolonged fever of unknown origin despite extensive medical workup (fever of unknown origin), diagnosis is usually dependent on clinical and laboratory studies, and imaging tests have low yield. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel.

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.  (2013)

NICE guideline: feverish illness in children--assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years.

Visit

Davis T.

Davis T.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for feverish illness in children (assessment and initial management in children younger than 5years) was partially updated in May 2013.1 Not all sections were reviewed, but the following were: the signs and symptoms of serious illness; the predictive value of tachycardia; the use of inflammatory markers; and the role of paracetamol and ibuprofen. The aim of the guideline is to optimise the management of young children with fever, and in particular to guide health professionals to recognise the signs of serious infection. The update made new recommendations based on current evidence. This guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. They worked with the Guideline Development Group to review the evidence and write the recommendations.

Systematic reviews 

Analysis of Nurses' and Physicians' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Perceptions toward Fever in Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.  (2021)

Analysis of Nurses' and Physicians' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Perceptions toward Fever in Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

Visit

Vicens-Blanes F, Mir-Bonet R, Molina-Mula J.

Vicens-Blanes F, Mir-Bonet R, Molina-Mula J.

To investigate whether doctors' and nurses' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward fever influence how this sign is managed. Furthermore, it intends to evaluate whether educational programs increase knowledge and change attitudes and/or perceptions of nurses about children's fever.

Symptomatic fever management in children: A systematic review of national and international guidelines.  (2021)

Symptomatic fever management in children: A systematic review of national and international guidelines.

Visit

Green C, Krafft H, Guyatt G, Martin D.

Green C, Krafft H, Guyatt G, Martin D.

Divergent attitudes towards fever have led to a high level of inconsistency in approaches to its management. In an attempt to overcome this, clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the symptomatic management of fever in children have been produced by several healthcare organizations. To date, a comprehensive assessment of the evidence level of the recommendations made in these CPGs has not been carried out.

Predictors of disease severity in children presenting from the community with febrile illnesses: a systematic review of prognostic studies  (2021)

Predictors of disease severity in children presenting from the community with febrile illnesses: a systematic review of prognostic studies

Visit

Chandna A, Tan R, Carter M, Van Den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Koshiaris C, et al

Chandna A, Tan R, Carter M, Van Den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Koshiaris C, et al

Early identification of children at risk of severe febrile illness can optimise referral, admission and treatment decisions, particularly in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify prognostic clinical and laboratory factors that predict progression to severe disease in febrile children presenting from the community.

Hyperpyrexia and high fever as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children-a systematic review.  (2020)

Hyperpyrexia and high fever as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children-a systematic review.

Visit

Rosenfeld-Yehoshua N, Barkan S, Abu-Kishk I, Booch M, Suhami R, Kozer E.

Rosenfeld-Yehoshua N, Barkan S, Abu-Kishk I, Booch M, Suhami R, Kozer E.

It is not clear if children with high fever are at increased risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI). Our aim was to systematically review if children suffering from high fever are at high risk for SBI.

Prescribing Controversies: An Updated Review and Meta-Analysis on Combined/Alternating Use of Ibuprofen and Paracetamol in Febrile Children.  (2019)

Prescribing Controversies: An Updated Review and Meta-Analysis on Combined/Alternating Use of Ibuprofen and Paracetamol in Febrile Children.

Visit

Trippella G, Ciarci M, de Martino M, Chiappini E.

Trippella G, Ciarci M, de Martino M, Chiappini E.

To compare the efficacy and safety of combined or alternating use of ibuprofen and paracetamol in children.

Educational interventions on fever management in children: A scoping review  (2019)

Educational interventions on fever management in children: A scoping review

Visit

Arias D, Chen TF, Moles RJ.

Arias D, Chen TF, Moles RJ.

To collect and examine peer-reviewed literature for active educational interventions aimed at improving fever management in children and profile them based on: who provided the training, training location, how the intervention was delivered, outcomes of training, and how it was measured.

Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management.  (2019)

Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management.

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

This guideline covers the assessment and early management of fever with no obvious cause in children aged under 5. It aims to improve clinical assessment and help healthcare professionals diagnose serious illness among young children who present with fever in primary and secondary care. This guideline should be read in conjunction with the NICE guidelines on sepsis, neonatal infection, meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s, urinary tract infection in under 16s, diarrhoea and vomiting caused by gastroenteritis in under 5s and antimicrobial prescribing for common infections.

Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls.  (2017)

Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls.

Visit

Barbi E, Marzuillo P, Neri E, Naviglio S, Krauss BS.

Barbi E, Marzuillo P, Neri E, Naviglio S, Krauss BS.

Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin.

Drivers for inappropriate fever management in children: a systematic review.  (2016)

Drivers for inappropriate fever management in children: a systematic review.

Visit

Kelly M, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Shiely F, Larkin P, Brenner M, Sahm LJ.

Kelly M, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Shiely F, Larkin P, Brenner M, Sahm LJ.

The aim of this review was to synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever and febrile illness in children.

Evaluation and Management of Febrile Children: A Review.  (2016)

Evaluation and Management of Febrile Children: A Review.

Visit

Cioffredi LA, Jhaveri R.

Cioffredi LA, Jhaveri R.

Management of febrile children is an intrinsic aspect of pediatric practice. Febrile children account for 15% of emergency department visits and outcomes range from the presence of serious bacterial infection to benign self-limited illness.

Combined and alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children.  (2013)

Combined and alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children.

Visit

Wong T, Stang AS, Ganshorn H, Hartling L, Maconochie IK, Thomsen AM, Johnson DW.

Wong T, Stang AS, Ganshorn H, Hartling L, Maconochie IK, Thomsen AM, Johnson DW.

To assess the effects and side effects of combining paracetamol and ibuprofen, or alternating them on consecutive treatments, compared with monotherapy for treating fever in children.

Risk stratification and management of the febrile young child.  (2013)

Risk stratification and management of the febrile young child.

Visit

Ishimine P.

Ishimine P.

Febrile young children present frequently to the emergency department. While most febrile children recover uneventfully, certain subgroups are at higher risk of serious infection. Febrile neonates require extensive diagnostic testing, antibiotic therapy, and hospital admission. Diagnostic testing can be utilized in older patients to identify children at low risk and high risk for serious infection. This information may assist in determining the treatment and disposition of these febrile children.

Evaluation of child with fever without source: review of literature and update  (2013)

Evaluation of child with fever without source: review of literature and update

Visit

Arora R, Mahajan P.

Arora R, Mahajan P.

Fever is one of the most common reasons for a visit to the primary care provider or the emergency department. Traditionally, clinicians have used various risk-stratification strategies to identify serious bacterial infections (SBI) without an obvious source in febrile children, because missed bacterial infections in such children can result in meningitis, sepsis, and death; therefore, early and accurate identification of SBIs is critical. Infants aged less than 60 to 90 days are at greatest risk of SBI. The epidemiology of SBI continues to evolve, especially after the successful introduction of conjugate vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care.  (2012)

Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care.

Visit

Thompson M, Van den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Lakhanpaul M, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens R, et al

Thompson M, Van den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Lakhanpaul M, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens ...

We systematically identified clinical features and laboratory tests which identify serious infection in children attending the ED and primary care. We also identified clinical prediction rules and validated those using existing data sets.

Diagnostic value of laboratory tests in identifying serious infections in febrile children: systematic review  (2011)

Diagnostic value of laboratory tests in identifying serious infections in febrile children: systematic review

Visit

Van den Bruel A, Thompson MJ, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens R, Moll H, Lakhanpaul M, Mant D.

Van den Bruel A, Thompson MJ, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens R, Moll H, Lakhanpaul M, ...

To collate all available evidence on the diagnostic value of laboratory tests for the diagnosis of serious infections in febrile children in ambulatory settings.

Management of childhood fever by parents: literature review.  (2006)

Management of childhood fever by parents: literature review.

Visit

Walsh A, Edwards H.

Walsh A, Edwards H.

This paper reports a review which draws together findings from studies targeting parents' temperature-taking, antipyretic administration, attitudes, practices and information-seeking behaviours.

Evaluation and management of infants and young children with fever.  (2001)

Evaluation and management of infants and young children with fever.

Visit

Luszczak M.

Luszczak M.

A practice guideline for the management of febrile infants and children younger than three years of age sparked controversy when it was published in 1993. Surveys indicate that many office-based physicians do not agree with recommendations for venipuncture and bladder catheterization in nontoxic febrile children, and that many employ watchful waiting rather than empiric antibiotic therapy. Surveys of parents note a preference for less testing and treatment.

Analysis of Nurses' and Physicians' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Perceptions toward Fever in Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.  (2021)

Analysis of Nurses' and Physicians' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Perceptions toward Fever in Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

Visit

Vicens-Blanes F, Mir-Bonet R, Molina-Mula J.

Vicens-Blanes F, Mir-Bonet R, Molina-Mula J.

To investigate whether doctors' and nurses' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward fever influence how this sign is managed. Furthermore, it intends to evaluate whether educational programs increase knowledge and change attitudes and/or perceptions of nurses about children's fever.

Symptomatic fever management in children: A systematic review of national and international guidelines.  (2021)

Symptomatic fever management in children: A systematic review of national and international guidelines.

Visit

Green C, Krafft H, Guyatt G, Martin D.

Green C, Krafft H, Guyatt G, Martin D.

Divergent attitudes towards fever have led to a high level of inconsistency in approaches to its management. In an attempt to overcome this, clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the symptomatic management of fever in children have been produced by several healthcare organizations. To date, a comprehensive assessment of the evidence level of the recommendations made in these CPGs has not been carried out.

Predictors of disease severity in children presenting from the community with febrile illnesses: a systematic review of prognostic studies  (2021)

Predictors of disease severity in children presenting from the community with febrile illnesses: a systematic review of prognostic studies

Visit

Chandna A, Tan R, Carter M, Van Den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Koshiaris C, et al

Chandna A, Tan R, Carter M, Van Den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Koshiaris C, et al

Early identification of children at risk of severe febrile illness can optimise referral, admission and treatment decisions, particularly in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify prognostic clinical and laboratory factors that predict progression to severe disease in febrile children presenting from the community.

Hyperpyrexia and high fever as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children-a systematic review.  (2020)

Hyperpyrexia and high fever as a predictor for serious bacterial infection (SBI) in children-a systematic review.

Visit

Rosenfeld-Yehoshua N, Barkan S, Abu-Kishk I, Booch M, Suhami R, Kozer E.

Rosenfeld-Yehoshua N, Barkan S, Abu-Kishk I, Booch M, Suhami R, Kozer E.

It is not clear if children with high fever are at increased risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI). Our aim was to systematically review if children suffering from high fever are at high risk for SBI.

Prescribing Controversies: An Updated Review and Meta-Analysis on Combined/Alternating Use of Ibuprofen and Paracetamol in Febrile Children.  (2019)

Prescribing Controversies: An Updated Review and Meta-Analysis on Combined/Alternating Use of Ibuprofen and Paracetamol in Febrile Children.

Visit

Trippella G, Ciarci M, de Martino M, Chiappini E.

Trippella G, Ciarci M, de Martino M, Chiappini E.

To compare the efficacy and safety of combined or alternating use of ibuprofen and paracetamol in children.

Educational interventions on fever management in children: A scoping review  (2019)

Educational interventions on fever management in children: A scoping review

Visit

Arias D, Chen TF, Moles RJ.

Arias D, Chen TF, Moles RJ.

To collect and examine peer-reviewed literature for active educational interventions aimed at improving fever management in children and profile them based on: who provided the training, training location, how the intervention was delivered, outcomes of training, and how it was measured.

Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management.  (2019)

Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management.

Visit

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)

This guideline covers the assessment and early management of fever with no obvious cause in children aged under 5. It aims to improve clinical assessment and help healthcare professionals diagnose serious illness among young children who present with fever in primary and secondary care. This guideline should be read in conjunction with the NICE guidelines on sepsis, neonatal infection, meningitis (bacterial) and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s, urinary tract infection in under 16s, diarrhoea and vomiting caused by gastroenteritis in under 5s and antimicrobial prescribing for common infections.

Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls.  (2017)

Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls.

Visit

Barbi E, Marzuillo P, Neri E, Naviglio S, Krauss BS.

Barbi E, Marzuillo P, Neri E, Naviglio S, Krauss BS.

Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin.

Drivers for inappropriate fever management in children: a systematic review.  (2016)

Drivers for inappropriate fever management in children: a systematic review.

Visit

Kelly M, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Shiely F, Larkin P, Brenner M, Sahm LJ.

Kelly M, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Shiely F, Larkin P, Brenner M, Sahm LJ.

The aim of this review was to synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever and febrile illness in children.

Evaluation and Management of Febrile Children: A Review.  (2016)

Evaluation and Management of Febrile Children: A Review.

Visit

Cioffredi LA, Jhaveri R.

Cioffredi LA, Jhaveri R.

Management of febrile children is an intrinsic aspect of pediatric practice. Febrile children account for 15% of emergency department visits and outcomes range from the presence of serious bacterial infection to benign self-limited illness.

Combined and alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children.  (2013)

Combined and alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children.

Visit

Wong T, Stang AS, Ganshorn H, Hartling L, Maconochie IK, Thomsen AM, Johnson DW.

Wong T, Stang AS, Ganshorn H, Hartling L, Maconochie IK, Thomsen AM, Johnson DW.

To assess the effects and side effects of combining paracetamol and ibuprofen, or alternating them on consecutive treatments, compared with monotherapy for treating fever in children.

Risk stratification and management of the febrile young child.  (2013)

Risk stratification and management of the febrile young child.

Visit

Ishimine P.

Ishimine P.

Febrile young children present frequently to the emergency department. While most febrile children recover uneventfully, certain subgroups are at higher risk of serious infection. Febrile neonates require extensive diagnostic testing, antibiotic therapy, and hospital admission. Diagnostic testing can be utilized in older patients to identify children at low risk and high risk for serious infection. This information may assist in determining the treatment and disposition of these febrile children.

Evaluation of child with fever without source: review of literature and update  (2013)

Evaluation of child with fever without source: review of literature and update

Visit

Arora R, Mahajan P.

Arora R, Mahajan P.

Fever is one of the most common reasons for a visit to the primary care provider or the emergency department. Traditionally, clinicians have used various risk-stratification strategies to identify serious bacterial infections (SBI) without an obvious source in febrile children, because missed bacterial infections in such children can result in meningitis, sepsis, and death; therefore, early and accurate identification of SBIs is critical. Infants aged less than 60 to 90 days are at greatest risk of SBI. The epidemiology of SBI continues to evolve, especially after the successful introduction of conjugate vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care.  (2012)

Systematic review and validation of prediction rules for identifying children with serious infections in emergency departments and urgent-access primary care.

Visit

Thompson M, Van den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Lakhanpaul M, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens R, et al

Thompson M, Van den Bruel A, Verbakel J, Lakhanpaul M, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens ...

We systematically identified clinical features and laboratory tests which identify serious infection in children attending the ED and primary care. We also identified clinical prediction rules and validated those using existing data sets.

Diagnostic value of laboratory tests in identifying serious infections in febrile children: systematic review  (2011)

Diagnostic value of laboratory tests in identifying serious infections in febrile children: systematic review

Visit

Van den Bruel A, Thompson MJ, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens R, Moll H, Lakhanpaul M, Mant D.

Van den Bruel A, Thompson MJ, Haj-Hassan T, Stevens R, Moll H, Lakhanpaul M, ...

To collate all available evidence on the diagnostic value of laboratory tests for the diagnosis of serious infections in febrile children in ambulatory settings.

Management of childhood fever by parents: literature review.  (2006)

Management of childhood fever by parents: literature review.

Visit

Walsh A, Edwards H.

Walsh A, Edwards H.

This paper reports a review which draws together findings from studies targeting parents' temperature-taking, antipyretic administration, attitudes, practices and information-seeking behaviours.

Evaluation and management of infants and young children with fever.  (2001)

Evaluation and management of infants and young children with fever.

Visit

Luszczak M.

Luszczak M.

A practice guideline for the management of febrile infants and children younger than three years of age sparked controversy when it was published in 1993. Surveys indicate that many office-based physicians do not agree with recommendations for venipuncture and bladder catheterization in nontoxic febrile children, and that many employ watchful waiting rather than empiric antibiotic therapy. Surveys of parents note a preference for less testing and treatment.

Key studies 

Parents' concerns and beliefs about temperature measurement in children: a qualitative study  (2021)

Parents' concerns and beliefs about temperature measurement in children: a qualitative study

Visit

Morris E, Glogowska M, Ismail FA, Edwards G, Fleming S, Wang K, et al.

Morris E, Glogowska M, Ismail FA, Edwards G, Fleming S, Wang K, et al.

Nearly 40% of parents with children aged 6 to 17 months consult a healthcare professional when their child has a high temperature. Clinical guidelines recommend temperature measurement in these children, but little is known about parents' experiences of and beliefs about temperature measurement. This study aimed to explore parents' concerns and beliefs about temperature measurement in children.

Management of fever in Australian children: a population-based sample survey  (2020)

Management of fever in Australian children: a population-based sample survey

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Holt J, White L, Wheaton GR, Williams H, Jani S, Arnolda G, et al

Holt J, White L, Wheaton GR, Williams H, Jani S, Arnolda G, et al

Fever in childhood is a common acute presentation requiring clinical triage to identify the few children who have serious underlying infection. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to assist clinicians with this task. This study aimed to assess the proportion of care provided in accordance with CPG recommendations for the management of fever in Australian children.

Randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve parental knowledge and management practices of fever.  (2019)

Randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve parental knowledge and management practices of fever.

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Kelly M, Sahm L, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Mc Gillicuddy A, Shiely F.

Kelly M, Sahm L, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Mc Gillicuddy A, Shiely F.

We know that parents require resources which can assist them to improve fever knowledge and management practices. The purpose of this study, using an RCT, was to examine the effectiveness of an information leaflet at increasing parental knowledge of fever, specifically temperature definition.

Parental Approach to the Management of Childhood Fever: Differences between Health Professional and Non-Health Professional Parents.  (2019)

Parental Approach to the Management of Childhood Fever: Differences between Health Professional and Non-Health Professional Parents.

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Villarejo-Rodrguez MG, Rodrguez-Martn B.

Villarejo-Rodrguez MG, Rodrguez-Martn B.

Fever is responsible for 30% of pediatric consultations at primary care services. The aim of this study was to explore the parental approach to fever in children aged between 0 and 12 years old by both health professional and non-health professional parents. A qualitative study based on grounded theory was performed. Focus groups were conducted, segmented by sex, place of residence, and healthcare training, using a triangulated sample (theoretical and snowball sampling) of parents of children aged between 0 and 12 years who were treated for fever at primary care emergency services. The constant comparative method and a process of coding was used for the analysis. The study findings reveal that the health training of parents, their former experience, family pressures, the age of the child, and the parents' work outside the home, all influenced how they approached fever management. These findings could be incorporated into clinical practice to improve care and compliance with fever treatment.

Alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen versus Monotherapies in Improvements of Distress and Reducing Refractory Fever in Febrile Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  (2017)

Alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen versus Monotherapies in Improvements of Distress and Reducing Refractory Fever in Febrile Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Luo S, Ran M, Luo Q, Shu M, Guo Q, Zhu Y, et al

Luo S, Ran M, Luo Q, Shu M, Guo Q, Zhu Y, et al

Our objective was to assess the effect of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy on distress and refractory fever compared with acetaminophen or ibuprofen as monotherapy in febrile children.

Translation of clinical prediction rules for febrile children to primary care practice: an observational cohort study  (2015)

Translation of clinical prediction rules for febrile children to primary care practice: an observational cohort study

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van Ierland Y, Elshout G, Berger MY, Vergouwe Y, de Wilde M, van der Lei J, et al

van Ierland Y, Elshout G, Berger MY, Vergouwe Y, de Wilde M, van der Lei J, e...

To evaluate the diagnostic value of published CPRs for febrile children in primary care.

Predicting prolonged duration of fever in children: a cohort study in primary care  (2015)

Predicting prolonged duration of fever in children: a cohort study in primary care

Visit

Elshout G, Kool M, Bohnen AM, Koes BW, Moll HA, Berger MY.

Elshout G, Kool M, Bohnen AM, Koes BW, Moll HA, Berger MY.

To determine which signs and symptoms predict a prolonged duration of fever in febrile children in primary care and evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement has an additive predictive value for these symptoms.

Duration of fever and course of symptoms in young febrile children presenting with uncomplicated illness  (2013)

Duration of fever and course of symptoms in young febrile children presenting with uncomplicated illness

Visit

Kool M, Elshout G, Moll HA, Koes BW, van der Wouden JC, Berger MY.

Kool M, Elshout G, Moll HA, Koes BW, van der Wouden JC, Berger MY.

It is important to advise parents when to consult a doctor when their child has fever. To provide evidence-based, safety-net advice for young febrile children, we studied the risk of complications, the occurrence of alarm symptoms, the duration of fever.

Short-term outcomes of pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses.  (2007)

Short-term outcomes of pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses.

Visit

Mistry RD, Stevens MW, Gorelick MH.

Mistry RD, Stevens MW, Gorelick MH.

To describe short-term outcomes relevant to children and their caregivers after evaluation in the emergency department (ED) for febrile illnesses.

Comparing different patterns for managing febrile children in the ED between emergency and pediatric physicians: impact on patient outcome.  (2007)

Comparing different patterns for managing febrile children in the ED between emergency and pediatric physicians: impact on patient outcome.

Visit

Seow VK, Lin AC, Lin IY, Chen CC, Chen KC, Wang TL, Chong CF.

Seow VK, Lin AC, Lin IY, Chen CC, Chen KC, Wang TL, Chong CF.

The management of children with fever of indefinite source still remains controversial. This study aimed to compare different practice patterns between pediatric physicians (PPs) and emergency physicians (EPs) in the management of pediatric fever in the emergency department (ED) and correlate them to existing practice guidelines. Their impact on patient outcomes was also discussed.

Antipyretic treatment in young children with fever: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or both alternating in a randomized, double-blind study  (2006)

Antipyretic treatment in young children with fever: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or both alternating in a randomized, double-blind study

Visit

Sarrell EM, Wielunsky E, Cohen HA.

Sarrell EM, Wielunsky E, Cohen HA.

To compare the antipyretic benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen monotherapy with an alternating regimen of both drugs in young children aged 6 to 36 months.

Prospective evaluation of the risk of serious bacterial infection in children who present to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia (temperature of 106 degrees F or higher).  (2006)

Prospective evaluation of the risk of serious bacterial infection in children who present to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia (temperature of 106 degrees F or higher).

Visit

Trautner BW, Caviness AC, Gerlacher GR, Demmler G, Macias CG.

Trautner BW, Caviness AC, Gerlacher GR, Demmler G, Macias CG.

The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the risk of serious bacterial infection in children with hyperpyrexia and (2) whether clinical presentation can identify hyperpyrexic patients at risk for serious bacterial infection.

Parental and health care provider understanding of childhood fever: a Canadian perspective.  (2002)

Parental and health care provider understanding of childhood fever: a Canadian perspective.

Visit

Karwowska A, Nijssen-Jordan C, Johnson D, Davies HD.

Karwowska A, Nijssen-Jordan C, Johnson D, Davies HD.

Fever is common in children and causes misconceptions among parents. Many investigators have called for improved parental education to dispel "fever phobia." Our objectives were to assess parental and health care provider understanding of fever, its treatment, and beliefs about its consequences, as well as to identify parental sources of information about fever.

Pediatric emergency department nurses' perspectives on fever in children.  (2000)

Pediatric emergency department nurses' perspectives on fever in children.

Visit

Poirier MP, Davis PH, Gonzalez-del Rey JA, Monroe KW.

Poirier MP, Davis PH, Gonzalez-del Rey JA, Monroe KW.

Fever is the most common complaint of children seen in a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED). Since pediatric emergency nurses commonly educate parents on fever management, this study sought to examine their knowledge base regarding fever in children.

Parents' concerns and beliefs about temperature measurement in children: a qualitative study  (2021)

Parents' concerns and beliefs about temperature measurement in children: a qualitative study

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Morris E, Glogowska M, Ismail FA, Edwards G, Fleming S, Wang K, et al.

Morris E, Glogowska M, Ismail FA, Edwards G, Fleming S, Wang K, et al.

Nearly 40% of parents with children aged 6 to 17 months consult a healthcare professional when their child has a high temperature. Clinical guidelines recommend temperature measurement in these children, but little is known about parents' experiences of and beliefs about temperature measurement. This study aimed to explore parents' concerns and beliefs about temperature measurement in children.

Management of fever in Australian children: a population-based sample survey  (2020)

Management of fever in Australian children: a population-based sample survey

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Holt J, White L, Wheaton GR, Williams H, Jani S, Arnolda G, et al

Holt J, White L, Wheaton GR, Williams H, Jani S, Arnolda G, et al

Fever in childhood is a common acute presentation requiring clinical triage to identify the few children who have serious underlying infection. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to assist clinicians with this task. This study aimed to assess the proportion of care provided in accordance with CPG recommendations for the management of fever in Australian children.

Randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve parental knowledge and management practices of fever.  (2019)

Randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve parental knowledge and management practices of fever.

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Kelly M, Sahm L, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Mc Gillicuddy A, Shiely F.

Kelly M, Sahm L, McCarthy S, O'Sullivan R, Mc Gillicuddy A, Shiely F.

We know that parents require resources which can assist them to improve fever knowledge and management practices. The purpose of this study, using an RCT, was to examine the effectiveness of an information leaflet at increasing parental knowledge of fever, specifically temperature definition.

Parental Approach to the Management of Childhood Fever: Differences between Health Professional and Non-Health Professional Parents.  (2019)

Parental Approach to the Management of Childhood Fever: Differences between Health Professional and Non-Health Professional Parents.

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Villarejo-Rodrguez MG, Rodrguez-Martn B.

Villarejo-Rodrguez MG, Rodrguez-Martn B.

Fever is responsible for 30% of pediatric consultations at primary care services. The aim of this study was to explore the parental approach to fever in children aged between 0 and 12 years old by both health professional and non-health professional parents. A qualitative study based on grounded theory was performed. Focus groups were conducted, segmented by sex, place of residence, and healthcare training, using a triangulated sample (theoretical and snowball sampling) of parents of children aged between 0 and 12 years who were treated for fever at primary care emergency services. The constant comparative method and a process of coding was used for the analysis. The study findings reveal that the health training of parents, their former experience, family pressures, the age of the child, and the parents' work outside the home, all influenced how they approached fever management. These findings could be incorporated into clinical practice to improve care and compliance with fever treatment.

Alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen versus Monotherapies in Improvements of Distress and Reducing Refractory Fever in Febrile Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  (2017)

Alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen versus Monotherapies in Improvements of Distress and Reducing Refractory Fever in Febrile Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Luo S, Ran M, Luo Q, Shu M, Guo Q, Zhu Y, et al

Luo S, Ran M, Luo Q, Shu M, Guo Q, Zhu Y, et al

Our objective was to assess the effect of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy on distress and refractory fever compared with acetaminophen or ibuprofen as monotherapy in febrile children.

Translation of clinical prediction rules for febrile children to primary care practice: an observational cohort study  (2015)

Translation of clinical prediction rules for febrile children to primary care practice: an observational cohort study

Visit

van Ierland Y, Elshout G, Berger MY, Vergouwe Y, de Wilde M, van der Lei J, et al

van Ierland Y, Elshout G, Berger MY, Vergouwe Y, de Wilde M, van der Lei J, e...

To evaluate the diagnostic value of published CPRs for febrile children in primary care.

Predicting prolonged duration of fever in children: a cohort study in primary care  (2015)

Predicting prolonged duration of fever in children: a cohort study in primary care

Visit

Elshout G, Kool M, Bohnen AM, Koes BW, Moll HA, Berger MY.

Elshout G, Kool M, Bohnen AM, Koes BW, Moll HA, Berger MY.

To determine which signs and symptoms predict a prolonged duration of fever in febrile children in primary care and evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement has an additive predictive value for these symptoms.

Duration of fever and course of symptoms in young febrile children presenting with uncomplicated illness  (2013)

Duration of fever and course of symptoms in young febrile children presenting with uncomplicated illness

Visit

Kool M, Elshout G, Moll HA, Koes BW, van der Wouden JC, Berger MY.

Kool M, Elshout G, Moll HA, Koes BW, van der Wouden JC, Berger MY.

It is important to advise parents when to consult a doctor when their child has fever. To provide evidence-based, safety-net advice for young febrile children, we studied the risk of complications, the occurrence of alarm symptoms, the duration of fever.

Short-term outcomes of pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses.  (2007)

Short-term outcomes of pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses.

Visit

Mistry RD, Stevens MW, Gorelick MH.

Mistry RD, Stevens MW, Gorelick MH.

To describe short-term outcomes relevant to children and their caregivers after evaluation in the emergency department (ED) for febrile illnesses.

Comparing different patterns for managing febrile children in the ED between emergency and pediatric physicians: impact on patient outcome.  (2007)

Comparing different patterns for managing febrile children in the ED between emergency and pediatric physicians: impact on patient outcome.

Visit

Seow VK, Lin AC, Lin IY, Chen CC, Chen KC, Wang TL, Chong CF.

Seow VK, Lin AC, Lin IY, Chen CC, Chen KC, Wang TL, Chong CF.

The management of children with fever of indefinite source still remains controversial. This study aimed to compare different practice patterns between pediatric physicians (PPs) and emergency physicians (EPs) in the management of pediatric fever in the emergency department (ED) and correlate them to existing practice guidelines. Their impact on patient outcomes was also discussed.

Antipyretic treatment in young children with fever: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or both alternating in a randomized, double-blind study  (2006)

Antipyretic treatment in young children with fever: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or both alternating in a randomized, double-blind study

Visit

Sarrell EM, Wielunsky E, Cohen HA.

Sarrell EM, Wielunsky E, Cohen HA.

To compare the antipyretic benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen monotherapy with an alternating regimen of both drugs in young children aged 6 to 36 months.

Prospective evaluation of the risk of serious bacterial infection in children who present to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia (temperature of 106 degrees F or higher).  (2006)

Prospective evaluation of the risk of serious bacterial infection in children who present to the emergency department with hyperpyrexia (temperature of 106 degrees F or higher).

Visit

Trautner BW, Caviness AC, Gerlacher GR, Demmler G, Macias CG.

Trautner BW, Caviness AC, Gerlacher GR, Demmler G, Macias CG.

The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the risk of serious bacterial infection in children with hyperpyrexia and (2) whether clinical presentation can identify hyperpyrexic patients at risk for serious bacterial infection.

Parental and health care provider understanding of childhood fever: a Canadian perspective.  (2002)

Parental and health care provider understanding of childhood fever: a Canadian perspective.

Visit

Karwowska A, Nijssen-Jordan C, Johnson D, Davies HD.

Karwowska A, Nijssen-Jordan C, Johnson D, Davies HD.

Fever is common in children and causes misconceptions among parents. Many investigators have called for improved parental education to dispel "fever phobia." Our objectives were to assess parental and health care provider understanding of fever, its treatment, and beliefs about its consequences, as well as to identify parental sources of information about fever.

Pediatric emergency department nurses' perspectives on fever in children.  (2000)

Pediatric emergency department nurses' perspectives on fever in children.

Visit

Poirier MP, Davis PH, Gonzalez-del Rey JA, Monroe KW.

Poirier MP, Davis PH, Gonzalez-del Rey JA, Monroe KW.

Fever is the most common complaint of children seen in a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED). Since pediatric emergency nurses commonly educate parents on fever management, this study sought to examine their knowledge base regarding fever in children.

Other 

How to manage your child's fever  (2020)

How to manage your child's fever

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TREKK

TREKK

Video on how to manage your child's fever

How to manage your child's fever  (2020)

How to manage your child's fever

Visit

TREKK

TREKK

Video on how to manage your child's fever